1. interstitial spaces 2. plasma 3. lymph 4. fluid in the eyes 5. synovial fluid in joint capsules 6. cerebrospinal fluid 7. serous fluids in cavities 8. lumens 9. glandular secretions - medium that carries hormones
Intracellular Fluids (ICF) contain what types of substances?
1. K⁺ 2. Mg²⁺ 3. PO₄³⁻ 4. SO₂⁴⁻ 5. Proteins
Extracellular Fluids (ECF) contain what types of substances?
1. Na⁺ 2. Cl⁻ 3. Ca²⁺ 4. CO₂³⁻
Ions move by
1. diffusion 2. active transport 3. through protein channels or protein transporters
How does water shift with solute?
1. movement of solutes will shift water by osmosis 2. solvent drag - fluid will shift solutes
Daily water input
Where do we get all that water from?
10% from metabolic reactions like aerobic respiration 90% from oral consumption
- maintained by the Hypothalamus within Thirst Center that alerts the body for the need of water
Regulation of Thirst Reflex
1. Osmoreceptors - cells that monitor the osmolarity of bodily fluids 2. Baroreceptors - cells that monitor BP (↓BP will trigger thirst reflex to add more volume to blood)
How is thirst reflex suppressed?
stretching the stomach and moistening of oral mucosa will suppress thirst reflex immediately.
Increased H₂O Toxicity?
1. ↑ BP 2. bodily fluids dilute 3. ↓ in solute concentration
1. insufficient amounts of water either by lack of consumption, elevated temperatures, or high activity 2. ↓BP 3. body will compensate by removing H₂O out of ICF and into ECF
1. 61% in urine 2. 4% in poop 3. 35% by respiratory tract (exhalation) and skin (sweat)
1. sweat glands, sudoriferous glands throughout our skin that excrete fluid by exocrine action. 2. excretory mechanism 3. shedds - NH₄, Urea, K⁺, and Na⁺ - forming acid mantle
1. tiny amounts of sweat shedding at all times 2. not noticeable 3. important for heat regulation 4. lowers body temperature 5. each day .5L of water is shed this way
1. ↑ temp will ↑ sweat by 100-150mL 2. Diaphoresis 3. associated withe exercise and hot environments 4. an increase in activity can increase visible sweat by 8-10L/day
Causes of body to ↑ Temp?
1. sexual arousal 2. emotional states 3. physical condition
Osmolarity of ECF
285 mOsm/ kg of tissue
Effect of ↑ Osmolarity
1. thirst reflex will trigger 2. ↑ ADH - acts on kidneys to retain water
Effect of ↓ Osmolarity
1. inhibits thirst reflex 2. ↓ ADH - water will be excreted in urine
Affects of BP on Osmolarity
1. ↑ BP will ↑ Glomerular Pressure to ↑ filtration, and pass out more water in urine which will lead to ↓ BP 2. ↓ BP which ↓ Glomerular which will ↓ filtration which will ↓ urine flow. A result is to trigger thirst reflex to ↑ BP.
1. ions or molecules with electrical charges ie) Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, Cl⁻, PO₄³⁻ 2. electrolytes concentrations will change during weight changes and growing stages
How are electrolytes secreted?
by the kidneys, skin, and lungs
Where are electrolytes stored?
1. skeleton 2. mainly Ca²⁺ and PO₄³⁻ 3. downfall is that bone can also store Pb, As, and Hg
1. Cation in ECF 2. involved in sodium-potassium pump 3. vital for glucose absorption 4. essential for muscular contraction 5. Neurotransmitter 6. maintains pH balance with Cl⁻
Body's daily sodium requirement
1. <.5g/ day
how much do we actually consume?
1. 15-20g/ day 2. excess is removed via kidneys and sweat 3. regulated by ANH and Aldosterone
How does salt affect osmolarity?
↑ in salt requires an ↑ in water to balance osmolarity
1. Part of sodium -potassium pump 2. Neurotransmitter 3. Essential for muscular contraction 4. Dehydration, circulatory shock, and tissue damage can cause K+ to move out of cells and into ECF as a safeguard mechanism
Regulation of Potassium
1. Regulated by aldosterone - ↑ of aldosterone, ↑ kidney secretion of K+ 2. Passes easily through filtration membrane - Primary Convoluted Tubule will reabsorb a lot of K+
Causes of Hypokalemia
i. Diet (not enough fruits and vegetables with potassium) ii. Renal failure iii. Insulin administration
Hypokalemia leads to...
i. Poor skeletal health ii. Bradycardia iii. Heart blocks iv. Decreased muscle tone
1. Managed by kidneys, intestines, skin (vitamin D Production), and skeleton 2. 99%of Ca2+ is stored in the skeleton 3. Vitamin D stimulates organs to absorb Ca2+ 4. Essential for teeth and bones 5. Acid/base balancer 6. Essential for muscular regeneration
1. Increases Ca2+ in ECF, stimulates kidneys to reabsorb Ca2+ from filtrate
1. Antagonist to PTH 2. Hormone that decreases Ca2+ in the body by slowing down its release from bone
Regulation of Calcium
1. Parathyroid Hormone 2. Calcitonin
Causes of Hypocalcemia
i. Diet ii. Low vitamin D levels iii. Underactive Parathyroid
Hypocalcemia leads to
i. Disorientation ii. Muscle spasms iii. Frequent cramps iv. Muscular weakness v. Convulsions vi. Tetani vii. Osteoporosis viii. Death
elevated Calcium levels
Causes of Hypercalcemia
i. Overconsumption of Ca ii. Excessive parathyroid activity - due to parathyroid cancers
Hypercalcemia leads to...
i. Fatigue ii. Muscular weakness and response iii. constipation iv. coma v. kidney stones vi. death
pH of Bodily Fluids
a. acid base balance in the body is crucial to maintaining homeostasis b. most human bodily fluids are between 6<pH<8
compounds that regulate pH
i. Intercellular systems use proteins to buffer pH ii.. Cations attract to OH- iii. Anions attract to H+
1. primary buffering system for ECF 2. Bicarbonate can absorb a H+ from fluid to form Carbonic Acid to stabilize pH 3. Carbonic acid can lose a H+ to form bicarbonate to stabilize pH
Phosphate Buffering System
Ammonia Buffering System
- high pH levels - blood is more basic
Causes of Alkalosis
a. Overconsumption of Alkaline products - alcohol b. Low atmospheric pressure of O2 c. Insufficient CO2 - Hypocapnia d. Severe vomiting e. Poisoning
Alkalosis leads to..
a. Hyper-excitability of NS b. Muscular spasms c. Convulsions d. Tetani e. Death
- low pH level - blood is too acidic
Causes of Acidosis
a. Toxin or drug ingestion b. Decreased O2 perfusion c. Increased CO2 levels d. Problems in Diabetes - Increases glucose level e. Accumulation of fatty acids f. Bacterial infections - bacterial waste products
Acidosis leads to...
a. Depresses CNS b. Disorientation c. Slow responses d. Blurred vision e. Unconsciousness f. Coma g. death
Most common complications with electrolytes?
1. Hypernatremia 2. Hypokalemia 3. Hypocalcemia
pH of Blood
pH of Hydochloric Acid in the stomach
Buffering systems that work in the Kidneys to regulate fitrate
1. Phosphate Buffering System 2. Ammonia Buffering System