Upgrade to remove ads
PSY 123 12, 13 ,14
Terms in this set (61)
◦ Psychedelic Plants and fungi
◦ More than 4000 plants have psychedelic properties
◦ Hundreds of primitive tribes have used psychedelics for thousands of years
◦ Hallucinogens usually act as stimulants and occasionally depressants, but mostly psychedelics
-Creates illusions, delusions and hallucinations
Hallucinogens Effects are dependent on
◦ Amount ingested
◦ Experience with the drug
◦ Basic emotional makeup of user
◦ Mood and mental state at the time of use
◦ Preexisting mental illnesses
◦ Surroundings in which the drug is taken
Hallucinogens Physical and mental effects
◦ Stimulate the sympathic nervous system
-Causing rise in blood pressure and pulse rate
-Can trigger sweating, palpitations or nausea
◦ Interferes with dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, anandamine, alpha psychoism, and especially serotonin
◦ Stimulation of brain stem causes overload on sensory pathways making user acutely aware of all sensation
◦ Disruption of visual and audio centers can confuse perception
Hallucinogens Illusions, delusions and hallucinations
◦ Illusions: mistaken perception of an external stimulus
◦ Delusions; mistaken idea that is not swayed by reason or other powerful evidence
◦ Hallucination: sensory experience that does not come from external stimuli
Mixing of senses such as sounds appear as visions
an illusory separation of mind from body.
Psilocybin comes from mushrooms such as this Psilocybe cubensis
Hallucinogens and the 4 classes
-Hallucinogens: group of drugs that have the capacity to alter perceptual, cognitive, and emotional states
- Four classes of hallucinogens: serotonergic hallucinogens, methylated amphetamines, anticholinergic hallucinogens, dissociative anesthetics
serotonergic hallucinogens: LSD and related compounds
-Serotonergic hallucinogens: include LSD, psilocybin, mescaline
-Psilocybin comes from mushrooms of the Psilocybe genus
-Mescaline come from the peyote cactus
-Early Indian peoples: used these drugs for
-The introduction of benzodiazepines, specifically diazepam (Valium) and chlordiazepoxide (Librium), in the early 1960s was a significant breakthrough in the development of antianxiety drugs.
-Most mushrooms containing psilocybin cause nausea
Psychedelic effects include
◦ Visceral (primal) sensations
◦ Changes in sight, taste, hearing and touch
◦ Altered states of consciousness
-Major danger is mistaking poisonous mushrooms for those containing psilocybin
LSDs hallucinogenic properties: discovered by the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann
Popularized by counterculture figures such as Timothy Leary and Ken Kesey
Indole Psychedelics- LSD
-Doses as low as 25 micrograms can cause mental changes
-Usual doses are 150-300 micrograms
-Effects appear 15 minutes to 1 hour after ingestion
- Lasts 6-8 hours
Mechanisms of Action of LSD
-LSD and the other drugs in this class: alter activity of brain systems mediated by the neurotransmitter serotonin
-Serotonin: widely dispersed throughout the brain, so LSD-like hallucinogens have varied effects
-Serotonin: essential to mood, so these drugs have powerful emotional effects
Pharmacokinetics of LSD-like drugs
-These drugs differ widely in potency, duration of action, and other pharmacokinetic variables.
-LSD is the most potent of the class, with oral doses as small as 25 micrograms producing effects.
- Psilocybin is about 1% as potent as LSD
Effects of serotonergic hallucinogens
-Physiological effects: pupil dilation, and increased heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, sweating
-Psychological effects: visual hallucinations, alterations of mood and thought, dreamlike visions
-Synesthesia: experience of sensing a sound stimulus as a visual one
LSD (Tolerance/physical effects)
-Tolerance develops rapidly to psychedelic effects
-Lost rapidly after cessation, usually a few days
-Withdrawal is usually more mental and emotional
◦ Rise in heart rate and blood pressure
◦ Higher body temperature
◦ Dilated pupils
◦ User sees light trails
Indole psychedelics - LSD
◦ Overloads brainstem causing sensory distortions (seeing
sounds, feeling smells, or hearing colors
◦ Altered mood
◦ Impaired concentration
◦ Greatest dangers is loss of judgement & impaired reasoning
Indole psychedelics - LSD
Bad Trips (acute anxiety reactions)
◦ Affects the emotional center of the brain
◦ Subject to extremes of euphoria and panic ---Not as common as once believed or dramatized
Adverse effects of serotonergic Hallucinogens
-Adverse effects: acute psychotic reactions (bad trips), flashbacks, long-term psychological deficits
-Bad trips: acute panic or paranoid reactions to the drug
- Bad trips: can cause an acute psychotic state during which users may harm themselves or others
Facts and Fiction about LSD
-LSD does not produce psychological or physical dependence and has only a slight chance of inducing a panic or psychotic state (providing that there is a supportive setting for the taking of LSD).
-Flashback experiences, however, are potential hazards.
-LSD has not been shown to elevate one's level of creativity
-Methylated amphetamines: include drugs such as MDA and MDMA (Ecstasy)
-MDMA: rapid increase in popularity in the late 1990s
-These drugs produce many other effects similar to LSD, but generally do not produce visual hallucinations
Effects of Methylated Amphetamines
-Usually taken orally but can be injected or absorbed intranasally
-Absorbed rapidly; duration of action is about six to eight hours
-Psychological effects: euphoria, increased emotional warmth and empathy, lowered defensiveness, increases in verbal behavior
Emotional Side Effects
-Feelings of hapiness
-Altered perceptions without depersonalization
-Nonsexual empathy for others
-First few hours ecstasy forces nerve cells to release their reservoirs of serotonin into the synaptic gap, depleting vesicles in 3hours
-Takes up to a week or more to produce a sufficient amount of serotonin
-Excessive stimulation cause serotonin receptors to retreat causing severe depression and suicidal ideation
-High-dose can result in acute anxiety
-MDMA: toxic reactions and death
-Toxic reactions: dehydration, heatstroke, heat exhaustion, muscle breakdown, kidney failure, stroke, seizures, heart attack
Residual effects of MDMA
-Research about long-term effects are inconclusive; tablet doses vary widely
-MDMA and related drugs pose risks of acute toxic effects and possible deficits in neuropsychological functioning, particularly among heavy users
-Anticholinergic hallucinogens: include atropine and scopolamine, chemicals found in plants such as the deadly nightshade, mandrake, jimsonweed, henbane
-These drugs: produce semi-sleep state characterized by vivid visions and poor memory of the experience later
Dissociative Anesthetic Hallucinogens
-Phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine are classified as dissociative anesthetic hallucinogens
-Moderate doses: produce a potent intoxication
-Higher doses: complete surgical anesthesia
Effects of PCP and Ketamine
-Moderate doses: feelings of euphoria , numbness , slurred speech, motor discoordination, catatonia, rigid with blank stare or aggressive and hyperactive
-Effects include: profuse sweating, increased heart rate and blood pressure, rapid jerky eye movements (nystagmus)
- Overdoses (more than 20 mg): may result in seizures, prolonged coma, and sometimes death from respiratory failure
-Dissociative general anesthetic used in human and veterinary medical procedures
-Very similar to PCP
-Shares the same receptor site as PCP, although both have
different duration of action
-Ketamine is shorter than PCP
-Can be crystalized by microwave from medical and dental supplies then smoked in cocaine freebase pipe or ground and snorted
-Full psychedelic experience includes:
◦ Out-of-body or near-death experience with depersonalization
◦ Bizarre or mystical experiences
Ketamine Toxic Side effects Include
Toxic Side Effects include
◦ Respiratory depression
◦ Increased heart rate and blood presure
◦ Belligerent Behavior
◦ Major effects lasts one hour or less
◦ Classified as a Schedule III drug
PCP "Angel Dust," "Peep," "KJ" "Shermans" "Ozone"
-Originally produced as an anesthetic for humans
-Only supplies now are illegal ones
-Can be snorted, swallowed, smoked or injected
-Acts like ketamine, only lasts longer
-Low dose last 1-2 hours
-Moderate dose 4-6 hours
-High dose last up to 48 hours
-High frequency of bad trips as well as blackouts
Salvinorin A (Salvia)
-Salvinorin A: hallucinogenic chemical found in a species of plant in the sage family (Salvia divinorum)
-Often called diviner's sage
-Only hallucinogen that acts on kappa
receptors in the brain
-Generally smoked; cause short, intense trancelike states
Purpose of Psychotherapeutic Medication
-Psychotherapeutic medications: prescribed in hopes of providing some relief for people with mental illness, and ideally the opportunity to function better in their environments
The Pre-Chlorpromazine Era
-Early efforts to deal with mental illness included many cruel speculative approaches: bloodletting, hot irons, flogging, starvation
-Mid-1800s: cannabis was studied as a treatment for depression and mania
-First half of 1900s: amphetamines treated depression; carbon dioxide treated
The age of Chlorpromazine
-1950: the greatest advance in psychopharmacology: the drug chlorpromazine as an antipsychotic medication
-Followed by new drugs: antianxiety medications (including meprobamate, a muscle relaxant); antidepressant medications (including the cyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors)
-About one-quarter of the U.S. population: experience some form of mental disorder in any given year
-Most common: symptoms associated with
-anxiety, depression, alcohol abuse
-Psychotherapeutic drug use: more likely among women, older people, people living alone, the more educated,those with higher incomes
Classes of Drugs
-Most common way of classifying psychotherapeutic drugs: by therapeutic use
-Four major categories: antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety agents, mood- stabilizing drugs
-Antipsychotic medications, (aka neuroleptics or major tranquilizers): used used to treat schizophrenia ,mania, agitated depression, toxic psychoses, emotionally unstable personalities, psychoses associated with old age.
-Primarily affect the reticular activating system, the limbic system, the hypothalamus
-Depression: one of the most common psychiatric disorders in the United States.
-Often classified as endogenous (chronic and genetic) or exogenous (situational)
-Two major classes—cyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)—of antidepressant medications now are prescribed.
Common symptoms of depression are dysphoric mood, loss of interest, sleep disturbance, withdrawal, and difficulties in concentration
-Barbiturates: led to use of depressants as sleeping pills and treatment for anxiety
-Use of barbiturates: limited when adverse effects were discovered - rapid development of tolerance, severe withdrawal symptoms, high risk of overdose, high abuse potential
-Introduced in 1903 and in use until approximately the 1960s, the primary sedative-hypnotics (drugs that produce sedation and sleep) belong to the barbiturate family of drugs.
- Barbiturates are typically classified in terms of how long their depressant effects are felt, from long-acting (example: phenobarbital) to intermediate-acting (examples: butalbarbital and amobarbital) to short-acting (examples: pentobarbital and secobarbital).
-At very low doses, the primary result of oral administrations is relaxation and a sense of euphoria.
-As the dose level increases, lower regions of the brain concerned with general arousal become affected, resulting in sedation and drowsiness.
-At higher doses, a hypnotic (sleep-inducing) effect is achieved.
- A major disadvantage of barbiturates is the potential of a lethal overdose, particularly when the barbiturate is combined with other depressants such as alcohol. (synergistic effect)
-The use of barbiturates for sleep can lead to dependence.
-May increase anxiety during the day, thereby increasing insomnia.
-May result in grogginess the next morning.
-Builds up a pharmacological tolerance, resulting in increased dosing for an equivalent effect, but increasing the risk of overdose.
-Barbiturate withdrawal symptoms are very severe and require careful medical attention.
-Withdrawal resembles chronic alcohol abuse.
-Without medical supervision, abrupt withdrawal carries a 5 percent chance of death.
-Methaqualone (Quaalude) was introduced in the 1960s as an alternative to barbiturates for sedation and sleep.
-Unfortunately, this drug produced undesirable side effects and became subject to widespread abuse.
-It is no longer available as a licit drug
The development of anti-anxiety drugs
-Beginning in the 1950s, a major effort was made by the pharmaceutical industry to develop a drug that would relieve anxiety (tranquilize) rather than merely depress the CNS (sedate).
-Formerly known as minor tranquilizers.
Other prescription and over the counter drugs
-Discovery of benzodiazepines: revolutionized medical use of depressant drugs; relieve anxiety with fewer side effects than previous depressants
-Benzodiazepines and other depressant drugs: act at the GABA receptor site in the central nervous system
-Effects of benzodiazepines: more selective than those of other depressants; because they relieve anxiety at doses that produce minimal sedation and motor impairment
-May produce tolerance and dependence; withdrawal symptoms may occur
-When they are taken in combination with alcohol, however, dangerous synergistic effects are observed.
-Benzodiazepines produce their effects by binding to receptors in the brain that are sensitive to the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Social Problems with benzodiazepines
-Social problems related to benzodiazepine drugs during the 1970s centered on the widespread misuse of the drug.
-Prescriptions were written too frequently and for excessive dosages.
-Lithium: major drug used to treat the mood disorders of mania and manic- depressive illness
-Lithium: only psychotherapeutic
-drug that is an effective prophylaxis
against disease recurrence
-Enhances reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine; decreases dopamine and norepinephrine receptors
Psychotherapeutic Drugs and Pregnancy
-Decision to use psychotherapeutic medications during pregnancy: difficult, involves risk to mother and fetus
-Certain anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antipsychotic medications have relatively lower risk profiles
-Anabolic steroids: synthetic versions of the male sex hormone testosterone; promote the development of muscle mass, enhance athletic performance
-Side effects: masculinizing effects in women, liver damage, acne, hair loss, emotional disturbance
Over the counter drugs
-Over-the-Counter Drugs: considered safe enough to dispense without a prescription
-1962 Kefauver-Harris Amendment: charged the FDA with regulating and reviewing OTC drugs
-OTC drugs: must be generally safe, generally effective
- Over-the-counter drugs are considered safe enough to dispense without prescription.
-Analgesic = pain relief without unconsciousness
-three major analgesic drugs available without
prescription: aspirin, acetaminophen, Ibuprofen
-Aspirin: relieves pain, reduces fever, anti-inflammatory. Side effects: stomach irritation, bleeding
-Acetaminophen: reduces fever without stomach irritation, but no anti-inflammatory effect
Ibuprofen: similar to aspirin, but without stomach irritation. In high doses, can cause liver and kidney damage
Cold and Allergy Medications
-OTC cold and allergy medications: contain aspirin, acetaminophen, and pseudoephedrine
- Pseudoephedrine: can be used to produce meth, so cold medicines are kept behind the counter at the pharmacy
-Dextromethorphan: found in some cough medicines; at high doses, can cause psychosis; has become drug of abuse
Over the counter stimulants and sedatives
-Caffeine: main ingredient in OTC stimulants
-Antihistamine: main ingredient in nonprescription sleeping pills
-Side effects associated with antihistamines: dry mouth, dizziness, nausea
-GHB: naturally occurring neurotransmitter with properties of a depressant drug
-Began as a supplement, but now tightly regulated due to abuse problems
-Can cause unconsciousness and coma; used as a "date rape" drug
-Inhalants: large group of volatile compounds; can alter consciousness when taken into the lungs
- Many inhalants are organic solvents that can damage the brain
-Among the most widely abused drugs, particularly among the young
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
ATP and Reactions Coupling
Chapter 14 and 15 AP BIO notes
AP Biology- Cohesion, Adhesion, Surface Tension, a…
Microbiology Unit One
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
UPPERS, DOWNERS, ALL AROUNDERS (PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS)
Drivers Ed Chapter 23
Drivers-Ed Chapter 23
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Intro to school counseling Final
Midterm Individual counseling
Intro to school counseling (midterm)
Educational Psy. Final
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Quiz 2/Test Review
cell bio exam 3
final exam assignment- global warming the future