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Old tests MC
Terms in this set (71)
What is an evolutionary adaptation?
a trait that improves the fitness of its bearer, compared with individuals without the trait.
True or false: Individuals change when NS occurs.
FALSE: Populations change
What were important pieces of evidence in helping early 19th century scientists realize that species are related through common ancestors?
similar species share homologous traits
Toucans disperse seeds of key forest species such as Jucara palms by eating the fruit and defecating the seeds in new locations, sometimes more than a kilometer away. If there are no toucans, is the genetic diversity likely to increase or decrease within forest fragments (and why)?
Decrease due to decreased gene flow
Some ragweed are resistant to herbicides and continue to thrive. How is that possible?
Ragweed had genetic mutations all along. The mutations may have been neutral or may have affected other aspects of the ragweed biology. When exposed to herbicides, ragweed plants with this mutation survived to reproduce and to pass along the trait to their offspring.
In the experiment performed to determine whether organisms could arise spontaneously in a nutrient broth or whether they appear only when a broth was exposed to a source of pre-existing cells, what was the single variable that was altered between the two treatments?
The shape of the neck of the flask
typological thinking that also included a hierarchy or scale of being with humans (and then God) at the top
known for writing about extinct species from the fossil record
evolution of acquired traits, individuals changed
discovered that geological processes occur gradually over long periods of time
thought that the population growth of humans would grow exponentially, while the food supply would grow arithmetically, resulting in a struggle for survival
developed experiment that refuted the idea of spontaneous generation
came up with the process of NS and sent manuscript to Darwin; work was presented together w/ Darwin's
Which of the types of selection DECREASE genetic variation? (Select all that apply)
a. directional selection
b. stabilizing selection
c. disruptive selection
d. frequency dependent selection
A & B-directional and stabilizing selection
Disruptive favors extremes~increases variation
Freq. dependent favors rare but not when common (see-saw effect)
Genetic recombination in bacteria occurs through what process?
asexual reproduction through conjugation, transduction, transformation
an important and unique characteristic of sympatric speciation is
polyploidy-the condition of possessing more than two complete sets of chromosomes, is caused by a massive error in mitosis or meiosis
What are the four nitrogenous bases found in RNA?
Adenine-Uracil & Guanine-Cytosine
In central and northern California, the Red-legged frog breeds in fast-moving, ephemeral streams. Coexisting Bullfrogs breed in permanent, non-flowing ponds. This is an example of
pre-zygotic isolating mechanism- habitat isolation
Not a mc question, just a review.
List all Pre-zygotic and post-zygotic isolating mechanisms
pre-zygotic: temporal, habitat, behavioral, genetic barrier, mechanical
post-zygotic: hybrid viability, hybrid sterility
In order to avoid detection from our immune systems, bacteria utilize ________________ to _______________ other bacteria. When the time is right, they then simultaneously release the toxic proteins.
quorum sensing; sense the number of
The double fertilization that occurs in angiosperms results in the fertilization of the egg resulting in the zygote and the fertilization of the polar nuclei resulting in the __________________.
d. seed coat
unlike fungi, protists can be ________________
some protists can perform photosynthesis, therefore, they can be autotrophic
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of moss?
a. Fertilization requires water to get sperm to egg
b. Rhizoids present
c. lacks xylem and phloem
d. Pollen present
e. Sporophyte is much reduced compared to gametophyte
D. pollen present- FALSE
In the evolution of mitochondria, the endosymbiosis theory suggests that the host cell supplies the bacterium with ____________________, and the bacterium supplies the host cell with _____________.
protection & carbon compounds; ATP
How do protists obtain food?
ingestion-phagocytosis, some photosynthesis
How do protists withstand physical environment?
how to protists reproduce?
sexually and asexually (fission)
how to protists avoid being eaten?
how do plants obtain food?
photosynthesis, phloem transports water and nutrients
how to plants withstand the physical environment?
how do plants reproduce?
sexually-fushion of gametes
how do plants avoid being eaten?
hairy, physical toughness of leaves
toxic compounds-secondary compounds
how do fungi obtain food?
absorption of nutrients from external environment- mycorrhizal hyphae-greater surface area
how do fungi withstand the physical environment?
zygospores-tough spores, can grow in diverse environments
how do fungi reproduce?
sexually, produce spores
how do fungi avoid being eaten?
could have toxins, zygospores
Protistan with excavated groove on side of cell. Includes euglenids and Giardia.
Protistan with flagella w/ hollow projections (hairy flagella)
wind pollinated. have seeds and tissue. no fruits
pines, spruces, firs
Protistan with small sacs located just under the plasma membrane. One of the subgroups of this taxa is responsible for red tides.
vascular plant without seeds that still requires water for reproduction. tree-sized during Carboniferous period
Club moss (Lycophyta)
fungi with club-shaped structure bearing sexual spores; mushrooms
fungi with sexual spores in sac-like structure; yeast is an example
plant in which gametophyte is dominant. Reproduces asexually through gemmae cups. Has pores but no seeds or vascular tissue
fungi that develops large resistant diploid spore when two different mating strains come in contact with each other. Includes the bread molds.
What do Echinoderms and Cnidarians have in common?
Radial symmetry in adults
What do sponges, rotifers, and clams have in common?
All are filter feeders
How can you get a tapeworm?
eating raw or rare beef
as a group, acoelomates are charaterized by
a solid body without a cavity surrounding internal organs
which of the following does not apply to Nematodes?
b. complete digestive tract
c. longitudinal and circular muscles for movement
d. posses a pseudocoelom
c. longitudinal and circular muscles
NOT they ONLY have longitudinal-thrashing movement
leeches are most closely related to ___________
earthworm nephridia perform a function most similar to the
_________________ of planarians
in a tube-within-a-tube body plan, what is the interior tube derived from?
what synapomorphy (shared, derived trait) distinguishes animals as a monophyletic group, distinct from choanoflagellates?
What phylum do barnacles belong to?
arthropoda bc jointed appendages used in filter feeding
which of the following are NOT traits of ALL chordates (at least in the embryonic stages)?
a. gill slits
b. hollow dorsal nerve chord
e. muscular post-anal tail
which of the following is an example of homology (similarity due to common ancestry)?
a. ectoparasitism lifestyle in ticks and leeches
b. nematocysts in jellyfish and sea anemones
c. radial symmetry in corals and starfish
d. filter feeding in sponges and barnacles
b. nematocysts in jellyfish and sea anemones
what traits define the vertebrates?
vertebrae and a cranium
setae/chaetae, parapodia, segmentation
hollow dorsal nerve chord
radula, foot, and torsion
water vascular system
corona, pseudocoelomate, microscopic
nerve net and diploblastic
spicules and no true tissues
acoelomate and nerve ladder
longitudinal muscles ONLY
jointed appendages and tagmata
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