41 terms

Unit 1 Vocabulary

This vocabulary is essential to know in this unit of study. Please master your vocabulary to ensure your success on the test!
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Virginia Company
A joint-stock company (a company owned by a group of investors) sponsored the colony of Jamestown hoping to make money off of the products and raw materials it produced.
John Rolfe
Responsible for saving the Jamestown settlement by discovering a new crop - tobacco which proved very profitable for growers and produced large revenues for the British government, and created a class of wealthy, large land owners in Virginia.
House of Burgesses
Created in 1619 in Virginia, it was the colonies' first elected legislative body. They were selected directly by the people and, along with the governor and his appointed council, comprised the government. This helped to lay a foundation for the ideas about representative government.
Bacon's Rebellion
Occurred in 1676 and led by a Virginia planter and wealthy aristocrat, Nathaniel Bacon. He rallied forces to fight Native Americans on the Virginia frontier and was condemned by the colony's governor. He then turned his army of small land owners, discontented servants, and even a few African slaves on Jamestown which caused the governor to flee.
Pilgrims
A group of Puritans who in 1620, established a colony at Plymouth, Massachusetts. They celebrated their first Thanksgiving in 1621.
Puritas
Members of a group that wanted to eliminate all traces of Roman Catholic ritual and traditions in the Church of England.
Roger Williams
Puritan who dissented (disagreed) with the teachings of the Puritan church. He was banished from Massachusetts along with Anne Hutchinson and they both played key roles in the founding of Rhode Island as a new colony.
Salem Witch Trials
Occurred in 1692 in Massachusetts where several young girls were accused by various townspeople of being witches. A number were brought to trial and condemned to death in a commitment to protect the Puritan faith.
New Amsterdam/New York
Originally settled by the Dutch (Europeans from the Netherlands in 1625 settled as a key trading post at the mouth of the Hudson River. In 1664, the area was surrendered to the British headed by the Duke of York.
William Penn
Settled Pennsylvania - a proprietary colony. Became a homeland for Quakers - a religious group. Made Pennsylvania a place of religious tolerance and attracting many groups. Part of the middle colonies.
Samuel de Champlain
Settled France's first successful colony in North America at Quebec in 1608.
Mercantilism
An economic system in which nations seek to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by establishing a favorable balance of trade.
Triangular Trade Route
The transatlantic system of trade in which goods and people, including slaves, were exchanged between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in North America
Slave Families
Helped to firmly establish the plantation system in Virginia and other southern colonies. It was an important part of the southern economy.
African American Culture
Developed into a tight-knit community over time, adopting the English language. Also adopted aspect of American Christian religion with a mixture of their own African religious traditions. The culture was also determined by the location of the slaves - north or south.
Benjamin Franklin
Great inventor, scientist, writer, ambassador, and founding father of the United States. He represents individualism and the sort of social mobility that was possible in colonial America. He quickly rose in status and prestige in Pennsylvania through his natural abilities, willingness to work hard, and creativity to climb the social ladder of colonial society.
Social Mobility
The ability to move from one social status to another. Very difficult in European society, but in the colonies it became possible due to abundance of land and opportunities.
Individualism
A belief in the ability of each individual to achieve success if they applied themselves and worked hard. Would lead to the idea of universal suffrage and democracy.
Great Awakening
A revival of religious feeling in the American colonies during the 1730's and 1750's.
Jonathan Edwards
Belonged to the First Great Awakening movement in the 1730's. Preacher who was passionate and believed that m any in the colonies had forsaken God for "dead religion" and called people back to "sincere Christian commitment.
The Proclamation of 1763/ Proclamation Line
Point in which Britain prohibited its American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains in 1763.
Stamp Act in Congress
A delegation of colonists who met to protest the Stamp Act where the British government had taxed nearly all printed material. The group protested the tax proclaiming, "No taxation without representation!" They proposed a boycott of British goods - not buying the items.
Non-importation
Failure or refusal to import goods. This was done by colonists to British goods as a result of high taxes and/or tariffs.
Boston Massacre
A clash between British soldiers and Boston colonists in 1770, in which five of the colonists were killed. One of which was Crispus Attucks, an African-American.
Boston Tea Party
The dumping of 18,000 pounds of tea into Boston Harbor by colonists in 1773 to protest the Tea Act.
Intolerable Acts
A series of laws enacted by Parliament in 1774 to punish Massachusetts colonists for the Boston Tea Party.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
These sprang up throughout the colonies to support and enforce the boycotts of the colonists. The Sons often used violence to intimidate and merchant or royal official who might otherwise use the stamps. The Daughters used their skills to weave fabric and other products that were usually bought from Britain.
Committees of Correspondence
One of the groups set up by American colonists to exchange information about British threats to their liberties.
Common Sense
A pamphlet by Thomas Paine, published in 1776, that called for separation of the colonies from Britain.
Tyranny
Arbitrary or unrestrained exercise of power. This was the view of the colonists of Great Britain rule over them.
John Locke
Influential figure of the Enlightenment period of Europe. He was from England and challenged the old view that monarchs possess a God-given right to rule with citizens obligated to obey. He believed that people were born with certain natural rights that no government could morally take away. These included life, liberty, and property. And he also advocated the Social Contract Theory and implied contract between government and the citizens.
Social Contract
Philosophy that there is an implied contract between government and citizens. Promoted by John Locke. Under this idea - citizens are born with freedom and rights but for the good of society, people agree to give up certain freedoms and empower governments to maintain order. Locke taught that citizens have the right to replace any government that fails to serve the public good.
Natural Rights
Taught by John Locke that these include life, liberty, and property.
Thomas Jefferson
Served as ambassador to France, Secretary of State under President Washington. He played an active role in the Continental Congresses (being credited with drafting the Declaration of Independence), Revolutionary War, and became the 3rd President of the United States.
Saratoga
Occurred in 1777 in the state of New York - British was defeated under leadership of Burgoyne. This convinced the French that the US could possibly win the war and forged an alliance that proved crucial in defeating Great Britain.
Alliance
An agreement between nations to help each other in the event of war. If one country in an alliance is attacked, then the other countries in the alliance agree to come to that nation's defense.
General George Washington
A Virginian and former surveyor who eventually became a soldier, wealthy landowner, and respected delegate to the Continental Congress. Because of his military experience, he was chosen to command the new army and would eventually be considered one of the greatest military leaders of all time. He would go on to become the first President of the United States.
Crossing of the Delaware
Led by General George Washington on December 25, 1776, troops would cross the river and surprise the Hessian troops in Trenton, New Jersey. This was the first surprise attack and very successful.
Valley Forge
Location in Pennsylvania where General Washington headquartered his troops for the winter of 1777-1778. They were poorly supplied and lacking warm clothes and many died. A Prussian named Baron Freidrich Von Steuben used this time to effectively train the army so that they were more determined and better prepared to meet the British in battle.
Yorktown
The last battle of the Revolutionary War. Located on the Virginia peninsula, British General Cornwallis surrendered to General George Washington.
Treaty of Paris 1783
The treaty that ended the Revolutionary War, confirming the independence of the United States and setting the boundaries of the new nation. Great Britain officially recognized the independence of the United States after more than two years of negotiations.