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274 terms

WGU DAC1 Information Systems Management

Combination of multiple sets created by others to have all in one place for easier study.
STUDY
PLAY
Satisficing
a Decision making model, make a choice that is satisfactory, even if it is not the best; works for unseen issues where a decision needs to be made quickly
Association or dependency modeling
market basket analysis
Clustering
discovering how groups of people are similar
Classification
aka prediction, evaluate historical data to make current predictions
Regression
find a causal replationship between sets of data
Summarization
sums, averages, other stats
Predictive Analysis
uses infor and business analysis to build a predictive model for a given application
Text analytics
process of using statistical, artificial intelligence and linguistic techniques to convert info in textual sources into structured info (email, survey, etc)
software agent
small piece of software that acts on your behalf
Autonomous agent
can adapt and alter the manner in which it attempts to achieve its assigned task
Distributed agent
works on multiple distinct computer systems
Mobile agent
can relocate itself onto different computer systems
Intelligent agents
incorporates AI capabilities like learning and reasoning
Biomimicry
Learn how people based systems behave, predict how they will behave, improve human systems to make them more efficient and effective
Swarm intelligence
Collective behavior of groups of simple agents
Operational feasibility
does a decision fit the needs and mission of the organization
economic feasibility
Does a decision fit with the budget
Technical feasibility
Does it fit within employee skills, what about system maintenance
Human factors feasiliby
Is the decision accepted by staff
Legal and political feasibility
does it comply with laws?
Systems design
Once logical model is finished, translate into appropriate information technologies
UI design
User interface, keep end user in mind, get feedback from users to create clear, intuitive controls
Data design
User doesn't see it, analyst identifies the underlying structures of the system
Process design
Flow of application logic is determined; can't be overly complicated
Prototyping
Sample of final design, users try it and give feedback
End-user development
let users themselves create what they need; IT support is crucial!
ERP Requirements
modular, contralized database, integrated functions, flexible best practices, real time functions, internet enabled
Web 2.0
2nd generation of web focusing on online collaboration, users as both crators and modifiers of content
static information
early web; users started internet, went to a website, found what they wanted
Pushed static info
Websites provided static info (SPAM)
Pulled dynamic info
Late 1990, search for real time info, like stocks, travel sites; birth of e-commerce
Push dynamic info
today's web; tailored to individual needs; RSS, personalized recommendations (shopping carts, etc.)
Massive Multi Player Online Role Playing Games
ex world of warcraft
Data resource management
database structures and how info is linked through primary keys
hierarchical database
Tree style with root nodes and child nodes; not easy to query
Network database
more flexible than hierarchical, data defined in sets, must define ALL potential relationships ahead of time
Object oriented database
abstract related pieces of information into units; can easily be extended, promotes reuse of existing database architecture
Relational database
most common; data presented as a series of values in 2-dimensions called tables; can create several relationships
Operational database
necessary for operation of business; ex HR personnel
Distributed database
stores info across many systems; fault toleratnt because data is stored in several places
External database
exists outside your direct control; fee based; ex marketing database
Hypermedia database
media based database; ex youtube
Keys
ways to access data, such as last name or phone number
Primary key
uniquely identifies only one key, ex employee id
Multi table relationships
use different tables to keep track of various features of the same person
Query
process of requresting info out of a database
Redundance
goal is to remove this, making it easier to keep a database organized
Normalization
process of removing redundancy and ensuring consistency
Database management system
create databases, manage users, general maintenance, makes it user friendly
structured query language
uses relational databases to look for info
Information systems
Combination of implementing data storage, processing, and communicating hardware
Information technology
Entire process of collecting, storing, processing, securing, disseminating information, not just computers
Management Information systems
Use to manage business processes in a business/department for decision making, managing data, people, and projects
Porter's Five Forces
existing competition, threat of new entrants, power of buyers, power of suppliers, threat of substitution
Cost leadership
lower price for same or better quality than competitors
Differentiation
Offer a product that is new and different
Focus
target a specific customer segment with a certain type of product
Systems Analysis
Figures out how hardware, software, network, people, data, and information work together
Strategic management
focuses on overall direction and guidance
Tactical management
develops goals and strategies
Operational management
day to day operations
Non-management
perform daily tasks
coarse granualrity
info based on summaries of time periods; used by strategic management
Topline competitive advantage
focus on increasing revenue
Synergy
Where people, information, and technology come together
Business Intelligence
Collective info about customers, competitors, business partners, competitive environment, own internal operations; used to make effective strategic decisions
Quality
Timeliness, location, form, validity
Upward information flow
Moves from the actual information up to upper management. Ex, selling a product, flows to different departments
Fine granularity
Info based on specific details
Downward information flow
Directives from upper management
Horizontal information flow
Between departments and functional work teams
Out/In information flow
Info to and from customers, supplyers, partners; yields competitive advantage
Internal
specific operational aspects of an organization
External
What's going on in the enfironment surrounding the organization
Objective
raw facts and data, can be quantified
subjective
describes something; interpreted data
Break even analysis
Determining at what point the financial impact of a resource becomes reasonable
Fixed cost
expenses that never change (ie rent)
Variable
costs that change to acquire and product the product
Revenue
How much you sell a product for
Recommendation engines
based on likes, dislikes, past purchases
Long-tail economics
niche products
Run-Grow-Transform
Cost leadership to simply exist, focus and differentiate to increase market, innovative project to find a new market
Competitive business strategies
Cost leadership, differentiation, innovation, growth, alliance
Enterprise Businss Systems
Custom built to meet specific needs of an organization; very expensive, work to integrate internal processes with external entitites
Cross functional systems
Transcends different divisions to change how info is used and increase efficiency by eliminating redundancy
Enterprise Resource planning
Connects different departments
Customer resource management
focus on customer relationship/info about customers
Knowledge management
centralized mechanisms for storing and querying info
Partner relationship management
Relationship between business and channel partners
Supply Chain management
Improve process of obtaining sourece materials, manufacturing, delivery, manages entire life cycle of a product
Functional business Systems
Support business operations; accounging, marketing, HR, etc.
Human Resource management
Keep track of employees, skills, PD, achievements; identify staffing needs
Sell-Source-Ship
Alternative to distribution chain; helps reduce fixed costs due to less storage space and wasted product
Supply Chain management system
tracks inventory and informtion among business processes
Just in time manufacturing
method for delivering product at the exact time a customer wants; ex target having products on shelves so all a customer has to do is buy it
Information Partnership
2 or more companies cooperate by integrating IT systems, offereing customers the best of what each can offer
Multi channel service delivery
a company's offering multiple ways in which they interact with customers; ex email, fax, phone, web
Customer resource management system
not just software; total business objective; hardware, servers, support, etc
Sales force automation systems
automatically trachs steps in sales process; contact management, empower sales reps
Software as a service
delivery model for software where a company only pays for what it uses; like Cloud; reduces fixed costs
Materials Requirement Planning
Management knew what was needed when
Materials Requirement Planning II
included MRP and accounging and finance
Decision support system
Helps make decisions
Legacy Information Systems
massive long-term business investment in a software system with a single focus; often brittle, slow
Intelligence
diagnostic pahse - detect and interpret that something needs attention
Design
develop as many solutions as possible
Choice
examine options and select one
Implementation
apply selected option, monitor results, make corrections
Graphin information system
DSS method, displays map-based infor
Moden management
representation of a situation, statistical models or equations
Data management
database to organize and store info
User interface
the way for the decision maker to interact with the system
structured query language
Info is processed to give correct answer
Unstructured
several indefinate answers
Semmi-structured
some measurable elements, some not measurable
Quality and Types of information
Time, content, form
Analytical modeling
various scenarios are run mathematically, so decisions can be made (computers do this)
Sensitivity Analysis
Change one variable and see how the others change
Goal seeking analysis
makes repeated changes to variables until a chosen value is reached
Optimization analysis
finds optimal value given certain constraints
Filtering
hide data that don't matter
Conditional formatting
highlights individual cells that match criteria
Pivot table
summarizes by sorting, counting, totalling cells
Data mining
computer searches large quantities of data for unseen patterns
Artificial Intelligence
making systems that can imitate aspects of human resoning and motion, ex weather prediction
Expert systems
designed to apply human like reasoning to reach a conclusion
Neural networks
attempts to simulate human ability to classify items and recognize patterns, ex handwriting and speech recognition
Fuzzy logic
mathematical models for forming conclusions from vague information ex spam filters
Genetic algorithms
trian and error to develot increasingly better solutions to a problem
Intelligent agents
ex auto fill boxes
Virtual reality
simulation of the physical world, ex flight simulators
Online Analytical Processing
BI info about customers; uses analytics, integratd use of technology tools and stats to create real-time high quality info
Data dictionary
contains logical structure for the info in a database
Demand prediction
how much of something will be needed
Replenishment frequency
when to move products and where
Basic reporting
everyday stuff
Integrity Constraints
rules that help ensure the quality of the information
Data definition subsystem
helps create and maintain data dictionary and define structure of files in a database
Data manipulation subsystem
helps add, change, and delete info in a database and query it
View
helps see contents, make changes, sort, query
Report generators
quickly define formats of reports
Query by example tools
graphically design answer to a question
Data generation sybsystem
contains facilities to help develop transaction-intensive applications
Data admin subsystem
manage overall data base enfironment like security, backup/recovery
Data mining
a logical collection of information gathered from many different operational databases, used to create business intelligence
Open systems
hardwar and software standards that make it possible for many different devices to communicate
website
specific location
website address
unique name to identify a specific site
uniform resource locater
URL
hyper text transfer protocol
http
Top level domain
.com .net, etc.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names
Keeps track of internet domains
Web 2.0
2nd generation of web focuses on online collaboration
Network Access Point
Where severalc onnections converge on internet
Network Service Provider
Owns Network access points
Communications protocol
set of rules every computer follows to transfer information
Decision making model
intelligence, design, choice, implementation
Association or dependency modeling
market basket analysis
Clustering
discovering how groups of people are similar
Classification
aka prediction, evaluate historical data to make current predictions
Regression
find a causal replationship between sets of data
Summarization
sums, averages, other stats
Predictive Analysis
uses infor and business analysis to build a predictive model for a given application
Test analytics
process of using statistical, artificial intelligence and linguistic techniques to convert info in textual sources into structured info (email, survey, etc)
software agent
small piece of software that acts on your behalf
Autonomous agent
can adapt and alter the manner in which it attempts to achieve its assigned task
Distributed agent
works on multiple distinct computer systems
Mobile agent
can relocate itself onto different computer systems
Intelligent agents
incorporates AI capabilities like learning and reasoning
Biomimicry
Learn how people based systems behave, predict how they will behave, improve human systems to make them more efficient and effective
Swarm intelligence
Collective behavior of groups of simple agents
Operational feasibility
does a decision fit the needs and mission of the organization
economic feasibility
Does a decision fit with the budget
Technical feasibility
Does it fit within employee skills, what about system maintenance
Human factors feasiliby
Is the decision accepted by staff
Legal and political feasibility
does it comply with laws?
Systems design
Once logical model is finished, translate into appropriate information technologies
UI design
User interface, keep end user in mind, get feedback from users to create clear, intuitive controls
Data design
User doesn't see it, analyst identifies the underlying structures of the system
Process design
Flow of application logic is determined; can't be overly complicated
Prototyping
Sample of final design, users try it and give feedback
End-user development
let users themselves create what they need; IT support is crucial!
Component development
Use existing pieces of development to combine their functionality to produce new output
Systems development life cycle
structured spproach for developing IS, Waterfall method
Planning
Define system to be developed, scope, and plan
Analysis
Gather business requirements, prioritize them
Design stage
Design technical architecture (hardware, software, telecommunications equipment), design system model, draw graphical representation of a design
Development
Build technical architecture, database and programs
Testing
Write test conditions, and perform testing (unit, system, integration, user acceptance)
Implementation stage
write detailed user documentation, provide training
Maintenance
Build helpdesk support, provide environment to support changeds
Reliability
how consistently a system performs
Scalibility
ability of a ssytem to meet increased service demands
De-centralized
share no systems between units, eaqch meets its own needs
centralized
all IT services are coordinate from one source; can be inflexible
distributed model
connect separate components at different locations or within different units
Interoperability
ability of 2 or more vomputer components to share info and resources, even if made by different manufacturers
Request for proposal
official request for bids from vendors
Metrics
measures used to indicate progress or quality
Throughput
amount of info that can pass through a system at once
System aviailability
measure of reliability; average amount of time a system is usable
error rate
number of mistakes a system generates per thousand or million transactions
Transaction speed
How fast the system operates, ie response time
Effectiveness metrics
CRM SCM Call center performance
Financial metrics
what is the financial impact
access controls
controls that restrict unauthorized individuals from using information resources and are concerned with user identification.
adware
alien software designed to help pop-up advertisements appear on your screen.
alien software
clandestine software that is installed on your computer through duplicitous methods.
anti-malware systems (antivirus software)
software packages that attempt to identify and eliminate viruses, worms, and other malicious software.
audit
an examination of information systems, their inputs, outputs, and processing.
authentication
a process that determines the identity of the person requiring access.
authorization
a process that determines which actions, rights, or privileges the person has, based on verified identity.
back door
typically a password, known only to the attacker, that allows the attacker to access the system without having to go through any security procedures.
biometrics
the science and technology of authentication (i.e., establishing the identity of an individual) by measuring the subject's physiologic or behavioral characteristics.
blacklisting
a process in which a company identifies certain types of software that are not allowed to run in the company environment.
certificate authority
a third party that acts as a trusted intermediary between computers (and companies) by issuing digital certificates and verifying the worth and integrity of the certificates.
cold site
a backup location that provides only rudimentary services and facilities.
communications controls (network controls)
controls that deal with the movement of data across networks.
controls
defense mechanisms (also called countermeasures).
cookie
small amounts of information that web sites store on your computer, temporarily or more or less permanently.
copyright
a grant that provides the creator of intellectual property with ownership of it for a specified period of time, currently the life of the creator plus 70 years.
cybercrime
illegal activities executed on the internet.
cyberterrorism
can be defined as a premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data that results in violence against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents.
cyberwarfare
war in which a countries' information systems could be paralyzed from a massive attack by destructive software.
demilitarized zone (DMZ)
a separate organizational local area network that is located between an organization's internal network and an external network, usually the internet.
denial-of-service attack
a cyber attack in which an attacker sends a flood of data packets to the target computer, with the aim of overloading its resources.
digital certificate
an electronic document attached to a file certifying that this file is from the organization it claims to be from and has not been modified from its original format or content.
distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack
a denial-of-service attack that sends a flood of data packets form many compromised computers simultaneously.
employee monitoring systems
systems that monitor employees' computers, e-mail activities, and internet surfing activities.
encryption
the process of converting an original message into a form that cannot be read by anyone except the intended receiver.
exposure
the harm, loss, or damage that can result if a threat compromises an information resource.
firewall
a system (either hardware, software, or a combination of both) that prevents a specific type of information from moving between untrusted networks, such as the internet, and private networks, such as your company's network.
hot sites
a fully configured computer facility, with all information resources and services, communications links, and physical plant operations, that duplicates your company's computing resources and provides near real-time recovery of IT operations.
identity theft
crime in which someone uses the personal information of others to create a false identity and then uses it for some fraud.
information security
protecting an organization's information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction.
intellectual property
the intangible property created by individuals or corporations, which is protected under trade secret, patent, and copyright laws.
least privilege
a principle that users be granted the privilege for some activity only if there is a justifiable need to grant this authorization.
logic bombs
segments of computer code embedded within an organization's existing computer programs.
malware
malicious software such as viruses and worms.
network controls
communications controls
password
a private combination of characters that only the user should know.
patent
a document that grants the holder exclusive rights on an invention or process for a specified period of time, currently 20 years.
phishing attack
an attack that uses deception to fraudulently acquire sensitive personal information by masquerading as an official-looking e-mail.
physical controls
controls that restrict unauthorized individuals from gaining access to a company's computer facilities.
piracy
copying a software program (other than freeware, demo software, etc.) without making payment to the owner.
privacy
the right to be left alone and to be free of unreasonable personal intrusion.
privilege
a collection of related computer system operations that can be performed by users of the system.
public-key encryption
(also called asymmetric encryption) a type of encryption that uses two different keys, a public key and a private key.
risk
the likelihood that a threat will occur.
risk acceptance
a strategy in which the organization accepts the potential risk, continues to operate with no controls, and absorbs any damages that occur.
risk analysis
the process by which an organization assesses the value of each asset being protected, estimates the probability that each asset might be compromised, and compares the probable costs of each betting compromised with the costs of protecting it.
risk limitation
a strategy in which the organization limits its risk by implementing controls that minimize the impact of a threat.
risk management
a process that identities, controls, and minimized the impact of threats, in an effort to reduce risk to manageable levels.
risk mitigation
a process whereby the organization takes concrete actions against risks, such as implementing controls and developing a disaster recovery plan.
risk transference
a process in which the organization transfers the risk by using other means to compensate for a loss, such as by purchasing insurance.
secure socket layer (SSL)
(also known as transport layer security) an encryption standard used for secure transactions such as credit card purchases and online banking.
security
the degree of protection against criminal activity, danger, damage, and/or loss.
social engineering
getting around security systems by tricking computer users inside a company into revealing sensitive information or gaining unauthorized access privileges.
spam
unsolicited e-mail.
spamware
alien software that uses your computers as a launch platform for spammers.
spyware
alien software that can record your keystrokes and/or capture your passwords.
threat
any danger to which an information resource may be exposed
trade secret
intellectual work, such as a business plan, that is a company secret and is not based on public information.
transport layer security (TLS)
see secure socket layer.
trap doors
see back doors.
trojan horse
a software program containing a hidden function that presents a security risk.
tunneling
a process that encrypts each data packet to be sent and places each encrypted packet inside another packet.
visual private network (VPN)
a private network that uses a public network (usually the internet) to securely connect users by using encryption.
viruses
malicious software that can attach itself to (or "infect") other computer programs without the owner of the program being aware of the infection.
vulnerability
the possibility that an information resource will be harmed by a threat.
warm site
a site that provides many of the same services and options of the hot site, but does not include the company's applications.
whitelisting
a process in which a company identifies acceptable software and permits it to run, and either prevents anything else form running or lets new software run in a quarantined environment until the company can verify its validity.
worms
destructive programs that replicate themselves without requiring another program to provide a safe environment for replication.