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105 terms

philosophy 102 test 1

2nd test is 6/29
STUDY
PLAY
Who was Aristotle a student of?
Plato
When did Aristotle enter the Academy?
18
What is Aristotle's book in the form of? (dialogue, notes....)
lecture notes
From what lineage is Aristotle from?
Greek
What was Aristotle always considered to be?
an outsider
What did field did Aristotle start?
Science
Who did Aristotle teach?
Alexander the Great
What did Aristotle create?
School of his own
What did Aristotle believe?
Everything aims for the good
Explain Aristotle's statement "Everything aims at the good".
everything has its own place and purpose
What did Socrates and Plato believe the Universe was created by?
God
What did Socrates and Plato believe the soul was?
immortal
What did Socrates and Plato believe about virtue?
it is natural
What was the name Aristotle gave to God?
Prime Mover
What did Aristotle believe the Universe was created by?
not created
simply exists
What did Aristotle believe the highest part of the soul was?
Immortality
In Aristotle's Point of View was virtue natural or unnatural?
neither
What was Aristotles mode of expression?
Thematic Presentation Dialectic
What did Epicurus believe about the universe?
coming to be and the passing away of the universe
What did Epicurus believe the God made up of?
atoms
What did Epicurus believe was the highest part of the soul?
immortality
What did Epicurus believe was the most important virtue?
Moral virtue
What are Aristotle's 4 Substances of the Universe?
Immovable Substance
Sensible imperishable substance
Sensible Perishable substance
Final Cause
List a few features of the Prime Mover?
immaterial
immortal
eternal
non-spatial
non-temporal
grand intuition
immutable
pure form
pure good
What is Sensible Substance composed of?
matter
What is matter composed of?
earth
fire
wind
water
What are the 3 parts of matter?
Matter
Privation
Form
Describe Sensible Perishable substance.
Changes over time
What are the 4 types of change?
movement
qualitative
Quantitative
Substantive
What are 2 subdivisions of change?
Artificial
Natural
What is Artificial Change affected by?
Humans
Animals
What is natural change affected by?
Sun
Nature
What are the 4 causes without which change would not be said to occur?
Material
Formal
Efficient
Final
Greek word for Material Cause
Hyle
Describe Material cause
nothing more than matter
Greek word for Formal Cause
Morphe
Describe Formal Cause
form or shape of a thing
Greek word for Efficient cause
Kinan
Describe Efficient Cause
causative agent of change
What are 2 types of Causative Energy of Change? (Efficient Cause)
Internal
External
Describe Internal Causative energy of change.
can be alive
all things equal
motivated from within
purposiveness according to quantum being
Greek Word for Final Cause
Telos
Describe Final Cause
all things aim for End
What did the Prime Mover not create?
The Universe
The universe moves in perfect....
circulation
Each planet and star has a ...
soul
Define Kosmos
beautiful comportment of the heavenly bodies
What kind of intuition does the Prime Mover have?
Grand
What does Aristotle believe is the master art?
Politics
Why is Politics the master art?
looks for good of whole community
What type of people should study Aristotle?
Judges
those who regulate their desires and actions
What type of people should not study Aristotle?
Immature
What did Aristotle Seek to understand?
Highest good attainable by action
Define Eudaimonia.
Happiness/ well being
What does absolute good bring according to Aristotle?
happiness
What sort of life is one of Eudaimonia?
life of pleasure
political life
contemplative life
Refer to page 6 in notes for Procedure graph
notes
Define Pathe
irrational movements of the soul
Happiness comes from knowing what?
yourself
Wealth is simply a means to what?
something else
What is the Highest level of soul for Humans?
Rational Faculty
2 parts of Rational Faculty
Reason Proper
Conscience
Highest level of soul for animals
Sensitive Faculty of Soul
Lowest level of soul
Vegetative Faculty of Soul
Refer to page 7 in notes for Levels of soul chart
notes
Greek word for theoretical knowledge
theoria
define Theoretical knowledge
culmination of knowledge found in reason proper
Greek word for Practical Knowledge
pharmesis
Define Pharmesis
prudence
Define Practical Knowledge
focus on ethics/ moral conduct
Greek word for Productive Knowledge
Techne
Define Productive knowledge
means to making something useful or beautiful
virtue of Reason Proper
Intellectual
Virtue of Conscience
Moral Virtue
Define Conscience
where one acts using practical or ethical knowledge
What did Aristotle seek?
to find a means to an end
What did Aristotle want a human being to be?
self sufficient
What is Aristotles definition of happiness
eudaimonia
define Eudaimonia according to Aristotle
is an activity of the soul in accordance with highest form [perfect] virtue in a complete life
What must Reason proper be exercised with?
Conscience
Give Aristotle's definition of Moral Virtue
Reflects the excellences of the mind/ excellences of character
Refer to bottom of page 9, top of 10
notes
4 Aspects of Thematic Expression of Aristotle
Premise
Purpose
Practical Knowledge
Procedure
Define Dialectic
Gathering of a large body of knowledge and breaking it down and reattaching information to new information creating your own perspective
Define Premise
all things aim for good
define purpose
why all things aim for good
define practical knowledge
general truths
Aristotle's final definition of Moral Virtue
A state of character concerned with choice that choice which lies in a mean that is to say, a mean relative to us, that mean being determined by a Rational Principle , that rational principle having been discovered by a person of practical knowledge
Moral virtue is a state of...
character
Who is epicurus?
greek philosopher
Who did Epicurus study under?
Plato
What did Epicurus establish in 2 places?
schools
Who did Epicurus allow to study philosophy?
women
wlaves
Who's POV did Epicurus adopt
Aristotle
Define Atarxia
harmonious state of the soul
Look at page 12 for chart
notes
3 basic principles that undergird morality ( Ataraxia)
easily sated natural and necessary desires
choose to avoid natural but unnecessary desires
avoid fulfilling unnatural and unnecessary desires
2 Parts of Psychological Calm
Fear of Death
Fear of the Gods
Define Fear of death
where death is we are not
when death comes we do not exist
Define Fear of the Gods
atomistic theory
gods are made up of atoms
gods have nothing to do with us
Define Environmental Calm
Every human being has to have a time for leisure
Define Profligate
to be obsessed with the fulfillment of the desires of the senses
What does Profligate provide freedom from
pain of body, lust
What does Epicurus believe the greatest good is
prudence
Living the pleasurable life is materially equivalent to...
living the moral life