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27 terms

Chapter 10: Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction

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allele
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits
alternation of generations
A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae
bivalent
Homologous chromosomes, each having sister chromatids that are joined by a nucleoprotein lattice during meiosis; also called a tetrad
crossing-over
Exchange of segments between nonsister chromatids of a bivalent during meiosis.
diploid (2N) number
Cell condition in which two of each type of chromosome are present.
fertilization
Fusion of sperm and egg nuclei, producing a zygote that develops into a new individual
gamete
Haploid sex cell; e.g. egg and cell
gametogenesis
Development of the male and female sex gametes
gametophyte
Haploid generation of the alteration of generations life cycle of a plant; produces gametes that unite to form a diploid zygote.
genetic recombination
Process in which new genetic information is incorporated into a chromosome or DNA fragment
haploid (1N) number
Cell condition in which only one of each type of chromosome is present.
homologous chromosome
Member of a pair of chromosomes that are alike and come together in synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division; a homologue
homologue
Member of a homologous pair of chromosomes
independent assortment
Alleles of unlinked genes segregate independently of each other during meiosis so that the gametes contain all possible combinations of alleles
interkinesis
Period of time between meiosis I and meiosis II during which no DNA replication takes place
kinetochore
Disk-shaped structure within the centromere of a chromosome to which spindle microtubules become attached during mitosis and meiosis.
life cycle
Recurring pattern of genetically programmed events by which individuals grow, develop, maintain themselves and reproduce
meiosis
Type of nuclear division that occurs as part of sexual reproduction, in which the daughter cells receive the haploid number of chromosomes in varied combinations
oogenesis
Production of eggs in female by the process of meiosis and maturation
polar body
In oogenesis, a nonfunctional product; two to three meiotic products are this type
secondary oocyte
In oogenesis, the functional product of meiosis I; becomes the egg
sexual reproduction
Reproduction involving meiosis, gamete formation, and fertilization; produces offspring with chromosomes inherited from each parent with a unique combination of genes
spermatogenesis
Production of sperm in males by the process of meiosis and maturation
spore
Asexual reproductive or resting cell capable of developing into a new organism without fusion with another cell, in contrast to a gamete
sporophyte
Diploid generation of the alternation of generations life cycle of a plant; produces haploid spores that develop into the haploid generation.
synapsis
Pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis I
zygote
Diploid cell formed by the union of two gametes; the product of fertilization