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Music History I FINAL (terms and composers)
Terms in this set (86)
Developed by a monk around the eleventh century; used colors to indicate pitch lines; red for F and yellow for C; four-lined staff.
Heightened or Diastemic Neumatic Notation
Used symbols similar to indicate number of notes and general melodic direction; used a pitch at placed symbols at various heights above line to indicate general pitch in relation to line.
an idealized love for an unattainable woman who is admired from a distance. Chief subject of the troubadors and trouvères.
French forme fixes with a single stanza and the musical form of AbaAabAB; capital letters indicating the lines of refrain and lower case letters indicating new text set to music from the refrain.
Notre Dame Polyphony
Style of polyphony from the late 12th and 13th centuries, associated with the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris. Ornate; first polyphony to be primarily composed and read from notation rather than improvised; rhythmic modes developed as a result.
long melodic passage sung to a single syllable of text.
12th century style of 2-voice polyphony in which the lower voice sustains relatively long notes while the upper voice sings not groups of varying length above each note of the lower voice.
Type of polyphony in which an added voice moves in exact parallel to a chant, normally a P5 below it. Either voice may be doubled at the octave.
Style of organum in which the organal voice moves in a free mixture of contrary, oblique, parallel, and similar motion against the chant (usually above it).
Unison unaccompanied song, particularly a liturgical song to a Latin text.
Dialogue on a sacred subject, set to music and usually performed with action, and linked to the liturgy.
Addition to an existing chant, consisting of 1) words and melody; 2) a melisma; or 3) words only, set to an existing melisma or other melody.
Song to or in honor of a god. In the Christian tradition, song of praise sung to God.
A sign used in notation of chant to indicate a certain number of notes and general melodic direction (in early forms of notation) or particular pitches (in later forms).
Song form in which the first section of the melody is sung twice with different texts (the 2 stilles) and the remainder (the abgesang) is sung once. AAB
a type of texture consisting of a single unaccompanied melodic line.
music or musical texture consisting of 2 or more simultaneous lines of independent melody.
In Notre Dame polyphony, a self-contained section of an organum that closes with a cadence; interchangeable with substitute examples of the form and are typically in discant style (both parts move about the same rate).
The second most important note in a mode (after the final), often emphasized in chant and used for reciting text in a psalm tone.
A poet-composer of medieval Germany who wrote monophonic songs, particularly about love, in Middle High German.
A poet-composer of southern France who wrote monophonic songs in Occitan (langue d'oc) in the 12th or 13th century.
A poet-composer of northern France who wrote monophonic songs in Old France (langue d'oil) in the 12th or 13th century.
Strophic hymn in the Lutheran tradition, intended to be sung by the congregation.
published collection of metrical psalms.
16th century Italian poem having any number of lines, each of 7 or 11 syllables; polyphonic or concertato setting of such a poem or of a sonnet or other non-repetitive verse form.
Polyphonic sacred work in English for Anglican religious services.
Type of German amateur singer and poet-composer of the 14th-17th centuries, who was a member of a guild that cultivated a style of monophonic song derived from Minnelieder.
Académie de Poésie et de Musique
Founded in 1570, to revive the ethical effects of ancient Greek music; attempted creating musique mesurée.
Late 16th century French style of text-setting, especially in chansons, in which stressed syllables are given longer notes than unstressed syllables (usually twice as long).
Anthem in which passages for solo voice(s) with accompaniment alternate with passages for full choir doubled by instruments.
Monumental, 3-volume cycle of settings of the texts and melodies of the Proper for most of the church year composed by Henricus Isaac.
Viola da gamba
Bowed, fretted string instrument popular from the mid-15th - early 18th centuries, held between the legs.
Renaissance brass instrument, and early form of the trombone.
Renaissance wind instrument, with a double reed enclosed in a cap so the player's lips do not touch the reed.
Plucked string instrument popular from the late Middle Ages through the Baroque period, typically pear or almond-shaped with a rounded back, flat fingerboard, frets, and one single and 5 double strings.
Spanish relative of the lute with a flat back and guitar-shaped body.
16th century dance in fast triple meter, often paired with the pavane and in the same form (AABBCC).
Point of Imitation
Place in the music where the voices stagger entrances on the same material; the beginning of the imitative section.
Continental style of polyphony in the early Renaissance, in which 2 voices are written, moving mostly in parallel 6ths and ending each phrase on an octave, while a third unwritten voice is sung in parallel P4 below the upper voice.
Mass in which each movement is based on a chant to the same text (the Kyrie is based on a chant Kyrie, the Gloria on a chant Gloria, and so on).
Polyphonic mass in which each movement is based on the same polyphonic model, normally a chanson or motet, and all voices of the model are used in the mass, but none is used as a cantus firmus.
Polyphonic mass in which the movements are linked primarily by sharing the same opening motive or phrase.
Divided choirs; used in polychoral motets (motet for 2+ choirs).
Conveying or suggesting through musical means the emotions expressed in a text.
Movement in the Renaissance to revive ancient Greek and Roman culture and to study things pertaining to human knowledge and experience.
Drama with continuous or nearly continuous music, staged with scenery, costumes, and action.
1) In the 17th and 18th centuries, a vocal chamber work with continuo, usually for solo voice, consisting of several sections of movements that include recitatives and arias and setting a lyrical or quasi dramatic text. 2) Form of Lutheran church music in the 18th century, combining poetic texts with texts drawn from chorales or the Bible, and including recitatives, arias, chorale settings, and usually one or more choruses.
Genre of dramatic music that originated in the 17th century, combining narrative, dialogue and commentary through arias, recitatives, ensembles, choruses, and instrumental music, like an unstaged opera. Usually on a religious or biblical subject.
(1722 and ca. 1740) 2 separate publications by J.S. Bach; each of which has 24 preludes and fugues; pairs of movements in each collection are set in all of the major and minor keys, in order to demonstrate the possibilities for playing in all keys using an instrument tuned in near-equal temperament; works had pedagogical functions as well; preludes illustrate different types of keyboard performance conventions; fugues are a compendium of fugal writing, ranging from 2-5 voices.
Performing (or creating a performable edition of) music whose notation is incomplete, as in playing a basso continuo or completing a piece left unfinished by its composer.
Teatro San Cassiano
First public opera house; opened in Venice in 1637.
Literary text for an opera or other musical stage work.
a form of basso continuo in which the bass line is supplied with numbers or b/# to indicate the appropriate chords to be played.
Pio Ospedale della Pietàq
1 of the 4 "hospitals" of Venice; Vivaldi held a post there teaching music to the orphan girls; restricted to girls not allowed to become professionals; musical training made them more desirable for marriage or prepared them for convent life; performances by the girls helped to earn donations; travelers wrote about these performances with enthusiasm.
Composition or section of a composition in imitative texture that is based on a single subject and begins with successive statements of the subject in voices.
Highly embellished passage, often improvised, at an important cadence, usually occurring just befor the end of a piece or section.
Art of Fugue
(1741) by J.S. Bach; collection systematically demonstrates all types of fugal writing; has 18 canons and fugues based on the same subject; collection is roughly arranged in order of increasing complexity; the last fugue, unfinished at Bach's death, has 4 themes, including one that spells out his name. BACH (in German, those are the pitches Bb, A, C, and B.
Sonata da Chiesa
Baroque instrumental work intended for performance in church; usually in 4 movements: slow-fast-slow-fast, and scored for 1+ treble instruments and continuo.
A musical setting of one of the biblical accounts of Jesus' crucifixion, the most common type of historia.
Period of music history from about 1600 to about 1750, overlapping the late Renaissance and early Classical periods, "misshapen pearl"
Recitative that uses orchestral accompaniment to dramatize the text.
Da capo Aria
Aria form with 2 sections. The first section is repeated after the second's close, creating an ABA form.
Sonata da Camera
Baroque sonata, usually a suite of stylized dances, scored for one or more treble instruments and continuo.
Style of recitative scored for solo voice and basso continuo, used for setting dialogue or monologue in as speech-like a fashion as possible, without dramatization.
Objectified or archetypal emotions or states of mind, such as sadness, joy, fear, or wonder; one goal of much Baroque music was to arouse the affections.
17th century convention of performing French music in which passages notated in short, even duration, such as succession of eighth notes, are performed by alternating longer notes on the beat with shorter off beats to produce a lilting rhythm.
Vingt-quatre Violons du Roi
First large ensemble of stringed instruments; assembled by Louis XIII; consisted of strings with more than one player performing each part; predecessor to the modern orchestra; typically played music in a 5-part texture: 6 soprano, 12 alto and tenor, and 6 bass violins.
Music of the Chamber
Primarily string, lute, harpsichord, and flute players, provided music for indoor entertainment.
Music of the Great Stable
Composed of wind, brass, and timpani players, who played for military and outdoor ceremonies and sometimes joined the chapel or indoor music, adding instrumental color; wind ensemble profoundly influenced the development of wind and brass music by encouraging improved instruments and playing techniques and by nurturing generations of performers, including families of wind players like the Hotterterres and Philidors.
Music of the Royal Chapel
Included singers, organists, and other instrumentalists who performed for religious services.
Vivaldi's 1st movement
Fast tempo, in the tonic key.
Vivaldi's 2nd movement
Slow tempo in the same or a closely-related key.
Vivaldi's 3rd movement
Fast tempo in the original key, often shorter and livelier than previous movements, usually in ritornello form.
Josquin des Prez
(ca. 1450-1521) Real name was Lebloitte; wrote 18 masses, over 50 motets, and about 65 chansons; his motets were unique in their text depiction and text expression.
(1540-1623) Man of 2 religions; wrote for both the Anglican and the Catholic churches; known for his over 180 motets and 3 masses.
Guillaume Du Fay
(ca. 1397-1474) served under Duke Philip the Good in the Burgundian court; illegitimate son of a priest.
(ca. 1390-1453) most highly regarded English composer of the first half of the 15th century; not a priest.
(ca. 1555-1612) leading composer of the late Renaissance and early Baroque periods; known mostly for his instrumental works.
Orlando di Lasso
(ca. 1532-1594) Franco-Flemish composer; composed over 2000 pieces, including over 700 motets!
(1678-1741) Known as the "red priest;" Italy's best known composer of his time; wrote about 500 concertos; most of his works were instrumental.
(1619-1677) Venetian singer and composer; supported by father and wealthy patrons; especially well-known for cantatas; total of over 100 works.
(1653-1713) Studied in Bologna; worked as violinist, teacher, ensemble director and composer for wealthy patrons in Rome; established the foundation for violin playing and exploited the singing qualities of the instrument better than his contemporaries.
(1685-1759) Well-traveled composer who was born in Halle, studied in Italy and worked in England; created an eclectic style using elements of German, Italian, French, and English music; credited with creating the English oratorio; most of his major works were for public performances; significant composer of opera and oratorio as well as other genres.
(1659-1695) Composed in all genres of the time, but focused on vocal music; known for adept settings of English texts; had several royal appointments; incorporated elements of French and Italian styles in his music.
(1685-1750) Thought of as old-fashioned by contemporaries; today seen as one of the greatest composers of all time; worked as a composer in courts and churches in cities such as Weimar, Cöthen, and Leipzig; wrote about 200 church cantatas; 30 secular cantatas; about 200 organ chorales; and 70 other works for organ; as well as many other significant works.
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