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MGT 312 Final exam ch 12-16
Terms in this set (85)
is defined as "the set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptions that a group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about, and reacts to its various environments.
consist of the physical manifestation of an organization's culture.
represent the explicitly stated values and norms that are preferred by an organization.
represent the values and norms that actually are exhibited or converted into employee behavior.
Basic underlying assumptions
constitute organizational values that have become so taken for granted over time that they become assumptions that guide organizational behavior
represents "a company's ability to make a profit without sacrificing the resources of its people, the community, and the planet.
have an internal focus and value flexibility rather than stability and control.
have an external focus and value flexibility.
have a strong external focus and value stability and control
has an internal focus, which produces a more formalized and structured work environment, and values stability and control over flexibility
is defined as "the process by which a person learns the values, norms, and required behaviors which permit him to participate as a member of the organization
The anticipatory socialization phase
occurs before an individual actually joins an organization
A realistic job preview (RJP)
involves giving recruits a realistic idea of what lies ahead by presenting both positive and negative aspects of the job.
encounter phase employees
come to learn what the organization is really like.
help employees to integrate, assimilate, and transition to new jobs by making them familiar with corporate policies, procedures, culture, and politics and by clarifying work-role expectations and responsibilities
change and acquisition phase
requires employees to master important tasks and roles and to adjust to their work group's values and norms.
"a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons.
The unity of command principle
specifies that each employee should report to only one manager.
Span of control
refers to the number of people reporting directly to a given manager
do background research and provide technical advice and recommendations to their line managers. Line managers generally have the authority to make decisions for their units
A closed system
is said to be a self-sufficient entity
an open system
depends on constant interaction with the environment for survival.
A learning organization
is one that proactively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge and that changes its behavior on the basis of new knowledge and insights.
is defined as "the structures of accountability and responsibility used to develop and implement strategies, and the human resource practices and information and business processes that activate those structures
A boundaryless organization
is one "where management has largely succeeded in breaking down barriers between internal levels, job functions and departments, as well as reducing external barriers between the association [organization] and those with whom it does business
A functional structure
groups people according to the business functions they perform, for example, manufacturing, marketing, and finance
employees are segregated into organization groups based on similar products or services, customers or clients, or geographic regions
A matrix structure
combines a vertical structure with an equally strong horizontal overlay
teams or workgroups, either temporary or permanent, are created to improve collaboration and work on common projects
A hollow structure also known as a network structure,
is designed around a central core of key functions and outsources other functions to other companies or individuals who can do them cheaper or faster
In a modular structure,
the company assembles product parts, components, or modules provided by external contractors.
A virtual structure
is one whose members are geographically apart, usually working with e-mail and other forms of information technology, yet which generally appears to customers as a single, unified organization with a real physical location.
contingency approach to organization design
organizations tend to be more effective when they are structured to fit the demands of the situation.
are rigid bureaucracies with strict rules, narrowly defined tasks, and top-down communication
are flexible networks of multitalented individuals who perform a variety of tasks
Centralized decision making
occurs when key decisions are made by top management.
Decentralized decision making
occurs when important decisions are made by middle- and lower-level managers.
is the least complex, costly, and uncertain. It involves reimplementation of a change in the same organizational unit at a later time or imitation of a similar change by a different unit.
falls midway on the continuum of complexity, cost, and uncertainty.
Radically innovative change
is at the high end of the continuum of complexity, cost, and uncertainty
resistance to change
as any thought, emotion, or behavior that does not align with real or potential changes to existing routines.
A change agent
is someone who is a catalyst in helping organizations to deal with old problems in new ways.
dispositional resistance to change
are "less likely to voluntarily initiate changes and more likely to form negative attitudes toward the changes [they] encounter
stress as an adaptive response to environmental demands, referred to as stressors,
that produce adaptive responses that include physical, emotional, and behavioral reactions that are influenced by individual differences.
that is associated with positive emotions and outcomes
which are factors that produce stress.
which is when employees show up but are sick or otherwise in no condition to work productively.
are perceptions of whether a stressor is irrelevant, positive, or negative
are perceptions of how able you are to deal or cope with a given demand.
consists of using behaviors and cognitions to directly anticipate or solve problems
are those in which you avoid or ignore stressors
Symptom management strategies,
which focus on reducing the symptoms of stress,
is defined as the ability to marshal human, informational, and other resources to get something done.
managers who obtain compliance primarily because of their formal authority to make decisions have
if they can obtain compliance by promising or granting rewards
individual coercive power.
make threats of punishment and deliver actual punishment gives an
or information gives an individual expert power
comes into play when one's personal characteristics and social relationships become the reason for compliance.
because the source of influence is associated with a particular job or position within an organization.
, as they are sources of influence that you possess independent of your position or job.
are conscious efforts to affect and change a specific behavior in others.
because they are friendlier than, and not as coercive as, the last four tactics
because they involve more overt pressure.
are intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups that are not endorsed by or aligned with those of the organization.
is an informal group bound together by the active pursuit of a single issue.
is defined as any attempt to control or manipulate the images related to a person, organization, or idea
is defined as "a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.
attempts to identify personality characteristics or interpersonal attributes that can be used to differentiate leaders from followers.
is defined as having "a self-centered perspective, feelings of superiority, and a drive for personal power and glory
entails the use of manipulation, a cynical view of human nature (e.g., all people lie to get what they want), and a moral code that puts results over principles (e.g., you have to cheat to get ahead).
is characterized as a lack of concern for others, impulsive behavior, and a lack of remorse or guilt when one's actions harm others.
implicit leadership theory
is based on the idea that people have beliefs about how leaders should behave and what they should do for their followers.
is a mental representation of the traits and behaviors that people believe are possessed by leaders.
behavioral styles approach,
which attempts to identify the unique behaviors displayed by effective leaders.
as leader behavior that organizes and defines what group members should be doing to maximize output.
focuses on clarifying employees' role and task requirements and providing followers with positive and negative rewards contingent on performance.
involves leader behavior associated with creating mutual respect or trust and focuses on a concern for group members' needs and desires.
represents the extent to which a leader creates perceptions of psychological empowerment in others.
, which reflects employees' belief that they have control over their work, is expected to drive intrinsic motivation
focuses on increased service to others rather than to oneself
represents a general failure to take responsibility for leading.
propose that the effectiveness of a particular style of leader behavior depends on the situation.
because it is based on the premise that a leader's effectiveness is contingent on the extent to which a leader's style fits or matches characteristics of the situation at hand.
which holds that leader behaviors are effective when employees view them as a source of satisfaction or as paving the way to future satisfaction.
leader-member exchange (LMX)
theory is based on the assumption that leaders develop unique one-to-one relationships with each of the people reporting to them.
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