37 terms

Unit 2 Vocabulary

This vocabulary is essential to know in this unit of study. Please master your vocabulary to ensure your success on the test!
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Articles of Confederation
A document adopted by the Second Continental
Congress in 1777 and finally approved by the states in
1781, that outlined the form of government of the new
United States.
Shays' Rebellion
An uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers
protesting increased state taxes in 1787 and lack of
payment to veterans of Revolutionary War.
Federalists
Supporters of the Constitution and of a strong national
government. Favored a "loose interpretation" allowing
the federal government to take certain actions not
specifically stated so long as those actions were
necessary to carry out the nation's responsibilities.
Alexander Hamilton
Strong supporter of the national government and a
member of the Federalist party along with James
Madison.
Anti-Federalists
An opponent of a strong central government. In favor
of strong state government. They believed in a "strict
interpretation" of the Constitution.
Thomas Jefferson
Wrote the Declaration of Independence and a strong
Anti-federalist.
James Madison
Known as the "Father of the Constitution" and a very
strong Federalist supporting a national government. A
Federalist.
The Great Compromise
The Constitutional Convention's agreement to
establish a two-house (bicameral) national legislature,
with all states having equal representation in one and
house and each state having representation based on
it population in the other house.
Separation of Powers
Divides authority to govern between different
branches of government.
Checks and Balances
The provisions in the U.S. Constitution that prevent
any branch of the U.S. government from dominating
the other two branches.
Three-Fifth Compromise
The Constitutional Convention's agreement to count three-fifths of a state's slaves as population for
purposes of representation and taxation.
Due Process
Government must obey the laws governing criminal
and civil proceedings before it can put someone in jail
or strip them of their property.
U.S. Constitution
A plan of government or the rules of a country. The
Constitution of United States created in 1787 in
Philadelphia with 55 delegates attending contains
three parts - a Preamble, 7 Articles, and 27
Amendments. Rhode Island was only state to NOT
attend the convention.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution,
added in 1791 and consisting of a formal list of
citizens' rights and freedoms.
George Washington
First President of the United States and was
unanimously elected by the Electoral College in 1789.
Served two terms. Inaugurated in New York City - 1st
capital. He chose the site for a new capital to be built
along the Potomac River. He chose trusted individuals
to serve in the presidential cabinet (a body of
department heads who serve as key advisors and/or
representative in specific areas). He chose these
people to overcome the challenges that he faced as
President. He issued the Proclamation of Neutrality
saying the United States would NOT take sides
between England and France. His farewell address in
1796 made three points (1) U.S. should stay neutral,
(2) good government is based on religion and
morality, and (3) against forming political parties.
Whiskey Rebellion
A tax protest of Pennsylvania farmers that prompted
President Washington to send troops to quell the
uprising, showing the power of the federal
government.
John Adams
Second President of the United States - he had
served as President Washington's Vice President. He
was a Federalist. He served one term losing to
Thomas Jefferson. The "XYZ Affair" occurred where
officials demanded a bribe to meet with the French
foreign minister - this created anti-French feelings in
US. The Navy Department was created under his
presidency and the "Alien and Sedition Acts" were
passed by Congress in 1798.
Northwest Ordinance
A law that established in 1787 a procedure for the admission of new states to the Union. Three steps to
become a state - Congress appointing territorial
governor and judges - have 5,000 voting residents to
create a temporary constitution - at 60,000 free
inhabitants, write a state constitution and approved by
Congress to gain statehood. The law divided the area
into smaller territories which resulted in five states:
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. It
made slavery illegal in the new territory.
War of 1812
After the continued impressments of US seamen
(taking them captive and forcing them to serve on
British ships), Congress declared war on Great Britain.
The British invaded and burned Washington DC. The
winning of the battle at Fort McHenry inspired the
military as well as inspiring Francis Scott Key to write
the "Star Spangled Banner". Andrew Jackson's battles
including Horseshoe Bend and New Orleans helped
the US to win. The Treaty of Ghent ended the war.
Louisiana Purchase
The 1803 purchase by the United Sates of France's
Louisiana Territory - extending from the Mississippi
River to the Rocky Mountains and explored by Lewis
and Clark. This purchase by President Thomas
Jefferson secured the trading on the Mississippi River
by obtaining New Orleans and doubled the size of the
United States. The price was $15 million.
Lewis and Clark
Appointed by President Jefferson to lead the
expedition to explore the newly acquired lands of the
Louisiana Purchase. The group left St. Louis in 1804
and returned in 1806. With the help of Sacajawea, a
native American, who served as a guide and
interpreter the mapped and explored and brought
back many animals and plants that had never been
seen before.
Industrial Revolution
The change in social and economic organization that
resulted from the replacement of hand tools with
machines and the development of large-scale
industrial production. Starting in Great Britain it quickly
spread throughout the western world and impacted
trade and economies around the globe.
Eli Whitney
Inventor of the cotton gin which allowed people to process harvested cotton much faster and became the
South's most profitable crop and the basis of the
South's economy. He is also known for his
introduction of the idea of interchangeable parts which
meant as a part broke it could be replaced without
throwing the whole tool away. This concept would
spread to other industries and became a key principle
behind industrial development.
Battle of New Orleans
General Andrew Jackson led troops to fight and lost
only a few soldiers while the British lost hundreds of
troops. This battle occurred in January after the
British surrender on Christmas Eve ending the War of
1812. The was Andrew Jackson's greatest victory.
Erie Canal
The 363-mile-long artificial waterway connecting the
Hudson River with Lake Erie, built between 1817 and
1825. This man-made waterway made travel faster
and easier. Because it connected New York City to
the Great Lakes, the canal made New York a
dominant commercial center by expanding its
markets. It also allowed people - families to travel
much cheaper and quicker.
Infrastructure
Provides the framework and connections for holding
something together. In the United States it referred to
the roads, rail lines, services and utilities, canals, etc.
Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky proposed what he
called the American System that would support the
improvement to the national economy and the
infrastructure.
Monroe Doctrine
A policy of U.S. opposition to any European
interference in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere,
announced by President Monroe in 1823.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Helped to organize the first women's rights
convention. Based her beliefs using the statements of
the Declaration of Independence. She was joined by
Susan B. Anthony. Both supported the temperance
and abolitionist movements.
Seneca Falls Convention
A women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls,
New York in 1848. This called for women's suffrage -
women having the right to vote. It drew attention to the
issue of women's rights. Nearly 300 hundred women
attended.
Manifest Destiny
The 19th-century belief that the United States would inevitably expand westward to the Pacific Ocean and
into Mexican territory. This played a very big role in
the independence movement of Texas in 1845 and
the Gadsden Purchase in 1853.
Oregon Trail
Route from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City,
Oregon, used by pioneers traveling to the Oregon
Territory. John C. Fremont was named by Congress to
lead the expedition of mapping the area in 1841.
Settlers had began using the route in 1836.
Mormons
Members of a church founded by Joseph Smith and
his associates in 1830. Moving west to escape
religious persecution, they settled what is modern day
Utah. They believed in polygamy - the practice of
having more than one wife. Smith was succeeded by
Brigham Young after Smith was murdered in 1844.
They settled on the banks of the Great Salt Lake.
Temperance
An organized effort to prevent the drinking of alcoholic
beverages. Much of the success of this movement
was due to the efforts of women and church leaders in
the US. Alcohol had flowed freely in America as the
main drink with meals. It would become a problem.
The first Temperance Society was created in 1826.
Abolition
Movement to end slavery. This movement gained
momentum especially in the North. Members were
mostly middle class, educated, church people from
New England as well as former slaves.
Public Education
Used as a tool to promote a sense of unity and
"national values" (i.e. individualism and patriotism). It
was a belief of many that the US must educate its
population in order to compete with other nations.
Many states included guaranteed public education in
their state constitutions. A key leader in the early
education movement was Noah Webster who
compiled the first US dictionary that included words
that were distinct to the United States and not
traditional British versions.
Jacksonian Democracy
The belief of Andrew Jackson of western expansion
and the rights of white, frontier settlers. He supported Manifest Destiny. He was considered a "common
man", not born into the rich, upper class, but worked
hard for his success. He won the presidency in 1828.
He favored "universal suffrage" - the belief that all
white men should be free to vote, not just those who
owned property. He would support the Indian Removal
Act which would lead to the Trail of Tears where the
Cherokee Indians were moved from the native
homeland to Oklahoma. Many would die along the
way.
Nationalism
A devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation.
The War of 1812 helped to produce a stronger sense
of national identity creating this by taking great pride in
their defeat of the British for a second time. They
learned to supply themselves with the products they
needed since they were not able buy or sell during the
war and as a result, US manufacturing and agriculture
improved and grew prosperous. At the end of the War
of 1812 they were established in domestic and
international trade. This idea of national pride and
political unity would carry over to the Monroe Doctrine.