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Chapter 12

The High Renaissance and EArly Mannerism 1494-1564
What was the cultural center of the High Renaissance?
Who were the leading patrons of the High Renaissance?
How can the High Renaissance style be characterized?
By holding up ideas of beauty and serenity.
What was an important development in international relations during the High Renaissance?
The birth of the concept of balance of power.
From what nation was Ferdinand Magellan, whose mission first circumnavigated the globe?
What sailing vessel became the mainstay of European shipping and naval forces from 1550 to 1700?
What were the causes of the Valois-Hpsburg wars?
1. The Valois kings felt encircled by hapsburg power.
2. The Hapsburgs thought that the French king stood in the way of their dream of a united Christendom of Europe.
3. Each state struggled to maintain the balance of power.
Who designed catapults, giant crossbows, and cannon because of his keen understanding of how weaponry could transform warfare?
Leonardo da Vinci
Upon Charles V's abdication, what happened to his vast holdings?
They were divided between his brother and his son.
What artist included philosophy, poetry, theology, and law in his plan for the four walls of the Stanza della Segnatura in the papal chambers?
What was a socioeconomic development of this period?
The establishment of slavery in the European New World colonies.
What introduced new agricultural products into Europe?
The interaction between Europe and the New World in the sixteenth century.
What artist created the Tempietto to mark the site of the martyrdom of St. Peter?
Donato Bramante
What can the High Renaissance be described as?
Lasting only a few decades and centered in Rome.
How was the mannerist viewpoint anti-classical?
In its support for an art of odd perspectives and distortions.
Who were expert violin makers?
Amati, Stradivari, Guarneri
In the arts, the period between 1494 and 1564 was pre-eminently an age of what?
What is the subject of Castiglione's Book of the Courtier?
Civilized behavior
What did Castiglione's model courtier have to be?
Was to be educated in the humanities.
How was Castiglione's model lady described?
As a charming hostess.
What did Castiglione argue concerning social relations?
Men and women should be ruled by Platonic love.
Castiglione's Courtier can be seen as a somewhat modern work by what?
He encouraged the education of women.
What does "Machiavellianism" mean?
"The end justifies any means."
What did Machiavelli's Prince reflect?
The authors anguish at Italy's domination by foreigners.
What was Machiavelli's political advice to rulers?
Was to practice conscious duplicity in all matters.
What was a classical value that was evident in High Renaissance painting?
Harmonious colors
How did Leonardo da Vinci establish new ways to paint portraits in his Mona Lisa?
He painted a half-length, not full-length view of his subject.
What was NOT a classical aspect of Leonardo's Last Supper?
The adherence to tradition in placing the scene in a refectory.
Under whom did Michelangelo serve an apprenticeship immediately prior to being taken into the household of Lorenzo de Medici?
Raphael demonstrates a mastery of well-ordered space in what painting?
School of Athens
What was Venetian art famous for?
The tradition of sensual surfaces.
In Giorgione's painting The Tempest, the artist does what?
Makes the landscape the real subject of the work.
Parmigianino's Madonna of the Long Neck is mannerist in its what?
Distorted figures.
What is the subject of a "Pieta" scene?
The Virgin Mary and the dead Christ.
What are the classical ideas manifested in Michelangelo's David?
1. Graceful contrapposto
2. Heroic nudity
3. Athletic, muscular body
Who was the founder of the High Renaissance architecture?
What were the classical ideas visible in Bramante's Tempietto, or Little Temple?
1. Ornamentation is restricted to a few architectural details.
2. Its proportions are computed using ancient mathematical formulas.
3. It functions like a work of sculpture, being placed on a pedestal with steps.
What was Michelangelo's outstanding architectural monument?
The dome of St. Peter's basilica in Rome.
What unifying agent was used by Michelangelo to give a harmonious appearance to the exterior of St. Peter's basilica?
Double Corinthian columns.
What is the basic plan of the Villa Rotonda?
Our identical wings surrounding a domed central area.
Who designed the Villa Capra, or Villa Rotonda?
Which national school dominated High Renaissance music?
the Franco-Netherlandish
What musical innovation occurred in the High Renaissance?
The invention of families of instruments, called consorts.
What was the dominant composer in this period?
des Prez
Why was the High Renaissance called the "golden age of the West"?
Because standards were set in the arts that have never been surpassed.
What were the three unified and stabilized nations in western Europe to emerge as great powers in the first half of the sixteenth century?
Spain, France, and England
High Renaissance literature was based on a rejection of the classical virtue of humanities. (True or False)
The Arabic "rebec" and the medieval fiddle were early forms of the clarinet. (True or False)
What is an balustrade?
An architectural feature that includes a rail with supporting posts.
England was a major contributor to the arts during the High Renaissance. (True or False)