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Exam 5 Principles of Bio
Terms in this set (27)
What's a cnidarian? Example?
An aquatic invertebrate animal that has body parts arranged around the mouth, fixed in place, tentacles, lives in salt water.
What's an annelid? Example? What are the three main subgroups?
Composed of identical segments
The three main subgroups are
-Polychaetes- Marine worms
-Leeches- carnivorous or parasitic
What's an arthropod? Examples?
An vertebrae animal of the large phylum Arthopoda such as insects, spiders
What's a mollusk? Example? How do the groups differ?
Invertebrate with shells (most of the time) to protect their soft tissue.
Gastropods (snails), Bivalves (Scallop), Cephalopods (Octopus) all differ based on where they live and how the eat.
What is an echinoderm? Example?
Have a rough spiny skin. Sea stars, sand dollars, sea urchins
What are the main features of chordates?
Notochord- flexible rod that extends the length of the body
Nerve cord- Dorsal, hollow, one end develops into the brain
Pharyngeal fill slits- Found in the cavity behind the mouth- not always functional
Postanal tail- Extension of the body past the anus
Characteristics of bony fishes?
-Mostly cold blooded
Characteristics of amphibians?
-External fertilization of eggs in water
Characteristics of reptiles? Examples?
-have a backbone
-Tough, scaly skin that resists water loss and protects the body
-Internal fertilization of eggs
-Shelled eggs that can be buried in sand or dirt
Characteristics of birds? What are some adaptations that allow birds to fly?
-Most can fly
-Hollow bones with honeycomb structure
-Breastbone and musculature
Characteristics of mammals? What are the three major groups of mammals? What characteristics make them different?
-have a backbone
-have hair or fur-brain is ore developed
-Named for milk producing mammary glands
Marsupials- embryonic at birth
Eutherians- fully developed at birth
Primates and Humans: What are the major groups of primates? What are some adaptations of early primates to living in trees?
The two groups are prosimians and anthropoids(simians)
Monkeys and apes used their tail as a fifth limb to hang from to drink and swing.
What is a hominid? What are some adaptations of the early hominids that allowed them to be so successful?
A primate family that included humans and their ancestors. Adaptations that allowed them to be so successful is walking on two legs
Are humans continuing to evolve? What are some examples?
Humans are continuing to evolve
Humans are continuing to evolve. The brain is getting bigger which results in larger skulls. Humans are getting taller with longer limbs.
What are the three major components of the human immune system? What does innate mean?
External innate defenses
Internal innate defenses
Innate means natural; inborn
The immune system's first line of defense is to keep germs from entering the body. What are some ways that the body keeps germs out?
Mucus in the throat to keep bacteria out. Saliva that breaks down bacteria. Stomach acids break down bacteria in the stomach.
What are the body's internal innate defenses?
Natural killer cells
What is the inflammatory response? How does it help to stop an infection?
Injured body cells release chemicals called histamines which trigger the inflammatory response.
It pushes the virus out of our system by increasing the migration of cells to the area.
What is immunity? Why do we give vaccinations?
The resistance to a disease-causing organism or harmful substance, We get vaccinations to introduce in a small quantity a virus so your body can fight it and know how to.
What is the adaptive immune system? What types of cells are responsible for this function? What is the role of antibodies?
It I activated only after exposure to specific pathogens. Lymphocytes are responsible for the function. Antibodies attach to the virus to try and push block viruses from entering cells.
What is an allergy? Can allergies by life-threatening?
Sensitivity to a harmless antigen in the environment. They can be life threatening if it is something like a bee sting which you can go into anaphylactic shock.
Explain the greenhouse effect. What are the gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect? Which two are most important? How is combustion of fossil fuels contributing to the greenhouse effect?
Variety of gasses that puts a layer around the earth keeping it warm retaining the heat creating the earth to become hotter.
CO2, methane, water vapor, nitrous oxide.
Water vapor (H20) and carbon dioxide (co2) are the two most important.
Combustion released CO2 which puts a "blanket" around the earth and raised the temperature.
Why does the immune system have such a problem fighting against the AIDS virus? (Hint: Does the AIDS virus actually kill or does something else ultimate cause death)?
It shuts down your immune system so it is harder to fight anything which ultimately allows other viruses to kill.
What are some of the major climate changes we can expect as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2.
More rain on fewer days
Explain with an example from lecture how the effects of climate change may be unpredictable.
Hurricanes, tornadoes, tsunamis
Fewer of them but they will be stronger
What is an invasive species? What are some the ways that humans introduced these species to new areas? What are some the other major impacts of invasive species in these areas? Can they be effectively controlled after invasion?
Invasive species is a species that is not native to an area and is causing harm. Humans introduce these by releasing pets and transporting them. Invasive species grow to be very large and kill off a lot of the native species. It is really hard but they can be controlled after invasion
How does the concept of tradeoffs relate to fisheries, and what are some examples?
Bulk heads create a share that cannot be eroded which saves the land but kills the animals that live in shallow water because the water gets too deep and they have nowhere to go.
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