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the maximal force a muscle group can generate


the rate of performing work


force x distance / time

muscular endurance

the capacity to sustain repeated muscle actions or a single static contraction

aerobic power

the rate of energy release by cellular metabolic processes that depend on the involvement and availability of oxygen

maximal aerobic power

the maximal capacity for aerobic resynthesis of ATP

anaerobic power

the rate of energy release by cellular metabolic processes that function without the involvement of oxygen

maximal anaerobic power

the maximal capacity of the anaerobic system to produce ATP


any training program must consider the specific needs and abilities of the individual for whom it is designed


adaptations to training are highly specific to the nature of the training activity and should be carefully matched to an athlete's specific performance needs


training programs must include a maintenance plan to ensure that the gains from training are not lost

progressive overload

the training stimulus must be progressively increased as the body adapts to the current stimulus


programs must alternate high-intensity workouts with low-intensity workouts to help the body recover and achieve optimal training adaptations


the gradual cycling of specificity, intensity, and volume of training to achieve peak levels of fitness for competition

training needs analysis

1, Muscle groups to be trained
2. Type of training
3. Energy systems to be trained
4, Sites of concern for injury prevention

one-repetition maximum (1RM)

the maximal weight an individual can lift just once

transient hypertrophy

the increase in muscle size that develops during and immediately following a single exercise bout

chronic hypertrophy

the increase in muscle size after long-term resistance training

fiber hypertrophy

changes in the size of muscle fibers

fiber hyperplasia

changes in the number of muscle fibers

fiber hypertrophy

Net increase in muscle protein synthesis—possibly increasing the number of actin and myosin filaments, and increasing the number of myofibrils

acute muscle soreness

Results from an accumulation of the end products of exercise in the muscles or edema
Usually disappears within minutes or hours after exercise

delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS)

Soreness is felt 12 to 48 hours after a strenuous bout of exercise
Results primarily from eccentric muscle activity (e.g., downhill running)

May be caused by inflammatory reaction inside damaged muscles

armstrong's sequence of events in DOMS

1. Structural damage to the muscle cell and cell membrane
2. Impaired calcium availability, leading to necrosis
3. Increased microphage activity and the accumulation of irritants inside the cell, which stimulate free (pain) nerve endings

loss of strength is due to:

-Physical disruption in the muscle
-Failure within the excitation-contraction process
-Loss of contractile proteins

aerobic (endurance) training

Improved central and peripheral blood flow
Enhances the capacity of muscle fibers to generate ATP

anaerobic training

Increased short-term, high-intensity endurance capacity
Increased anaerobic metabolic function
Increased tolerance for acid-base imbalances during highly intense effort

muscular endurance

the ability of a single muscle or muscle group to sustain high-intensity repetitive or static exercise

cardiorespiratory endurance

the entire body's ability to sustain prolonged, dynamic exercise using large muscle groups


Highest rate of oxygen consumption attainable during maximal exercise


can be increased by 10-15% with 20 weeks of endurance training


SV x HR x (a-v)O2 diff

cardiorespiratory endurance and performance

It is the major defense against fatigue
Should be the primary emphasis of training for health and fitness
All athletes can benefit from maximizing their endurance

muscle adaptations to anaerobic training

Increased muscle fiber recruitment
Increased cross-sectional area of type IIa and type IIx muscle fibers

energy system adaptations to anaerobic training

Increased ATP-PCr system enzyme activity
Increased activity of several key glycolytic enzymes
No effect on oxidative enzyme activity

Factors affecting VO2max: Level of conditioning

Initial state of conditioning will determine how much VO2max will increase (i.e., the higher the initial value, the smaller the expected increase)

Factors affecting VO2max: Heredity

Accounts for 25-50% of the variation in VO2max

Factors affecting VO2max: Sex

Women have lower VO2max compared to men

Factors affecting VO2max: Individual Responsiveness

There are high responders and low responders to endurance training, which is a genetic phenomenon

Increased performance after VO2max has peaked

Once an athlete has achieved her genetically determined peak VO2max, she can still increase her endurance performance due to the body's ability to perform at increasingly higher percentages of that VO2max for extended periods. The increase in performance without an increase in VO2max is a result of an increase in lactate threshold.

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