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History Unit 3
Terms in this set (33)
Denied post for which qualified
Anger drives search for "ideal ruler"
Warring States Period
Survival is focus
Public Works decline
Susceptible to marauders
Heavy taxes are normal
Confucius (c. 551-479 BCE)/ Liu Bang (c. 256 [247?]-195 BCE)
Based on the 5 Relationships
Applied: Han China
Heaven expects people to behave well
remain loyal to family
respect and obey your parents
leaders should lead by example and inspire good behavior
ethics and morality were key principles
Laozi (B. 6th c. BCE?-D. 5th c. BCE?)
Daodejing, I Ching
Tao denotes something that is both the source of, and the force behind, everything that exists.
Based on individualism/ introspection
humans are part of nature, not better than it
world is a balance of opposites
The Way and Its Power
people should not try to gain wealth or seek power
Han Fei-tzu (c.233 BCE)/ Qin Shi Huangdi
people are born bad and need to be controlled
strict laws and punishments needed to maintain control in society
being united and efficient were key to this philosophy
everyone should be held responsible for each other's behaviors
Applied: Qin Dynasty
Only a political philosophy without any ties to religion
Great Wall, Standardization of weights/ measurements, Standardization of Axe/ road size, currency/ Language
Scared of Death
Multiple assassination attempts
Elixir of immoratlity
Terra Cotta Warriors
Discovered in 1974 by Farmer, Xi'an Province
8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots w/ 520 horses, 150 cavalry horses
8 molds/ assembly line. Unknown how they fired clay
Internal Challenges- ex: unhappy conquered people
Problems of succession-ex: struggle for power
Debt, often due to expansion
Revolt of oppressed classes- ex: taxes, harsh laws
Environmental Factors- Drought, disease, earthquakes
206 BCE-220 CE
Weakened Aristocracy- Shi
Social vs Economic status
Legalist ---> Confucian policies
Technology under Han
farmers sent to settle new areas
settlers encouraged to marry locals
established Confucian schools in colonized areas
Chinese became the common written language
Fall Of the Han
Legitimacy/ Strength of leadership
Cao Cao died in 220- The last Han emperor abdicated
"loses mandate of heaven"
Cao Pi becomes emperor- Why?
Era of the Six Dynasties
Follows collapse of Han Dynasty
Disunity and warfare within China
Growth of Buddhism within China
Ends when Emperor Wendi conquers them all and creates Sui Dynasty (589 CE)
Emperor Wendi reunifies core of China
lowers taxes and establishes granaries throughout, ensuring consistent supply of food
Wendi's successor, Yangdi
expands empire and upgrades Confucian education of scholars
Builds palaces and Grand Canal (using conscripted peasant labor)
Unsuccessful Korean campaigns
Overthrown in 618
Increased importance of Civil Service Examinations
(jinshi - passed the highest exams, became elite in society)
However, family connections = still really important
Increased emphasis on Confucian ideals
Buddhism - supported early on in Tang Dynasty, then crushed later (will never again be a dominant influence in China)
Fell in 907 due to military rebellion
Once they consolidated their power, they deliberately weakened their army so they wouldn't be overthrown by military coup
Period of economic expansion and technological innovation; improved agricultural productivity
Golden age of art
Could not handle pressures from northern nomadic peoples; held them off with tribute for a while; kept shrinking in territory
Eventually conquered by ...[Wait for it...]
established by the Mongols
(Indo-European) hunter-gatherer migrants came from
(1500-1000 BCE) = Indian agriculture flourishes in Indus and Ganges Rivers.
literary language of Vedic culture
Indian Caste System
began as Indian social classes Brahmins - priests
Kshatriyas - warriors
Vaisyas - merchants, traders
Sudras - artisans, farmers
Harijan - Untouchables, "outside" of the caste system,
Aryans developed caste systems b/c they saw themselves as superior
only marry within castes
could not move out of your caste in your lifetime.
Mauryans (political centralization) vs. Guptas (political decentralization)
Alternate between widespread empires and networks of smaller kingdoms
Regionalism and Diversity
600 BCE: First divided into sixteen regional states
Guptas rule utilizing regions
Classical India utilized many languages
Aryan regions vs. non-Aryan regions
Caste system, which promoted tolerance within society by living with rigid social structures
Created social order by regulating marriages and dictating rights (lower caste members had fewer rights)
Patriarchal society; rights of women limited
System of arranged marriages
Extensive trade both within the subcontinent and on the ocean to its south.
Emphasis on trade (cinnamon, elephants, salt, fish)
Excelled in iron-making
Produce textiles, cotton
327 BCE: Alexander the Great of Macedonia
322 BCE: Mauryan dynasty
Chandragupta Maurya to protect Indian territory.
Autocratic ruler who helped to unify much of India by developing a large bureaucracy and a large army.
He also promoted trade and communication.
Mauryan rulers were the first to unify most of the Indian subcontinent.
Mauryans rule using political centralization (authoritarian leadership)
Ashoka (269-232 BCE)
Extended Mauryan territory, gaining control of all but southern tip of India.
Known for brutality, but later converts to Buddhism and becomes peaceful.
Spreads Buddhism throughout the subcontinent, but continued to tolerate Hinduism.
Improved trade routes that connect to Silk Road; encouraged trade; constructed extensive roads; spreads Buddhism
After Ashoka's death, Mauryan empire began to fall apart and regional kingdoms surfaced.
Kushans pushed into central India from NW India
Greatest Kushan king, Kanishka, converted to Buddhism but hurt Buddhism's popularity in India by associating it with foreign rule.
Political collapse in 220 CE
Guptas established a large empire in 320 CE; an era of political stability.
Guptas are Hindus; caste system and influence of Brahmins was reinforced.
Buddhism was still tolerated; Buddhist monks and nuns spread religion beyond India through monasteries.
Gupta political system was decentralized: local rulers could maintain their authority in their respective territories if they submitted to the ultimate rule of the Guptas.
Gupta Golden Age
-Stupas in honor of Hindu gods with courtyards, paintings, sculptures
-Lavish Hindu wall paintings and carving in caves (Ajanta)
-Growth of Sanskrit as the language of the educated
-Huge output of epic poems
University at Nalanda: lecture halls, library, observatory
Discovery of zero and development of "Arabic" numerals
Decimal system; negative numbers; square roots
Indian scientists borrowed from Greek learning via contact with Alexander the Great's Bactria.
Inoculation against smallpox; sterilization during surgery and in treatment of wounds.
Knowledge of plastic surgery and setting of bones.
Advances in astronomy (eclipses, identification of planets)
Circumference of the earth; theory of gravity
Strengthening of trade, especially between E and SE Asia
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