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one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits

alternation of generations

A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae


Homologous chromosomes, each having sister chromatids that are joined by a nucleoprotein lattice during meiosis; also called a tetrad


Exchange of segments between nonsister chromatids of a bivalent during meiosis.

diploid (2N) number

Cell condition in which two of each type of chromosome are present.


Fusion of sperm and egg nuclei, producing a zygote that develops into a new individual


Haploid sex cell; e.g. egg and cell


Development of the male and female sex gametes


Haploid generation of the alteration of generations life cycle of a plant; produces gametes that unite to form a diploid zygote.

genetic recombination

Process in which new genetic information is incorporated into a chromosome or DNA fragment

haploid (1N) number

Cell condition in which only one of each type of chromosome is present.

homologous chromosome

Member of a pair of chromosomes that are alike and come together in synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division; a homologue


Member of a homologous pair of chromosomes

independent assortment

Alleles of unlinked genes segregate independently of each other during meiosis so that the gametes contain all possible combinations of alleles


Period of time between meiosis I and meiosis II during which no DNA replication takes place


Disk-shaped structure within the centromere of a chromosome to which spindle microtubules become attached during mitosis and meiosis.

life cycle

Recurring pattern of genetically programmed events by which individuals grow, develop, maintain themselves and reproduce


Type of nuclear division that occurs as part of sexual reproduction, in which the daughter cells receive the haploid number of chromosomes in varied combinations


Production of eggs in female by the process of meiosis and maturation

polar body

In oogenesis, a nonfunctional product; two to three meiotic products are this type

secondary oocyte

In oogenesis, the functional product of meiosis I; becomes the egg

sexual reproduction

Reproduction involving meiosis, gamete formation, and fertilization; produces offspring with chromosomes inherited from each parent with a unique combination of genes


Production of sperm in males by the process of meiosis and maturation


Asexual reproductive or resting cell capable of developing into a new organism without fusion with another cell, in contrast to a gamete


Diploid generation of the alternation of generations life cycle of a plant; produces haploid spores that develop into the haploid generation.


Pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis I


Diploid cell formed by the union of two gametes; the product of fertilization

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