Terms in this set (...)

-State 1/4 properties of language?
-Explain why they contribute to the power of language
1. Arbitrariness: There is no specific relationship between form and meaning. The connection between form and what that form means cant be predicted without experience or knowledge of the code.
-Arbitrariness contributes to the power of language because it allows language to be more flexible & versatile. (the form doesn't have to resemble the content or meaning of a word)
-State 2/4 properties of language?
-Explain why they contribute to the power of language
2. Duality: 2 levels of structure that make up the language code: There are a fixed number of phonemes (elements) that can be combined to create an infinite number of morphemes (units).
-Duality contributes to the power of language because it allows the language code to be creative.
-State 3/4 properties of language?
-Explain why they contribute to the power of language
3. Discreteness: Allows a single phoneme to distinguish meaning.
-Discreteness contributes to the power of language because it greatly enhances efficiency & helps us to create specificity in the language code; allows us to manipulate meaning by changing one aspect of a phoneme. (Ex. cat vs. cap) ; Gives duality power.
(at the level of the elements, the principle of all or nothing functions over the principle of more or less. )
-State 4/4 properties of language?
-Explain why they contribute to the power of language
4. Productivity: allows us to construct or interpret signals to code whatever meaning comes along.(Ex. Android, i-Pad, i-Phone.) ; allows us to code the entire array of human existence (past, present and future) which most uniquely separates us from all other species.
-Productivity contributes to the power of language because it allows us to create new aspects of language. Productivity gives us originality.
Kohn details 5 reasons the phrase "Good Job" can be viewed as problematic. Describe 1/5 reasons we should stop saying "good job" to children in clinical settings.
MANIPULATING CHILDREN: saying this verbal reward to reinforce behavior takes advantage of the child's dependence. This is a form of sugarcoated control. We call this a reward but we are actually trying to get the child to do what we want them to do.
Kohn details 5 reasons the phrase "Good Job" can be viewed as problematic. Describe 2/5 reasons we should stop saying "good job" to children in clinical settings.
CREATING PRAISE JUNKIES: praise may increase a child's dependence on us; they are more likely to rely on our evaluations rather than learning from their own judgements, which reduces confidence. It leads them to measure their worth in terms of what other people think.
Kohn details 5 reasons the phrase "Good Job" can be viewed as problematic. Describe 3/5 reasons we should stop saying "good job" to children in clinical settings.
STEALING A CHILD'S PLEASURE: the child is not taking delight in their accomplishments and therefore do not feel pride. Every time we say the phrase we are telling the child what to feel. We want them to share pleasure, not look for a verdict.
Kohn details 5 reasons the phrase "Good Job" can be viewed as problematic. Describe 4/5 reasons we should stop saying "good job" to children in clinical settings.
LOSING INTEREST: the more we reward people for doing something, the more they tend to lose interest in whatever they had to do to get the reward. The child no longer wants to read or draw, they want the sticker or the phrase. (Ex. AR) The actions are not something valuable in their own right, but something they had to do to get that reaction (reward) again from an adult.
- They will become more focused on getting a reward instead of completing the activity for their benefit.
Kohn details 5 reasons the phrase "Good Job" can be viewed as problematic. Describe 5/5 reasons we should stop saying "good job" to children in clinical settings.
REDUCING ACHIEVEMENT: children who are praised for doing well at a creative task then stumble at the next task, are less likely to take risks.
- This will hinder the child in the future because they won't be as creative as they could be as individuals. They will be so dependent on the praise that they will question anything they do and will never believe in themselves. They will always need reaffirmation for someone.
Kohn also gave 3 possible responses to give when a child does something impressive.
- SAY NOTHING: People think that it is always necessary to say something to reinforce a child, but it is not always needed.
Kohn also gave 3 possible responses to give when a child does something impressive.
- SAY WHAT YOU SAW: A simple, evaluation-free statement. if you tell the child something you saw that means you noticed what they did, and they can still take pride in their accomplishment.
(Exs: "oh you tied your shoe!" or "wow that's a really big pink mountain you drew".)
Kohn also gave 3 possible responses to give when a child does something impressive.
- TALK LESS, ASK MORE: Even better than descriptions are questions. Questions show that you noticed what the child did and you are interested in it.
We discussed (4) ways in which social sciences differ from physical sciences:

1- SOCIAL SCIENCES ARE ___________: created and motivated by social agreement & social contact. (must agree that words being said mean the same thing)

2- SOCIAL SCIENCES ARE ___________: change due to conscious effort on parties involved; you can change who/how you associated
-they are context sensitive and will yield great variability. (This will happen over time which will also vary.)

3- SOCIAL SCIENCES ARE _________________: context impacts content; context plays a huge roll in how and what will happen.

4- SOCIAL SCIENCES ARE _______________: idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts; all of the different parts create a bigger effect:
-Language is more than syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. It is when all of these come together to form the bigger picture that is the most valuable concept.



Social sciences are similar to the physical sciences in that...
Human behavior can be directly studied
Hypothesis tests don't apply to human behavior because it's governed by ___________ & ___________
intentionality & rationality
(different motivating mechanisms)
_________ ________ is a social science; which stand out when they're so far from "the norm".
Communicative disorders
There is an underlying social contract, ____________ / ___________ of social interactions that draw from our experiences; Non-verbal and linguistic aspects, such as interactions and body posture.
(EX. There is a social contract that says when class is over
based off of previous experiences or context.)
systematicity / predictability
-social action is aquired _________ between people based on shared experiences formed between family members or people in the same village.
-social behavior patterns are acquired _______; so there are different ways systematicity manifests(differ from place to place).
-We interact in different ways as we experience different cultures--were influenced. We have to expect & account for this variability.
Ochs lists (3) narratives:
-Describe narrative lesson 3 and discuss how it applies to communicative disorders.
(3) Narratives of personal experience are organized in terms of human time, wherein the experienced present is tied to a remembered past, an anticipated future, and/or an imagined moment.

- Certain past experiences may vividly invade/effect our current consciousness. We incorporate our lived pasts and imagined / anticipated future experiences into our consciousness. This influences future thoughts and actions. Narratives often take the form of unfolding forward, moving events that are fueled by prior events and circumstances.

-- This applies to communicative disorders because humans always have meaning behind their actions & apply experienced knowledge to other situations; a person's past alters them, making them unique. As SLPs, we're interested in why people do what they do.
Ochs lists (3) narratives:
-Describe narrative lesson 4 and discuss how it applies to communicative disorders.
(4) The transformation of personal experience into a variety of narrative logics is one of the distinguishing accomplishments of the human species.
(forming these logic systems sets us apart from other animals)

- We have a drive to impose logic on our life experiences. (doesn't have to be accurate to be correct) Transforms narrative reason due to logic; Narratives ignore the facts, focused on past experiences. (not always appropriate logic, but is still functional)

-- This applies to cmcn disorders bc if we can look at the way someone organizes their world, then we can see their development.
Ochs lists (3) narratives:
-Describe narrative lesson 5 and discuss how it applies to communicative disorders.
(5) Narrating personal experience consists of two practices:

-(I) Narrators present one consisted logic of experience, including an unexpected/problematic event and a resolution.
--Narratives give us the ability to create logic.

-(II) Narrators question or dispute the meaning/ accuracy of a recounted logic of experience.
--Ability to change and reflect on our logic system.
James Bradley said that if you want to understand a complex system you have to understand implicit knowledge; How can you learn about things that cannot be directly observed? (6) things:
- Enter the situation

- Directly observe what you can

- Collect data so its authentic and enough to identify patterns of behavior

- Analyze data to understand pattern

- Create your best inference about the systematicity of the pattern

- Verify/test conclusions against reality
In doing fieldwork, ethnographers make cultural inferences from (3) sources:
- From what people say
- From the way people act
- From the artifacts people make & use
Describe Linda Pils' form of anecdotal data collection and describe 2 assessments:
An example of anecdotal observation in Pils' article would be the mailing label strips that she used to write down observations she made of the children as the day progressed. This provided her with a clear picture of the progress each child was making on a daily basis. Groups of anecdotes over time can reveal certain patterns.
Describe the process of completing an anecdotal observation. Explain why a clinician would choose to use this method of data collection:
An anecdotal observation is a type of open observation, which allow for greater flexibility & more descriptiveness. The clinician would advise the parent, teacher, or whoever is doing the observation to note when the child says or does something that stands out. They will write short notes of directly observed occurrences. A well-written anecdotal observation will provide the
reader with a clear picture of what exactly transpired. Clinicians can't see all of their clients every day; This method of observation allows for the clinician to still receive behaviors and monitor the child on a day-to-day basis. It is also a great
way to collect data from a number of individuals. By using anecdotal observations, the clinician is able to spot patterns of behavior that show achievement and also behaviors that need to be addressed.
How is Pils article similar to Ochs Narrative Lesson 3?
Children learn differently based on what they have learned previously
(20) General Principles of Effective Observations:
1. You have to assume and realize that behavior is systematic.
2. Human behavior is meaningful and goal oriented.
3. Human behaviors reflect internal intentions and beliefs.
4. Human behavior is very sensitive to contexts.
5. Human behavior is very dynamic and sensitive to change.
6. Human behavior is possible to interpret and understand through observation.
7. A well-trained observer is a sensitive instrument (pick up on the important things)
8. Must be vigilant (focused) when observing.
9. You must be informed in matters of methodology (how to observe) and knowledge of patterns and behaviors.
10. You have to be systematic in your approach (must use a strategy/procedure to guide you)
11. Must be flexible in your data collection efforts /interpretation.
12. Must observe with a purpose in mind.
13. must realize that description itself is not an end point; have to interpret as well.
14. Need to avoid inferences during the observation process; must record behaviors before inferences.
15. Must ensure that observations reflect reality and authenticity.
16. Collect enough data to recognize patterns in that data.
17. Must be accountable for your observations and interpretations (must be defendable).
18. Always remember that function (intentionality) has priority over form
in observations. (pragmatics over syntax)
19. Must be descriptive enough to accomplish your purpose.
20. Understand that observation is the foundation for everything we do in this field. (diagnosis
assessment & intervention)
Behaviors versus Inferences:

- Behaviors are the ______ that a person takes.

- Inferences are our __________ of what people do and why.

________ is our own construction of other people's constructions of what they and their compatriots are up to.
In 1954 Paul Mill wrote about statistical vs clinical significance. Explain the difference.
The informed human brain is the best analysis tool. Clinical work has far more significance than statistics can predict, we can account for things that statistics cannot.
The importance of conversation:

-Conversation is ________ (comes out of social action) in nature. It facilitates our entrance into ______

-Through conversations, we _____ our world & create _____________.

Conversations is a primary vehicle for (5) things:
o Problem solving
o Learning
o Obtaining group membership
o Fulfilling cultural roles
o Establishing FACE
Describe 2 ways conversation functions as a vehicle for development and socialization:
Language development and acquisition is gained through conversation; Conversation acts as our vehicle to mapping out our social action. It is socio-genetic in nature, as it facilitates our entrance into society, viewing language as a social action. Conversation is our vehicle for learning, problem solving, and obtaining group membership. Skills used to maintain relationships are grounded in conversation. We also fulfill cultural roles and establish FACE through conversation.
(6) Potential reactions that can occur with lousy conversation:
1- Fall into the negative social spiral
(Fall into isolation because of reduced opportunities for social interaction)

2- Social Misinterpretation during conversation

3- Individual & group Stereotyping
(Social stereotype-ESL viewed as less smart)

4- Miscommunication

5- Establishment / maintenance of Bias
(Individual dislikes- British accent sounds "smart" --country accent sounds "dumb")

6- Marginalization in community, workplace or school setting
(Become secluded bc they struggle--viewed as dumb/weird.)
________ : image of self, delineated in terms of approved social attributes. (How you see yourself in relation to other people)
What is face?

-Mechanism that allows what?

-When does it arise?

-How is it established/sustained?
The psychosocial image of self that one seeks to maintain. (public image)

- An explanatory mechanism that allows us to talk about things we merely do in social interactions.

- Arises out of interaction.

- Established and sustained through the interactions, reactions, and expectations we have.
Importance of interaction in the construction of face:

1- Face is heavily influenced by variables found only in __________.

2- Face is given by the ______ to the ______.

(The person talking is granted face by the person they're talking to)

3- Face is granted to others in the expectation of ...

4- The basic assumption is that any interaction is a ______ to our face.

5- Interactions either ______ or _______ our face

-speaker // hearer

-a fair return (mutualistic)

-threat (to confirm or reject our face)

-build // reduce
(2) structures of face that balance individual and social needs:

1) Positive face
2) Negative face

-Every interaction has BOTH; emphasizing one over the other.

--Face is concerned with the persistent need for balancing our needs for _________ and our desire for ___________.
(4) rights/desires of Positive face:
-Our desire for social interaction.

-Desire to have consistent self-image(personality claimed by interactant)

-Desire that our self-image be appreciated & approved by others.

-Desire to be socially accepted while maintaining our identity.
What threatens our positive face?
Anything that threatens how we want others to see us is a threat to our positive face
(3) rights/desires of Negative face:
-Our right for autonomy; freedom to act

--Our right to not be distracted

-Our efforts to make basic claims of territory
What threatens our negative face?
Anything that imposes our right to autonomy is a threat to our negative face
Face strategies vary from ...
Culture to culture (culturally defined)

(Ex. Navajo students: eye contact with teacher is disrespectful)
(6) clinical/pedagogical implications of face: (linking theory & actual practice)

1- Interactional relationships aren't always _____________.
(each individuals face is unique--there may be power differences Ex:teacher//student)

2- There are many different _________ on how face is sustained.
(Exs: Silence in apache culture/ performers in certain setting)

3- Face is important for individuals awareness of themselves as ________ communicators, ________, or members of a ________ ________.
(Face helps form our identity--ex: kids struggling to read have to feel like they can perform as a reader--SLPs have to create an expectation: that they are readers)

4- Teaching & intervention may be seen as a face-building process that can include _________ or ________ lost face. (our intervention is face-building & helping them have strategies in a social environment)

5- When there is uneven ________ distribution or if there are overriding interactional / educational objectives, the maintenance of face is sometimes less emphasized.

6- This can help you understand why some prescriptive intervention practices tend to not work effectively and others do. (Ex: ABA therapy)


-capable // learners // societal group

-restoring // rebuilding

What is face-work?
The actions taken by a person to make whatever they're doing consistent with their face.
-In essence, the mapping or meaning-making process is face-work.
(2) Important qualities of maintaining face:
1- poise

2- savior fare
Our ability to control emotions; Maintain psychosocial image.
Savior fare:
Our social adeptness; How to negotiate / "manipulate" social situations.
(2) types of face-work:
1) Avoidance process

2) Corrective process
Avoidance process:
Avoidance of interactions that threaten (or are inconsistent) with our maintenance of face
Corrective process:
Interactions we make to reestablish our face; engaging in a process of interaction to understand the misunderstanding.
___________________: How we use someone else's desire to maintain face and to achieve the maintenance of our positive and negative face.; Ways that we manipulate the interaction / peoples feelings & usual actions.
Aggressive (face-work) use of face
____________________: Social agreement; "Lack of effort on the part of one person includes compensative efforts from others-contribution by one person relieves others of the task".
Cooperation of face-work
There are _______ behind what people do.

(Fair exchange of granting face: "Im going to act a certain way toward you under the assumption that you're going to act in a certain way towards me")
________ result in a breakdown of face essentially.
In Speech Language Pathology, part of our job is to help clients learn to better manage face.
-What does this mean?
As an SLP, we would teach the client ways to manage face using certain strategies. First, we would explain the effects of positive & negative faces. Positive face is the desire for social interaction and negative face is the desire for autonomy. Then introduce avoidance processes, corrective processes and aggressive uses in order to manage face in a variety of situations. Introducing savoir- faire is a balancing act of maintaining poise. Being able to recognize another's face in order to save or grant their own, is another important factor.
___________________: Data collection technique to obtain information of cultural relevance; Takes the perspective of the individual rather than the interviewers perspective of the clients situation; point is to help you find out what the concerns are so you can plan your diagnostic
Ethnographic interviewing
(4) Aspects of ethnographic interviewing that are important to determine:
-After getting a referral to do an evaluation.....
-Determine what kind of data to evaluate.

-Try to gain an understanding of their perspectives; What will impact the person's life/ people around them)

-Goals & priorities of the individual need to be determined.

-Find out what's been tried, how & with whom they prefer to interact, how they cope, adapt, and what questions they want answered.
(Data collected from the people most concerned with the client is important)

--The info collected in interviewing is a tool for assessment.
When doing ethnographic interviews -- we have to create an ________ ________, as well as, account for and expect __________ / __________ / _________.
- We have to convey ________ & acceptance of the world in terms of ....
-empowering environment

-diversity // variability // uniqueness

-the individual
Ethnographic interviewing is a data collection tool that helps reduce _________ ______ in assessment & intervention.

-It is used to understand the _________ of social action.
-potential bias

Describe 2 differences between the types of questions asked in traditional interviewing and ethnographic interviewing. Provide 2 examples of possible questions you would ask if conducting an ethnographic interview illustrating the differences you identified.
Ethnographic interviewing utilizes open-ended questions, while traditional interviewing does not. A traditional interview has a script of questions. In ethnographic interviewing, the interviewer acts as more of a listener that focuses further questions on
what the interviewee discloses. For example, I would begin with a grand tour question, such as, "Tell me about a typical day with your child." From there, I may make the question more specific with a mini tour question, such as "Tell me about doing
homework with (said child)."
As a P.O. we have to:
o Account for _______ & collect info for support
o Help equalize the __________
o Provide the means to understand the _______ of the family and their ________
o Reduce potential _______ that we have as an assessor
o Collect data that is ______
-power differential
-culture // strengths
When should EI be conducted?
They should be conducted for every new client.
Ethnographic interviews are designed to allow us to determine....
-What is important to the family & how the person's difficulties impact those close to them.

-Since ethnographic interviews reduce the power differential, interviewees are more actively involved in the interview.
-They also collect information necessary for generating appropriate support and pedagogical practice.
E.I. is implemented through (3) general strategies:
1- Developing Rapport: a sense of trust between the parents and the interviewer;
--make repeated explanations for the interview
--restate what the informants say
--ask for use, not meaning.

2- Ask Descriptive Questions: Used to encourage individuals to talk about social situations in their lives. By doing so, the interviewer
--learns what the family considers important
--how they perceive their world.

3- Focus on Wording of Questions:
-use open-ended questions rather than close-ended questions
-use presupposition questions effectively
-ask one question at a time,
-make use of prefatory statements
-maintain control of interview.
In traditional interviews the questions are _______________, whereas in ethnographic interviews they will ask ___________ questions in the hopes of discovering questions during the process. Traditional interviews have __________ responses because the objective is a predetermined range of responses and they are only interested in.... Ethnographic interviews' objective is to .... and they are interested in what the
person has to say. Traditional interviews exhibit an aura of ____________ because they are searching to find something in particular about the person.
Ethnographic interviews exhibit an aura of ______________ because they are interested in anything the client chooses to share or talk about.
-answers to questions
-keep the informant talking
-interested conversation
(2) examples of
possible questions you can ask if conducting an ethnographic interview:
1) "Tell me what's been going on with Mary"

2) "Can you give me an
example of how Mary acts when she is 'acting out'"
(5) Types of descriptive questions & give examples of each:

1. _______________: intended to encourage an individual to talk about broad experiences.

2. ______________: asks the person to describe and focus on a specific activity or event.

3. _______________: take an idea or experience and ask for an example.

4. _______________: ask about experiences in a particular setting.

5. ________________: Use terms the informant uses;useful for understanding how people are using words.
1- Grand Tour Questions:
--EX. "Tell me about a typical day with..."

2- Mini-Tour Questions:
--EX. "Tell me about working on homework with..."

3- Example Questions:
--EX. "Give me an example of what Jose does when he is 'active.'"

4-Experience Questions:
--EX. "Tell me about your experience with your physical therapist."

5-Native-Language Questions:
--EX. Informant: "He went to his maw maw and paw paw's house" Interviewer: "How long was he at maw maw and paw paws?
List & describe Basso's (5) functions of silence:

(Relates to Kohn article bc theres complexity in something simple; like silence (or saying good job)
1- MEETING STRANGERS: strangers are separated by social distance and it is considered correct that you're silent when you meet someone for the first time. They do not feel compelled to draw attention to themselves at first. It is assumed that eventually the strangers will speak.

2- COURTING: during initial stages young men and women go without speaking for lengths of time. Silence is viewed as pure and innocent. They say their silence is because of shyness or self consciousness since they don't know each other. It takes a couple of months before the couple has lengthy conversations.

3- CHILDREN COMING HOME: the most common type of reunion is a child coming home from boarding school. Usually the parents and the child will go without speaking up for 15 minutes. The child is usually the one to break the silence; the parents remain silent to see which ways the child has changed. It is considered inappropriate to directly interrogate a child after his arrival home.

4- GETTING CUSSED OUT: when people get cussed out, refrain from speech. They do this because they believe that the enraged person is irrational or crazy, therefore, forgetting who they are. They do not want to enrage the person more than they already are so they remain silent.

5- BEING WITH PEOPLE WHO ARE SAD: Whether encountering a sad person was intended or not, they remain silent. Sad people are usually burdened with intense grief that speaking requires an unusual amount of physical effort. Conversation is unnecessary because everyone already knows what happened. Being in grief can change a person and they can become unstable.
______________________: A descriptive tool that describes authentic behaviors; Used in determining whether a person is good or lousy at conversation, and if they're lousy, why.
-Helps the clinician determine where they have the communication breakdowns.
-Cannot tell you if a person is disordered; We're looking to see if they are effective, efficient, & appropriate in their meaning-making or functioning.
-Used in discovering patterns of problematic behaviors.
Clinical Discourse Analysis (CDA)
Grice's (4) maxims of conversation:

1. Maxim of __________: involves the amount of information that is provided during the interaction. The speaker should be as concise as possible to achieve the purpose of the interaction (say no more/no less than required)
EX. _______________: Speaker: "Where do you live?" Response: "Turn right there where we play baseball and my house is down a little bit" (Can't infer without background knowledge)

2. Maxim of ________: concerned with the truth-value of a contribution. As far as possible, each contribution must be believed to be true & based on adequate evidence. (Do not say what you believe to be false and do not say anything for which you lack adequate evidence.)
EX: ________________: An attempted communication that involves the relating of inaccurate info

3. Maxim of _________: usually called "relevance." The contribution should be appropriate to the immediate needs of the conversation at each stage of the interaction. We create our next statement off of the previous statement in the conversation, which keeps the conversation active.
EX: __________________: Speaker makes rapid & inappropriate changes in topic without providing transitional cues to the listener.

4. Maxim of ________: category concerns not what you say but how you say it. Avoid obscurity of expression, avoid ambiguity, and be brief & orderly.
EX: __________________: The speakers production is disrupted by repetitions, unusual pauses, & hesitation phenomena. " came to dinner". (The frequency of occurrence is the key to difficulty)
1- Quantity
Ex: Failure to provide significant info to listener (FSI)

2- Quality
Ex: Message Inaccuracy (MI)

Ex: Poor topic maintenance (PTM)

Ex: Linguistic Non-fluency (LNF)
_________________________: Refers to all means of human communication other than language
Non-verbal communication

i) Are not _______
ii) Usually ________ and conventional within social context
iii) Not always paired with ___________
iv) Gestures like waving are non-defined and spontaneous; support verbal messages
d) We pick up on this from _____ and become like the people in our _______
-birth // culture
2. Proxemics:

- The way people ______ & _______ physical distance.

- Certain distances are __________ for certain situations within a culture
-use & interpret

3. Haptics:

- Actual ______ ________

- Includes both ________ & _________ touching

-- Intentional haptics - Examples:

-Touching can be inappropriate/appropriate depending on _________

-Touch is a .....

- People are ________ by touch even when we aren't consciously aware.

- Without touch/contact, there can be ______________
-body contact

-intentional & unintentional

--shaking hands, high-five, hugging, etc.


-bonding gesture


-failure to thrive
4. Body Posture/Orientation:

- Features of __________ and __________ in posture seem to convey the most meaning.

- Aspects of body posture/orientation:
i. Postural ___________ - Can predict an activity/tell the dynamic by looking at this; there's an expectation involved. (i.e. turning one's back, facing each other; Seen with autism- individuals tend to turn away which creates issues)
--Can signal successful __________
-tenseness & relaxation

i. Orientation

5. Postural ___________ - interactants have the tendency to adopt similar body movements/postures.

-- Pick up on others
-- Kids do this as they develop (i.e. mimicking classmates by sitting in Indian style on the floor)
6. Postural _________ - head movements, eye blinking, hand
movements, eyebrow raise, etc. may be used to signal turn-taking or the end of an utterance
-Used strategically to enhance conversation (ex: raise eyebrows)

(Not directly taught because they depend on timing; we can, however, teach through modeling.)
7. Facial Expressions:

- Some are culturally ___________

- Some might convey _______ _______ which can be interpreted across cultures

- Can describe behaviors, but must be tied into ________.

-primary emotions

-context (Ex: Beyonce's super bowl face meme)
8. Gaze:

- Humans are extremely _________ to eye gaze, especially mutual gaze. (Successful conversation requires joint attention)

- Can serve as an _______ _______, can establish a channel of communication.

- Eye contact becomes more consistent when you want a
_______ _____.

-Different _______ call for different types of gaze.

--Problems with gaze can lead to conversational breakdowns

-attention getter

-conversational turn

9. Speech Rate/Volume: Two characteristics that are culturally determined

- Both are indicative of a person's __________ state

- Voice Quality & Pitch:

- Breathiness, creaky voice, (hyper)nasality

- ______ can carry an affective meaning

( Some languages are completely tonal )

- Pitch is strongly associated with ______ ______.


-gender roles
THE SOUND OF SILENCE - HALL AND HALL: Talking and listening are intertwined; we hear more than just words; we interpret body language--

(3) Ways eyes communicate:
- vs.
- vs.
- vs.
- Dominance vs. Submission
(When we're submissive we tend to not have much direct eye contact)

- Involvement vs. Detachment
(More eye contact when we're involved--will depend on the context)

- Positive vs. Negative Attitude
(3) levels of conscious eye control:
1- Eyes used consciously for flirting,winking, squinting.

2- Unconscious-learned behaviors like knowing when to look at someone and for how long.

3- Reflexive Movements like Pupillary reflexes; pupil constriction/dilation.
(4) Zones of Distance: (Distal -> proximal)

1- ______ Distance: farthest away; (25 ft. and beyond)
- Less likely to disclose sensitive information
- Less likely to view these types of interactions as confidential
---Ex. Teachers

2- ________ Distance: (4-7 ft. range)
-Lends itself to a formal tone
-We all adopt social distance when we're not as comfortable with people

3- __________ Distance:
-Arm's length away
- Use this when we feel comfortable with people

4- _________ Distance:
- Can feel tactile stimulation from skin
-smell the person
-hear their breathing

(These distance are culturally acquired).
- Some of our clients have trouble conceptualizing these distances
- We need to increase our client's awareness and appreciation of these zones of distance



A communication disorder can result from failure to appreciate these zones of distances--

As SLPs, we need to increase our clients __________ & __________ of these zones of distances
- awareness & appreciation
Based on the paper, "The Development of Self" by Hardcastle, describe the importance of emotional attachment in our development of self.
Emotional attachment is important in our development of self because it allows us to explore who we are, our likes and dislikes, through the formation of relationships with others around us. Children want to share everything with you because they are excited to tell you the things that define them. At the heart of any story about self is the expression of some emotional reaction of the person that they are telling. The author's son loved milk and told her all about milk all the time—this was him expressing to her about himself and who he was as a person.
What does SOCI stand for and what is it?
SOCI stands for Systematic Observation of Communicative Interaction; it is an online coding of observed behaviors of individuals 6 year or older; comments on the individual's success as a communicator in real situations.
o SOCI is a descriptive language assessment tool that analyzes conversational interaction in natural settings through a direct observational format.