23 terms

Unit 12.1 - Taxonomy

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Terms in this set (...)

Taxonomy
the classification of all organisms based on shared characteristics; changes as new discoveries are made
Classification
The use of similarities and differences to categorize objects.
Hierarchy
Set of ordered ranks.
Binomial Nomenclature
classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name using the Genus and species name.
Domain
larger, more inclusive taxonomic category than a kingdom. There are 3 domain: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Bacteria
domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycan; corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria
Archaea
domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that do NOT contain peptidoglycan; corresponds to kingdom Archaea. Many may survive in harsh environments.
Eukarya
domain of unicellular or multicellular eukaryotes; contains members of kingdom Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
Kingdom
largest and most inclusive group in Linnaean classification
Plantae
Kingdom Plantae consists of multicellular autotrophs that have eukaryotic cells that contain chloroplasts and cell walls made of cellulose. Ex: Ferns mosses, and trees.
Animalia
Kingdom Animalia consists of multicellular heterotrophs that have eukaryotic cells that do NOT contain chloroplasts or cell walls. Ex: Humans, worms, insects, and dogs.
Fungi
Kingdom Fungi consists of mostly multicellular (except for yeast) heterotrophs that have cell walls that contain chitin. Ex: Mushrooms and yeast
Protista
Kingdom Protista consists of mostly unicellular (some multicellular or colonial) organisms. Some protists are autotrophs while others are heterotrophic.
Phylum
in classification, a group of closely related classes. More specific than a kingdom, but less specific than a class.
Order
in classification, a group of closely related families
Class
in classification, a group of closely related orders
Family
in classification, a group of similar genera
Genus
group of closely related species; the first part of the scientific name in binomial nomenclature
Species
a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Standardized
brought into conformity with a standard. binomial nomenclature is standardized.
Dichotomous Key
an organized set of characteristics used to identify organisms. Each step of the key contains two choices until the organism is correctly identified.
Autotroph
of or relating to organisms (as green plants) that can make complex organic nutritive compounds from simple inorganic sources by photosynthesis. (AUTO- on its own)
Heterotroph
an organism that depends on complex organic substances for nutrition. (HETERO- different source)

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