46 terms

Farming

Source: Barcelona Field Studies Centre Pictures from Google and Flickr and S-cool
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Agricultural
To do with farming. The work of growing crops or rearing animals.
Appropriate technology
Technology suited to the area where it is used. It usually refers to simple, low-cost machinery.
Arable farm
One which specialises in producing crops e.g. wheat farming in East Anglia.
Aspect
The direction in which a slope faces, which often affects the amount of solar energy received. South-facing slopes in Europe receive more solar radiation than north-facing slopes and are better suited to crop production.
Capital
Capital-Intensive
An activity which requires a lot of money.
Cash crop
Where a crop is sold in the market for cash; the term is often applied to crops grown in LEDCs which are exported to the MEDCs.
Cereals
Crops where the seeds are the main product e.g. wheat, corn.
Commercial farming
Farming for a profit.
Common Agricultural Policy
The policy used by the EU to control farming.
Crops
Cereals, vegetables and fruit grown by people.
Cultivation
The growing of crops.
Diversification
Switching from farming specialising in a particular product e.g. crop or animal to one depending on a range activities for an income e.g. bed and breakfast, paint-balling, farm zoo, pick-your-own fruit etc.
Eutrophication
The process by which fertiliser causes, on reaching rivers and lakes, rapid algae growth and, subsequently, the depletion of oxygen available for fish.
Extensive farming
Where the farm size is very large in comparison with either the amount of money spent on it (Amazon) or the numbers working there (American Prairies).
Intensive farming
Where the farm size is small in comparison with either the numbers working there (Ganges Delta) or the amount of money spent on it (Denmark). High outputs.
Factory farming
Keeping animals in intensive artificial conditions indoors.
Feedback
The link between farm output and inputs, i.e. reinvestment of some of the profits to buy new seed, fertiliser.
Fertilisers
Nutrients applied to the soil, either artificial (inorganic) or natural (organic).
Green Revolution
the attempt to improve the productivity crops in LEDCs which Began in the 1960s with the breeding of new high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice.
HYVs
High Yielding Varieties: new types of seed which have been scientifically developed to produce more food per plant.
Inputs
What are necessary on a farm to produce food. They include land, labour, machinery, seeds, fertiliser, pesticides and fodder.
Irrigation
The artificial watering of the land.
Labour-Intensive
Where many workers are required; this is typical of LEDC subsistence or peasant farming where there is an absence of advanced machinery.
Land degradation
The deterioration of the suitability of land for farming due to soil erosion, desertification and salinisation.
Marginal land
Land of poor quality because of lack of nutrients, soil erosion, distance from market or other human and physical factors.
Market gardens
Farms which produce vegetables, fruit and flowers; usually found near a large market.
Mixed farm
One which produces crops and animals.
Shifting (and nomadic) cultivation
Where farmers move from one area to another.
Organic farming
This avoids the use of inorganic chemical fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides.
Outputs
The result of the farmer's work, e.g. crops, livestock, animal waste.
Pastoral farm
One which specialises in the production of animals/animal products.
Pesticides
Poisonous chemicals applied to crops to kill pests.
Plantation
A large farm in the tropics where one main cash crop is grown, often run by a transnational corporation.
Processes
The activities that take place in a farm e.g. harvesting.
Productivity
How much food is produced per worker or per hectare of land.
Quotas
Are used in the EU to control production, for example, to avoid butter mountains and milk lakes. Dairy farmers have to buy these, which allows them to produce a maximum amount of milk.
Ranching
Rearing of beef cattle on a large scale.
Salinisation
The accumulation in the soil of salts which are poisonous for plants. This is often caused by irrigation and can make the land useless for farming.
Sedentary farming
Farmers do not move around.
Set-aside
The land on which a farmer is required by the CAP to stop production of a surplus crop, such as wheat. The farmer receives compensation for taking 15% of the land out of agricultural use.
Soil erosion
The loss of soil from a field's surface by the action of wind or water, often accelerated by human actions.
Subsidies
This is money paid to farmers for producing certain crops, e.g. oil seed rape.
Subsistence farming
When just sufficient food is provided for the farmer's own family.
Sustainable farming
Farming which avoids soil erosion and pollution: it does not destroy the land for future generations.
Yield
How many crops a particular field, farm, or area of land produces. It also applies to milk from dairy cows.
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