According to Jean Piaget, schemes are an individual's generalized way of responding to the world.
-Assimilation: occurs when people deal with a new experience in a manner that is consistent with a present scheme.
-Accommodation: occurs when people must incorporate a new experience that requires them to modify an old scheme or form a new scheme.
-Equilibration: a period of flux, happens when individuals are attempting to adjust prior schemes with new experiences that do not fit into their existing schemes.
Examples of the three schemes:
1.Assimilation: A five year old identifies a clog as a type of shoe.
2.Accommodation: The five year old recognizes the clog is made of glass and cannot be an actual shoe.
3.Equilibration: The period of time when the five year old must mentally wrestle with the clog dilemma until he/she can explain the object in terms of an existing or new schema: A clog can be either a shoe or a decoration.
--4 stage of development:
1. Sensorimotor (ages 0-2 years)
• Cognitive development comes through use of body and senses
•come to understand object permanence
• Language absent until end of period
• Provide multiple objects for stimulation of various shapes, colors and sizes
• Allow students to actively engage environmental objects
2. Preoperational (ages 2-7 years)
• Begins using symbols but cannot manipulate them
• Realism, animism, artificialism, transductive reasoning, centering, egocentrism and irreversibility, Has difficulty with past and future-thinks in present.
• Beginnings of representation
• Egocentric and socialized speech
• Deferred imitation, symbolic play, drawing and mental images
• Encourage the use of language
3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11 years)
• Can perform mental operations with the use of concrete objects, not verbal statements
• Conservation, seriation( organize things into catalog and series) , classification and number concepts, understand past, present and future.
• Verbal understanding
• Classification activities
• Integrated activities that allow students to make connections between ideas previously thought to be separate
4. Formal operations (ages 11 years and up)
• Released from the restrictions of tangible and concrete
• May separate real from the possible, hypothetical/deductive reasoning
• Development of logic-mathematical structures
• Language freed from concrete, able to express the possible
• Challenge, do not frustrate
• Be aware of adolescent limitations
• Encourage analysis of information in drawing conclusions.
• can consider multiple perspectives and develop concerns about social issues, personal identity and justice.
Erik Erikson proposed that 8 stages of psychosocial development exist spanning from birth through adulthood. Emphasizes the emergence of the self, search for identity , the individual's relationship with others, and the role of culture throughout life. Each stage contains a development crisis and each crisis stage has the potential for a positive or a negative outcome. Positive experiences lead to positive outcomes, and negative experiences lead to negative outcomes.
Stage 1: trust vs. mistrust (ages 0-18 months).
• Feeding is an important eventt*.
• Trust: If nurtured and basic needs are met, children learn that others can be dependable and reliable.
• Mistrust: If there is cold parental care or lack of nurturing, children learn the world is undependable, unpredictable and possibly dangerous.
• Educational implications: Meet physical needs consistently and provide physical affection at regular intervals.
Stage 2:autonomy vs shame/doubt (ages 18 months-3 years).
• Toilet training is a goall*. The child's energies are directed
toward the development of physical skills, including walking, grasping, controlling the sphincter. The child learns control but may develop shame and doubt if not handled well.
• Autonomy: If self-sufficient behavior is encouraged in appropriate venues, children develop as individuals.
• Shame: If caretakers demand too much and no autonomy is allowed, children develop shame and doubt about their ability to handle problems.
• Educational implications: Provide consistent, reasonable discipline, opportunities for students to do for themselves, and positive role models.
Stage 3: initiative vs guilt (ages 3-6 years)
• Independence is the goall*. The child becomes more assertive and takes more initiative but may be too forceful, which can lead to guilt feeling.
• Initiative: If independence to plan and undertake activities is given, children learn to plan and take responsibility for their own needs and activities.
• Guilt: If adults discourage a child's plans or activities, children develop guilt about needs and desires.
• Educational implications: Support efforts to plan and carry out activities, help with realistic choices that consider others needs.
Stage 4:industry vs inferiority(ages 6-12, critical period for building self-esteem).
• School is the goall*. The child must deal with demands to learn new skills or risk a sense of inferiority, failure and incompetence.
• Industry: If patterns of working hard, persisting at lengthy tasks and putting work before pleasure are rewarded, children learn to take pride in their accomplishments.
• Inferiority: If children are punished or cannot meet expectations, feelings of inferiority about their own abilities develop.
• Educational Implications: Give opportunities for children to achieve recognition and praise by producing things.
Stage 5: identity vs role confusion(ages 12-18 y- critical period for building self-esteem).
• Peer relationships are the goall*. The teenage must achieve identity in
occupation, gender roles, politics, and religion.
• Identity: If students are treated as adults and challenged with realistic goals, they will achieve a sense of identity regarding the role they will play as adults.
• Role Confusion: If students are treated as children, they will have mixed ideas and feelings about where they fit into society.
Educational Implications: Treat students as adults, challenge them with realistic goals, and address issues of identity
Stage 6: intimacy vs Isolation( 18-40) Young adulthood,
• Love relationships are the goall*. • Intimacy: Successful completion can lead to comfortable relationships and a sense of commitment, safety, and care within a relationship.
• Isolation: Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment and relationships can lead to isolation, loneliness, and sometimes depression.
Stage 7: Generativity vs Stagnation (40-65) middle adulthood.
• Parenting/ mentoring are the goall*. Each adult must find some way to satisfy and support next generation.
• Generativity: we establish our careers, settle down within a relationship, begin our own families and develop a sense of being a part of the bigger picture. We give back to society through raising our children, being productive at work, and becoming involved in community activities and organizations.
• By failing to achieve these objectives, we become stagnant and feel unproductive.
Stage 8: Ego Integrity vs Despair (65-death). Late adulthood.
• Reflection on and acceptance of one's life are the goal.
The culmination is a sense of acceptance of oneself and a sense of fulfillment. As we grow older and become senior citizens, we tend to slow down our productivity, and explore life as a retired person. It is during this time that we contemplate our accomplishments and are able to develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful life. If we see our lives as unproductive, feel guilt about our pasts, or feel that we did not accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with life and develop despair, often leading to depression and hopelessness.
Moral reasoning also appears to have developmental stages.
-initial stage, ( birth to 2/3), children learn from their parents and through modeling. I
-early childhood, (2-6), they learn from other authority figures in their environment.
-middle childhood,(6-11), students learn from making and following rules and derive insight into morality by observing children who do not follow the rules. For this reason, consistency by those creating and enforcing rules is critical at this stage.
-adolescence, approximately 12-18, teens learn to control impulsivity that clashes with rules. Adults become firmer with adolescents. Students look to their peers for acceptance and incorporate them into their decision making process.
Educational implications for patterns of moral development
The following is a list of suggestions that will enhance moral development and facilitate moral behavior in your classroom:
• Establish a firm, yet supportive authoritative environment
• Help students recognize how their actions affect others
• Provide students with practice in recognizing others' emotional states
• Display and reward models of moral and pro-social behavior
• Discuss moral issues and dilemmas as they arise, daily and in the curriculum
As a teacher you must be aware of how parenting styles effect the personal, emotional, and social development of students. Four major styles exist. For each style the following is included: what does the parent provide, who is produced by that style of parenting, and how should teachers respond.
1. The Authoritative Parent:
o What: Loving, supportive, consistent with rules
o Who: Self-confident, independent, respectful
o How: Adopt authoritative style (AAS)
2. The Authoritarian Parent:
o What: Little warmth, high expectation, little regard for child's opinions or needs
o Who: Anxious, low self-confidence, coercive
o How: AAS, provide warmth and solicit perspectives
3. The Permissive Parent:
o What: Loving, few expectations, no consequences
o Who: Selfish, dependent, impulsive
o How: AAS, high expectations, consequences
4. The Uninvolved Parent:
o What: No emotional support, few expectations, and little interest in child
o Who: Disobedient, low self-control, lacking long-term goals
o How: AAS, emotional warmth, high expectations, consequences
-recognize both biological aspects internal of individual and nested social and cultural contexts shape our development.
-every person develops within ecosystems where we constantly interact
with and influence each other:
--Microsystem are the person's immediate relationship and activities, the relationships are reciprocal.
--Mesosystem is the set of interactions and relationships among all the
elements of the microsystem, and the relationships reciprocal also.
--exosystem includes all the social setting that affect children, even though
children are not direct members of these systems.
--macrosystem are widely shared cultural values, beliefs, customs, and laws.
--all development occurs in and is influenced by the time period -the chronosystem
Relation to teaching and students:
--families are the first context, which includes various family structure and parenting style, that have life long influence on children's development.
--children also develop with peer groups, who have own peer cultures, a set of rule that all member of the group follow. peer relationship and friendships are central to students' lives.
is a broad term used by philosophers,curriculum designers, psychologists, educators, and others. Constructive perspectives are grounded into the research of Piaget, Vygostky, Barlett, Bruner, as well as the philosophy of John Dewey. Two central ideas that most constructivist theories agree on are:
1, Learners are active in constructing their own knowledge.
2, Social interaction are important in this knowledge construction process.
Piaget's theory is psychological constructivism (first wave constructivism) focusing on learning means individually possessing knowledge. Vygostky's cultural cognitive theory is social constructivism-learning means belonging to a group and participate in social construction of knowledge.
Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues developed a taxonomy-a classification system of educational objectives, which is divided into 3 domains:
in Bloom's taxonomy, cognitive domains refer to memory and reasoning objectives, which are: knowledge, comprehension, application-low level objectives,
analysis, synthesis, and evaluation-high level objectives.
Recent revision are:
six processes remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating acting on four kind of knowledge-factual, conceptual, procedural and metacognitive
affective domains -objectives focus on attitude and feelings.
Five basic objectives are:
receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization by value
pschyomotor domains-physical ability and coordination objectives.