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40 terms

exercise phys

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strength
the maximal force a muscle group can generate
power
the rate of performing work
power
force x distance / time
muscular endurance
the capacity to sustain repeated muscle actions or a single static contraction
aerobic power
the rate of energy release by cellular metabolic processes that depend on the involvement and availability of oxygen
maximal aerobic power
the maximal capacity for aerobic resynthesis of ATP
anaerobic power
the rate of energy release by cellular metabolic processes that function without the involvement of oxygen
maximal anaerobic power
the maximal capacity of the anaerobic system to produce ATP
individuality
any training program must consider the specific needs and abilities of the individual for whom it is designed
specificity
adaptations to training are highly specific to the nature of the training activity and should be carefully matched to an athlete's specific performance needs
reversibility
training programs must include a maintenance plan to ensure that the gains from training are not lost
progressive overload
the training stimulus must be progressively increased as the body adapts to the current stimulus
hard/easy
programs must alternate high-intensity workouts with low-intensity workouts to help the body recover and achieve optimal training adaptations
periodization
the gradual cycling of specificity, intensity, and volume of training to achieve peak levels of fitness for competition
training needs analysis
1, Muscle groups to be trained
2. Type of training
3. Energy systems to be trained
4, Sites of concern for injury prevention
one-repetition maximum (1RM)
the maximal weight an individual can lift just once
transient hypertrophy
the increase in muscle size that develops during and immediately following a single exercise bout
chronic hypertrophy
the increase in muscle size after long-term resistance training
fiber hypertrophy
changes in the size of muscle fibers
fiber hyperplasia
changes in the number of muscle fibers
fiber hypertrophy
Net increase in muscle protein synthesis—possibly increasing the number of actin and myosin filaments, and increasing the number of myofibrils
acute muscle soreness
Results from an accumulation of the end products of exercise in the muscles or edema
Usually disappears within minutes or hours after exercise
delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
Soreness is felt 12 to 48 hours after a strenuous bout of exercise
Results primarily from eccentric muscle activity (e.g., downhill running)

May be caused by inflammatory reaction inside damaged muscles
armstrong's sequence of events in DOMS
1. Structural damage to the muscle cell and cell membrane
2. Impaired calcium availability, leading to necrosis
3. Increased microphage activity and the accumulation of irritants inside the cell, which stimulate free (pain) nerve endings
loss of strength is due to:
-Physical disruption in the muscle
-Failure within the excitation-contraction process
-Loss of contractile proteins
aerobic (endurance) training
Improved central and peripheral blood flow
Enhances the capacity of muscle fibers to generate ATP
anaerobic training
Increased short-term, high-intensity endurance capacity
Increased anaerobic metabolic function
Increased tolerance for acid-base imbalances during highly intense effort
muscular endurance
the ability of a single muscle or muscle group to sustain high-intensity repetitive or static exercise
cardiorespiratory endurance
the entire body's ability to sustain prolonged, dynamic exercise using large muscle groups
VO2max
Highest rate of oxygen consumption attainable during maximal exercise
VO2max
can be increased by 10-15% with 20 weeks of endurance training
VO2max
SV x HR x (a-v)O2 diff
cardiorespiratory endurance and performance
It is the major defense against fatigue
Should be the primary emphasis of training for health and fitness
All athletes can benefit from maximizing their endurance
muscle adaptations to anaerobic training
Increased muscle fiber recruitment
Increased cross-sectional area of type IIa and type IIx muscle fibers
energy system adaptations to anaerobic training
Increased ATP-PCr system enzyme activity
Increased activity of several key glycolytic enzymes
No effect on oxidative enzyme activity
Factors affecting VO2max: Level of conditioning
Initial state of conditioning will determine how much VO2max will increase (i.e., the higher the initial value, the smaller the expected increase)
Factors affecting VO2max: Heredity
Accounts for 25-50% of the variation in VO2max
Factors affecting VO2max: Sex
Women have lower VO2max compared to men
Factors affecting VO2max: Individual Responsiveness
There are high responders and low responders to endurance training, which is a genetic phenomenon
Increased performance after VO2max has peaked
Once an athlete has achieved her genetically determined peak VO2max, she can still increase her endurance performance due to the body's ability to perform at increasingly higher percentages of that VO2max for extended periods. The increase in performance without an increase in VO2max is a result of an increase in lactate threshold.