Biology 1330 Final Review
Terms in this set (35)
Contrast mono-, di-, oligo-, and poly- saccharides.
For the organelles which are present in only eukaryotes or in both prokaryotes and ukaryotes?
Are biological membranes highly permeable, moderately permeable, or impermeable to the following molecules: small non-polar, small uncharged polar, large unchanged polar, and charged ions
Small non polar - highly permeable
Ions - non-permeable
Can DNA or RNA ac as catalysts?
Cells that contain a complete set of chromosomes from Q151 are said to be ____ whereas cells that only contain one set of chromosomes are said to be ______.
Chromosomes that code for the same traits are said to be ____ chromosomes.
homologous - same trait but difference in genes is Alleles
Contrast the starting of prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication
Prokaryotic - one origin (circular) of rep bubbles
Eukaryotic - many numerous origins (linear) of rep bubbles
Contrast tight, anchoring, and gap junctions.
Tight - provide tight seal
Anchor - provides selective adhesion & allow separation when necessary
Gap - provide opening in the membrane
Define adhesion and cohesion with respect to water.
Adhesion - adheres to the surfaces that have charged components
Cohesion - water stays together because of hydrogen bonding
Define endergonic, exergonic, endothermic, exothermic reactions. Which are spontaneous?
Exergonic - released energy/breakdown - spontaneous
Endergonic - requires input of energy/building
Endothermic - heat is absorbed
Exothermic - heat is released - spontaneous
Define hydrophobic and hydrophilic
Hydrophobic - does not mix with water - non polar
Hydrophilic - mixes with water - polar
Describe competitive inhibition of an enzyme.
Inhibitors that bind to an active site that regulates enzymes ny competing with substrates
Describe eukaryotic cells with regard to: DNA storage/organization, site of protein synthesis, membranes,
DNA stored in nucleus - linear
Ribosomes are site of protein synthesis
Have membrane bound organelles
Describe how DNA replication is semi-conservative.
The new strand consist of one old strand and one new strand
Describe how the structure of a cell is correlated with its function.
Physical shape determines function
Describe Mitchell's chemiosmotic hypo0thesis of ATP production.
The creation of ATP is NOT a direct link. Produces energy to produce energy to pump up H+ into the concentration gradient to drive the H+ through a channel (ATP Synthase) to create ATP
Describe prokaryotic cells with regard to DNA storage/organization, site of protein synthesis, membranes
Lack membrane bound organelles; DNA is in nucleoid region and is round. (Chromosomes) have ribosomes for protein synthesis
Describe the cell theory and the theory of natural selection identifying the components of scientific theory?
Cell: all organisms are made of cells (pattern); all cells are from pre-existing cells (process)
Natural selection: characteristics of populations change over time (pattern); natural selection (process)
Describe the excision repair system
Taken place while DNA polymerase II to take out to put into correct base. Come in and cut out damage part to have correct base parings in. Ligase comes into and does the job. For an AREA of damaged DNA
Describe the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure.
It is phospholipids and embedded proteins, membrane is dynamic and fluid like (everything moves)
Describe the following chromosomal alterations: deletion, duplication, and inversion.
Deletion: part of chromosomes. Ends up missing (shorter)
Duplication: one chromosome is shown up twice (longer)
Inversion: genetic content is flipped
Describe the following types of mutations and how they would affect a protein: silent, substitution, nonsense, frame shift.
Silent- no affect in final protein
Substitution - replaces - changes in sequence
Describe the primary, secondary and tertiary structure of a protein.
Primary - sequence of amino acids
Secondary - chain folds due to hydrogen bonding
Tertiary - folded to give 3D structure
Describe the terms "fluid" and "selectively permeable" with respect to membranes
Fluidity - dynamic/ always moving
Selective permeability - what can/cannot pass through the phospholipid bi layer
Describe what occurs during translation in 1 - initiation, 2 - elongation and 3 - termination
Initiation - mRNA binds to smallest unit, tRNA binds to AUG, large subunit binds.
Elongation - 2nd tRNA binds to A site, it moves down to P site and then moves down to E site where it leaves.
Termination - stop codon goes through and ribosomes disassembles
Do enzymes change the overall free energy change of a reaction?
No, it does not change free energy
Do homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis I or II?
Meiosis I (crossing over)
Sister chromitids separate in meiosis II
Does aerobic or anaerobic respiration generate more ATP per glucose molecule?
Aerobic - O2 is present
Draw a generalized amino acid with a "R" representing the side group. Label the amino and carboxyl groups.
Amino group - C -- carboxyl group and then R croup ( side group)
Draw a graph of the change in free energy of a reaction for both a spontaneous and non-spontaneous reaction.
Spontaneous: reactants are greater than the products
Non-spontaneous" reactants build to get to product
Draw a graph of the free energy of a reaction with an enzyme. Label the transition state and activation energy.
Draw a graph of the kinetics of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction (S axis - amount of substrate; y axis - rate of reaction). Why does it level off?
There is not enough enzymes to inherit the substrate as the reaction increase so it causes a leveling off
Draw and describe what occurs in the following mitotic stages: prophase, pro-metaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase. Know where the mitotic spindles first form, where they connect, where does the envelope disappear which stage?
Mitotic spindles - microtubules
Prophase - chromosomes condense and sister chromatids are visual, spindles form and centromere move to opposite ends
Pro-metaphase- nuclear envelope breaks down spindle fibers reach chromosomes and make contact with kinetochores
Metaphase - chromosomes one up in the middle, spindles move to opposite poles
Anaphase- spindles shorten and sister chromatids separate and pulled to opposite ends
Telo- spindles disappear, nuclear envelope reforms, chromosomes unwind
Draw and label the structures of a chloroplast including thylakoid and grana.
Space - stroma, double membrane: inner membrane produces thylakoids. (stacks=granums) within thylakoids chloraphyllic pigments are found
Draw the basic structure of a fat and label the glycerol and fatty acid tails.
Monomer *to add tails use condensation/dehydration reaction
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