160 terms

Mammalogy Final

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Alfred Russel Wallace
father of animal geography/biogeography ;co-discoverer of theory of natural selection
endemism
a species only found in one certain area
disjunct distribution
a gap in the range of related species thought to be due to continental drift (example: marsupials)
species richness
number of species within a defined area
historical biogeography
emphasizes the study of changes in species ranges that have taken place over evolutionary time
ecological biogeography
focuses on current distribution and seeks to explain those distributions in terms of community-level interactions among organisms and their environment
biogeography
the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time
faunal realms
6 divisions of the world based on the animals that live there (Palearctic, Nearctic, Neotropical, Etheopian, Oriental, Australian)
Palearctic
largest realm
42 mammal families
0 endemic families
Nearctic
North America and Greenland
37 mammal family
2 endemic families
Holarctic Region
collective name for Palearctic and Nearctic
Neotropical
S. Hemisphere New World
50 mammal families
19 endemic families (most of all regions)
Ethiopian
Madagascar, sub-Saharan Africa, south tip Middle East
52 mammal families (most of all regions)
18 endemic families
Oriental
India, south China, Indonesia
50 mammal families
4 endemic families
Australian
28 mammal families
17 endemic families
Wallace's Line
imaginary line separating Oriental and Australian faunal realms
continental drift
theory that Pangea split and resultant land masses drifted over the earth due to plate tectonics
Pangaea
one original land mass
Laurasia
Northern hemisphere split from Pangaea
Gondwana
Southern hemisphere split from Pangaea
Wisconsinian glacial stage
the last ice age; ~10-12,000 ybp
refugia
pockets around ice-covered areas that aren't covered in ice
northward expansion of mammals
opossum and nine-banded armadillo
passive dispersal
animal is not moving itself on its own will (ex: mice on ships; animals carried by wind in a storm)
active dispersal
animal moves on its own free will
corridor route
minimal resistance to the passage of mammals between two geographic locations (ex: a field connecting forests)
filter route
only certain species can move because of some type of barrier (ex: a mountain range, a river, a fence)
sweepstakes route
only certain adaptations can disperse the barrier into a previously unoccupied area (ex: need wings to cross the ocean)
peninsular gradient
more diversity closer to mainland
latitudinal gradient
more diversity closer to the equator
elevational gradient
sometimes less diversity as you go up; sometimes less at the bottom, more at the middle, less at the top
population
group of the same species in the same area at the same time
exponential growth
unrestricted growth of a population where the growth accelerates
logistic growth
restricted growth limited by carrying capacity of the environment
factors of population increase and decrease
birth, death, immigration, emigration
open system
allows for immigration and emigration
closed system
no emigration or immigration
instantaneous rate of increase
(r) birth rate minus death rate; measures per capita rate of population increase over a short time interval
ecosystem
all biotic and abiotic components of an environment
examples of exponential growth in the real world
species introduced to island, exotic species in favorable environment, endangered species reintroduced
natality
birth rate
fertility
number of live births produced over some period of time
fecundity
potential level of reproductive performance of a population
characteristics affecting birth rate
age of sexual maturity
gestation length
sex ratio
mating system
age specific fecundity
nutritional condition
Fischer's Sex Ratio
50:50 at birth
age structure
percentage of juveniles to adults; less juveniles in population usually means less breeding individuals
sex ratio
ratio of males to females in a population
r-selected
high fertility and fecundity, reaches sexual maturity faster, little to no parental care, lots of offspring die early in life (ex: rodents)
k-selected
low fertility and fecundity, reaches sexual maturity slower, high parental care (ex: elephants)
niche
role a species plays; factors needed for species success
fundamental niche
range of success factors that a species can occupy
realized niche
actual area a species occupies due to competition
n-dimensional hypervolume
multidimensional ecological model that can include many factors such as temperature, foraging height, light, etc.
Gause
person who came up with competitive exclusion principle
competitive exclusion
2 species cannot occupy the same nice at the same time and same place; one must either die or specialize
niche partitioning
competition species specialize into more narrow niches
trophic cascade
one trophic level affects all the levels above or below it (ex: wolves at Yellowstone)
community succession
change in community structure over time
specialist
a species with a narrow range of acceptable conditions/resources
generalist
a species with a wide range of acceptable conditions/resources
anisogomy
variation in gamete size
Darwinian fitness
genetic strength and weakness within a population
Intersexual selection
one sex chooses a mate from the other sex typically based on external characteristics
Intrasexual selection
often males competing for mating rights
dimorphism
different body size and other characteristics between sexes
monogamy
1 male and 1 female during a breeding season (<9% of mammals)
Polygamy
having multiple mates
Polygyny
male monopolizing multiple females in one season (most common, >90%)
Polyandry
female monopolizing multiple males in one season (most rare)
Promiscuity
no prolonged association between individuals
types of polygyny
resource defense, female defense, male dominance, scramble competition
eusociality
colonial breeding with one queen and offspring
E.O. Wilson
author of Sociobiology
behavior
everthing an animal does and why
communication
sending and receiving a signal between 2 organisms
reasons for communicating
cooperation, defense, survival, finding mates
olfactory
long range, low cost, slow transmission, good night use, (ex: cervids, carnivores)
auditory
long range, high cost, fast transmission, good night use (ex: bats, whales, canids, elephants)
visual
medium range, fast transmission, medium cost, no night use (ex: lions, white-tailed deer)
tactile
short range, low cost, fast transmission, night use (ex: primates, star-nosed mole)
agonistic
intimidating/aggressive behavior response without fighting; more a display that contact
exploitation competition
using a resource before another individual
interference competition
directly competing with another individual
infanticide
killing offspring of another male
siblicide
members of the same litter excluding or killing one another
Bruce effect
new male comes into group so pregnant female will abort (absorb fetus) in order to save energy and resources and to prevent infanticide
home range
area where individual spends most of its time
territory
a defended area
society
a group that interacts and communicates with a lot of commonality
altruism
helping someone with disadvantage to self
alarm calling
making different sounds to alert for predators
benefits of grouping
protection, foraging, defense, mating, specialization, learning
Allee effect
a certain number of individuals needed in a group for a group to be successful (ex: 4-10 members for a wolf pack)
costs of grouping
more competition, easy disease spread, less reproductive successes, less resources per individual
group selection
natural selection acts at a group level instead of individual level (generally disregarded)
selfish herd
if the group is successful, the individual is successful; help the group only to help yourself
inclusive fitness
passing genes related to yours
kin selection
helping only those related to you
fitness
individuals ability to reproduce and pass on genes
dispersal
one way movement of an individual beyond its home range
migration
back and forth movement, often seasonal
natal dispersal
younger individuals moving from its natal range to a place where it reproduces
breeding dispersal
movement of adults between breeding attempts
philopatry
tendency of individuals to stay in or near its natal range
proximate causes
cause-effect on the surface; observable things; something better for the individual (ex: parental aggression, density, habitat quality)
ultimate causes
innate/genetic instincts; better for the species (ex: inbreeding avoidance, competition for mates)
habitat
area where animal lives, spends its time, and finds resources; can be described by the cover type
use
parts of a habitat actually used; measured by consumption or time spent in an area
selection
compares use to availability; S=U/A; can depend on spatial and temporal factors
Marginal Value Theorem
animals must spend time traveling through patches to find resources and decide how much energy to spend searching for resources
Giving Up Density
energy used for finding food is greater than the nutrients gained from eating food; it is now better to move to a different patch
Optimal Foraging Theory
an animal will try to gain as much nutrients as possible while spending as little energy as possible
Central Place Foraging
animals use central base where it forages around; restricted by young, mate, or thermoregulation
risks affecting fitness
predation, competition, human disturbance
reasons for migration
increase fitness, escape predators, escape climate, access to more resources, water temperature (Cetaceans)
methods for estimating dispersal/migration
transmitters, tags, harvest, genetics, PIT tags, hair snares
PIT tags
Passive Integrated Transponder; subcutaneous microchips with unique code
first animal domesticated
dog
purpose of dog domestication
companion, aided in hunting, helped detect predators
artificial selection
changing breeding patterns for desired characteristics
first domestic animals raised for food
sheep and goats
criteria for animal domestication
adaptable diet and to environmental conditions
highly social
easily maintained for food, other products
easily bred in captivity
closely herded
percentage of domesticated mammals
<0.5%
5 large domesticated herbivores
horse, cow, sheep, pig, goat
wild source of dog
Gray wolf (12,000 ya)
wild source of sheep
Mouflon (10,000 ya)
wild source of goat
bezoar goat (10,000 ya)
wild source of cattle
aurochs (8,000 ya)
wild source of pig
wild boar (9,000 ya)
wild source of horse
wild horse (4,000 ya)
year auroch became extinct
1627
2 groups of Bovidae
humpless cattle (Bos taurus)
humped cattle (Bos indicus)
ancestor of donkey
African wild ass
camel that only exists in domestication
Dromedary camel (one hump)
exploited captives
elephants and reindeer; not truly domesticated - breeding remains more under natural selection than artificial selection
Reasons to conserve mammals
we relate to them
important ecological niche
often fill higher trophic levels
cultural ties
recreation
food, clothes, milk
preservation
hands-off approach / don't let anything bad happen
management
hands-on approach; manipulating the circumstances
regulation
laws and law enforcement accompanying management and preservation
conservation
a combination of preservation, management, & regulation; focuses on maintaining a species
CITES
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora
TRAFFIC
monitor and mitigate trade
IUCN
International Union for Conservation of Nature
Safari Club International
controversial use of hunting as conservation tool
Red List Extinct categories
Extinct (EX)
Extinct in the wild (EW)
Red list Threat categories
Critically Endangered (CR)
Endangered (EN)
Vulnerable (VU)
Red list Non-Threat categories
Lower risk/conservation dependent (LR)
Near Threatened (NT)
Data Deficient (DD)
Least Concern (LC)
Red List criteria for threat categories
population reduction
geographic range
small population size and decline
very small or restricted population
extinction risk
USFWS
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
USDA-NRCS
United States Department of Agriculture National Resource Conservation Service
ESA
Endangered Species Act
NWRS
National Wildlife Refuge System
USFS
United States Forest Service
MDWFP
Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks
areas of most biodiversity
tropics and warm, shallow water (equator region)
Grinnell
defines niche as where an animal lives
Elton
defines niche as animal's ecological role
Hutchinson
defines niche as conditions an animal can be successful in
keystone species
species with disproportionate effect on the habitat
keystone predator
predator with disproportional effect on lower trophic levels