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bio 132 final
Terms in this set (34)
types of mating systems related to sxual dimorphism
monogamy- an individual mates with only one partner per breeding season
polygamy- multiple partners per breeding season
polygyny- individuals males mate with more than one female per breeding season. example? honeybees
polyandry- indivdual females mate with more than one male per breeding season
why do pipefish experience sexual role reversal
females of these species can obtain higher reproductive success by searching for a new mate rather than by waiting for the completion of brooding by the current mate and remating with him
How are parental care and mating systems related?
the goal is the offspring reaching adulthood
Under what circumstances is maternal or paternal care more common?
why might females accept polygyny?
-sexy son hypothesis
-Female gains benefits of mating with high-quality male and access to resources/territory
-Beneficial for females to remain in groups.
what is the trend in parental care in vertebrates?
Due to external feterilization, the fish fertilize and gaurd the offspirng because they are certian of the paternity.
why does method of fertilization matter?
it makes it so that they are either certain of the paternity or they are not, therefore either taking care of not the offspring.
other animals take care of others offspring. think cuckoo birds.
what is alloparenting?
group members other than genetic parents provide parental care
costs vs benefits of being in a social group
defense of food, young, territories, cooperative foraging and hunting, thermal energy from huddling, altruists,
competition, exposure to parasites, conspicuousness to predators, time and energy to maintain social structure
anti predator benefits
increased vigilence, alarm signals, mobbing/active group defense, dilution effect (each individual in a group has a smaller chance of being the one eaten), confusion effect, individual prey animals scatter in random directions making it difficult for the predator to track and catch one.
details about dominance heirarchies:
one member of the group has better access to everything, including resources and mates, once dominance is established there are only threats, rarely actual fights for domimance.
how did altruistic behavior evolve?
-individual selection, -mutualism, -pay now for later gain, -reciprocal altruism, -kin slelection,
altruism helps the animal itself as well as the animal it helps
why pay now for later gain?
in the example of the cichlids, she gains access to the breeding grounds that are good for her.
how do genes for altruistic behavior get passed on?
We can explain the evolution of altruism through natural selection-it benefits the individual (either now or in the future) and/orincreases the chances that genes underlying the altruistic behavior are passed on through helped relatives (=kin selection)
Some altruistic behavior may have evolved through kin selection (helping relatives)•Increases fitness because some genes in the relative are identical.
When do you expect altruistic behavior to evolve through Kin selection?- rB>C
r- degree of relatedness
B- benefit to recipient
C-cost to donor
important for consolation and reconsiliation, it helps to diffuse tension, lower agression, and creates relationships for later.
does sociality increase fitness?
"Friendly" non-dominant males obtain mates. "Sociable" monkey and dolphin mothers have less first year infant mortality. Female chacma baboons with close, lasting friendships live considerably longer than their peers who switch companions. Monkeys respond more to distress calls (snake!) of friends than others
best definition of eusocial
Animals that live in groups in which some members do not reproduce but instead, take care of another group member's young.
findings from prisoners dilemma:
More cooperation if player knows partner and will continue to be in same social group.2.For the second round, player may adjust depending on first round-if partner cooperated, player cooperates. If your partner betrayed, partner betrayed. = "tit-for-tat" strategy
tit for tat:
its part of the evolution of cooperation, repaying for help
cheaters in cooperative groups?
Rhesus monkeys often call out when they find food.•Study: ~ ½ called out when they found hidden food. When they were detected by other group members, some were aggressively attacked.•Surprisingly, both high-and low-ranking individuals were attacked. •(*Outsiders did not call out and were not attacked)
the ability to reflect on one's knowledge.
Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), socially evaluate humans after witnessing third-party interactions involving a helpful intervention or failure to help.Babies show "social intelligence' Babies prefer "helpful" characters•Video-Babies watch shape characters being helpful, neutral, or hindering. When presented with the shapes, they prefer to interact with the helpful shapes.
Investigating human behavior•Human behavior from an evolutionary perspective.•Does NOT promote the idea that behavior is hard-wired, inevitable, or unchangeable.•Must consider the influence of cultural evolution
How do we study human behavior from an evolutionary perspective?
Study closely related primates •Study ancestors (but evidence is scanty)•Conduct cross-cultural studies and studies on young children•Physiological studies
what does oxytocin do?
increase trust, Participants who received oxytocin, continued to invest regardless of whether or not their trusting behavior had been taken advantage of.
Multi-male primates have larger relative testes size due to sperm competition
what type of mating strategies have been found in human evolution
both multiple partners as well as just one
are communicative behaviors intentional?
yes, rangutans evening call aimed in direction he will travel the following morning•Wild chimps more likely to alarm call when "close friends" were in the vicinity. Continued to call until all group members were safe.
"Proto-syntax" in Campbell's Monkeys
Monkeys emit 6 types of alert calls but in different combinations of sequences . This allows them to convey messages about social cohesion or various dangers, including the type of predator (eagle, leopard), how the predator was detected (acoustically, visually).
Use of a normal behavior in a novel situation, with the express purpose of misleading an observer. •Example: Male topi antelopes deceive females in order to increase their chances of mating.•Male antelope's snort and intent look were a false call made to keep the female in his vicinity.
functions of communication:
recruitment (call on other group members), confrontations, territory marking, reproduction and species recognition.
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