22 terms

Urbanisation Case Study Mumbai

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Where is it located?
West Coast of India
Population change between 1971 to 2011
1971: 5.9 million
2014: 20.5 million
predicted to increase to 32 million by 2021
Population living on $1.25 a day
40%
What proportion live in slums?
60%
Why is mumbai globally important?
> major port on the India ocean
> indias financial centre - home to the Mumbai Stock Exchange - India's numerous Trans National Corporations (including the State Bank of India, Tata Group, Godrej and Reliance) are based in Mumbai
> hub of industry and services - Industries include aerospace, optical engineering, medical research, computers and electronic equipment of all varieties, shipbuilding and salvaging, and renewable energy - contributing 10% of all factory employment and 40% of India's foreign trade
> cultural centre - Bollywood
> a megacity and a World city
> Mumbai provides 33% of India's tax revenue
>40% of international flights to India land there
Causes of Mumbai's growth
> services - banking, IT, insurance and call centres - outsourcing - employs well educated, English speaking university graduates
> low tax rates - encourages companies to set up there
> manufacturing - 50% of factory workers work in the textiles industry - food processing, steel, engineering, computer software = other large industries
> construction - demand for houses, factories and offices increases - property in Mumbai most expensive in the world (one 28 story structure for one family cost £2 billion)
> entertainment - Bollywood - world's largest film industry
> leisure and business services - hotels and restaurants - low tax = lots of disposable income
> massive inward migration of both rich and poor
> high level of natural increase within Mumbai
What are the push factors?
> lack of services
> weather dependent income - droughts and floods
> rural poverty
> unemployment - low pay
> lack of investment
> lack of opportunities
What are the pull factors?
> potential for employment - in the expanding industries, financial institutions and administration
> job security (not weather dependent)
> greater wealth - better pay
> better services - education/healthcare
> perceived better quality of life
> better housing and opportunities
> growth in outsourcing jobs
What are the positive impacts of depopulation on rural india?
> reduces pressure on natural resources
> people can send money back
> migrants may return and pass on skills
What are the negative impacts of depopulation on rural india?
> loss of man power in the rural areas to farm the lands
> brain drain - young skilled people migrating
> gender imbalance as more men leave
What are the positive impacts of rapid urbanisation on mumbai?
> increased manpower
> gaining young skilled workers
> more money raised in tax revenue
> gaps may be filled in industries the population didn't use to want to work in
> economic\ gains as companies have more applicants per job - can pick best person
What are the negative impacts of rapid urbanisation on mumbai?
> congestion
> high unemployment
> crime
> increasing pressure on natural resources and infrastructure/services - public health care only reaches 30% of the urban poor
> high demand for water = strictly rationed
> high infant mortality rate (40 deaths per 1000)
> gender imbalance
> slums - 400 people per toilet
> locals may miss out on jobs
> high rate of disease
> more waste (incineration) and pollution - 25% of deaths caused by respiratory problems due to air pollution
Dharavi
The largest slum
- cramped and poorly built housing and living conditions
- 60% of Mumbai's population live in slums
- situated between two railway lines
- average income £40 a month
- average rents £12 a month
- 80% of the population employed in the tertiary sector
- 72% of slum population = literate
- 4000 cases of diptheria and typhoid per day
- 500 people to 1 toilet
- Dharavi made up of 12 neighborhoods
- 15,000 one room factories (making metal cages inside suitcases, 300 bakeries)
- 85% of slum dwellers have jobs locally
- majority of children go to school and college
- community/religious festivals/gatherings - no loneliness
What is dharavi's population?
1 million
What is the population density of dharavi?
293,000/km2
- covers 6-8% of city but contains 60% of population
Dharavi's recycling industry
- 80% of Mumbai's waste is recycled (UK = 23%)
- recycling industry worth US$ 1.5 million and employs 10,000 (including children)
- work for £1 a day in poor conditions
- melting old soap from hotels into new soap
- recycling computer boards and batteries = toxic plastic, cadmium and mercury fumes (no health and safety) = blood poisoning
- 35,000 rag pickers in Mumbai search for recyclable goods
Vision Mumbai - sets out to transform Mumbai into a world class city
- incentive to build affordable housing for poor - if 1 square foot of housing was built, 30% more land could be for commercial developments and offices
- giving slum land to developers at reduced rate and to make governance more efficient
- upgrade other infrastructure - safety, sanitation, education and healthcare
- boost economic growth to 8-10% per year by focusing on services
- improvements to transport infrastructure to reduce deaths
- financed possibly through tax income

By 2007:
- 200,000 people moved and 45,000 homes demolished in slums
- 300 hectares of land cleared
- due to global economic crisis, many tower blocks left half finished ad crumbling
Slum clearance and independent townships
- 2004 the government announced plan a redevelopment project to clear Dharavi slum and create new independent townships (building new apartments, water and sewage system, hospitals and schools)
- however this approach may destroy the established community and successful industries (recycling)
- cost = $2 million
Slum Sanitation Program
- established in 1995 by NGOs
- built 330 communal toilet blocks in slums
- 100,000 free houses built in 2006
Rainwater Harvesting Systems
- to reduce demand for water by collecting rainwater from rooftops
- compulsory on all new residential buildings on plots larger than 300m2
- since 2007 only half the eligible buildings actually installed rainwater harvesting plants
Alternative forms of transport and public transport
- scooters or mopeds to reduce congestion and journey times (still release carbon emissions)
- a metro system with over 140 km of new rail lines developed in the city (first lines opened 2013 but not completed until 2021)
Navi Mumbai
- new town built in 1972 to help reduce congestion in the city
- enabling the emergence of suburbs such as Salsette
- population of Navi Mumbai 1.1 million

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