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RCM History I, Everything

This is the whole kit'n'kaboodle, the whole sh'bang, the entirety of the RCM history I book's information in one gigantic quizlet. To all those who venture into endless depths of this monumental quizlet, good luck, and may the force be with you.
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Measure
A metrical unit containing a fixed number of beats; separated on the staff by bar lines.
Meter
Fixed patterns of strong and weak beats.
Simple Time
Time signatures in which each beat contains two subdivisions.
Compound Time
Time signatures in which each beat contains three subdivisions (rather than two).
Syncopation
A deliberate shifting of the musical accent to a weak beat.
Anacrusis
An upbeat, or the last beat of a measure anticipating the downbeat.
Pitch
The highness or lowness of a particular sound.
Range
The distance between the highest and lowest notes of a melody.
Interval
The distance between any two pitches.
Conjunct
Melodies that move mostly in a stepwise direction.
Disjunct
Melodies that contain many leaps and changes of direction.
Phrase
A series of consecutive pitches that form a musical unit, much like a sentence.
Motive
A short melodic or rhythmic fragment used to build a melody.
Chord
A combination of three or more pitches that create a unit of harmony.
Triad
A three-note chord that consists of a root, third and fifth.
Diatonic
Melodies/harmonies built from the notes of a major or minor scale.
Chromatic
Melodies/harmonies that include all the notes available within the octave; from the Greek word for "color".
Consonance
An agreeable combination of tones that provides a sense of relaxation and stability.
Dissonance
A combination of tones that sounds discordant, thus creating restlessness and a sense of instability.
Harmonic Rhythm
The rate (frequency) of chord changes per measure.
Cadence
A specific combination of two chords that provide moments of rest at the ends of phrases, much like punctuation.
Counterpoint
A combination of two or more melodic lines.
Monophonic Texture
A single line of unaccompanied melody.
Homophonic Texture
A single line of melody supported by a harmonic accompaniment.
Polyphonic Texture
A combination of two or more melodic lines, also referred to as counterpoint.
Dynamics
The level of volume in music, traditionally indicated with Italian terms.
Timbre
Tone-color, the quality of sound specific to a voice or instrument for example, the silvery sound of a celesta or the nasal tone of an oboe.
Tempo
The speed at which music is performed, traditionally indicated with Italian terms (though certain German terms do prevail as well, such as Schnell).
Genre
The classification of a composition type, and includes categories such as sonata, symphony, and opera.
Opus
Latin for "work", this is usually abbreviated as op., and indicates the order in which a composer's works were published.
Soprano
High female voice.
Alto
Low female voice.
Tenor
High male voice.
Bass
Low male voice.
Baritone
A male voice with a range that straddles the tenor and bass ranges.
Mezzo-soprano
A female voice with a range that straddles the soprano and alto ranges.
Coloratura Soprano
A high female voice trained to execute rapid passages demanding great agility.
Organ
A keyboard instrument dating back to the Middle Ages often associated with church music. Sound is generated by air passing through pipes or reeds.
Harpsichord
A keyboard instrument popular from the late 16th through 18th centuries. Sound is generated by small quills inside the instrument that pluck the strings.
Clavichord
A small keyboard instrument popular from the late 16th through 18th centuries. Sound is generated by small metal tangents that strike the strings inside the instrument.
Piano
A keyboard instrument invented in the early 18th century. Sound is generated by hammers inside the instrument that strike the strings.
Synthesizer
A device (usually played with a keyboard) that generates and modifies sounds electronically. Robert Moog popularized the synthesizer in the 1960's.
Baroque
Derived from the Portuguese word "barroco" meaning irregularly shaped or misshapen pearl, this term was first used as a derogatory term in reference to the overly ornate art of the era. It is now applied to art, architecture, and music of the 17th and early 18th centuries.
Major-minor Tonality
A musical organization system based on major (Ionian) and minor (Aeolian) scales, which gradually replaced the modal language that had been favored up to this time. It serves as the foundation for musical composition.
Figured Bass
A type of musical shorthand developed in the Baroque era, where numbers are placed below the bass line to show the harmonic progression, which is then performed or "realized" by the "basso continuo", and provides the structure for guided improvisation.
Basso Continuo
A Baroque performance practice, generally involving two performers, one playing the notated bass line and the other realizing the harmonies as indicated by the figured bass. The Harmonies are usually played on harpsichord or organ, and provides the harmonic framework.
Equal Temperament
A method of tuning keyboard instruments where all semitones within the octave are divided equally; created enharmonic equivalents (C sharp/D flat). Allowed music to be performed "in tune" in all keys.
Terraced Dynamics
A Baroque practice of changing dynamics abruptly, which results in stark contrast rather than gradual change.
The Affections
A Baroque philosophy inspired by ancient Greek and Roman writers and orators, which refers to emotional states of the soul. In Baroque music, a single "affection" (one clear emotion) is usually projected through an entire composition or movement. Vocal music depicted the emotions of the text or dramatic situation (as is displayed in Bel Canto works). It was a reaction against the complex polyphony of Renaissance music, and was also referred to as the "Doctrine of Affections".
Word Painting
A technique of musical pictorialization, in which music mirrors the literal meaning of the words. This is achieved through melody, harmony, or rhythm.
Idiomatic Writing
A technique developed in the Baroque era in which the unique technical capabilities of an instrument are highlighted. It is the opposite of "generic".
Binary Form
A two-part musical form (AB), in which section A generally ends with an open cadence. This form was frequently used in Baroque dances and keyboard peaces.
Ternary Form
A three-part musical form (ABA), in which section B generally creates contrast in key and/or in material. This form was frequently used in Baroque arias.
Ritornello Form
A structure employed in the first and third movements of the Baroque concerto in which the opening passage is re-stated throughout the movement.
Ripieno
Italian for "full" or "complete", this term is used to denote the use of the full orchestra in the Baroque concerto.
Ostinato
Italian for "obstinate" or "persistent", this term is used to define a rhythmic or melodic pattern repeated for an extended period.
Drone
A sustained bass note that provides a rudimentary harmonic foundation, commonly found in folk music.
Programmatic Writing
Music with a descriptive element, inspired by extra-musical associations, like a story or painting. It evolved into a significant feature of 19th-century instrumental writing (program music).
Solo Concerto
A popular instrumental genre of the Baroque era for soloist and orchestra. Generally in three movements (fast - slow -fast), and frequently employed in ritornello form, this genre was intended to showcase the virtuosity of the soloist.
Prelude
A short keyboard work in improvisatory style, often paired with a fugue.
Fugue
A highly structured, imitative contrapuntal composition in which a single theme or subject prevails.
Subject
The initial statement of the main theme of a fugue, described in the tonic key.
Answer
The second statement of the main theme in a fugue, usually in the dominant key.
Real Answer
An exact transposition of the subject.
Tonal Answer
A statement of the subject in which one or more intervals is adjusted to accommodate the harmony.
Countersubject
A recurring counter-melody, which accompanies entries of the subject and answer.
Episode
A passage within a fugue in which neither subject nor answer is present, frequently sequential.
Augmentation
Thematic material presented in longer time values.
Stretto
From the Italian "stringere", meaning "to tighten", this term is used to define overlapping subject entries in close succession.
Inversion
Thematic material presented "upside-down".
Diminution
Thematic material presented in shorter time values, the opposite of augmentation.
Pedal Point
A sustained note over which harmonies change.
Tierce de Picardie
A work in a minor key which ends in the tonic major (raised a 3rd), which was a common mannerism in Baroque music.
Oratorio
A large-scale work for soloists, chorus, and orchestra that contains a serious subject, generally based on biblical texts and consists of recitatives, arias, ensembles, and choruses. This genre was developed in the Baroque era.
French Overture
A Baroque orchestral genre, first developed at court of Louis XIV by Jean-Baptiste Lully, generally in two parts. The first part usually being slow in tempo, with homophonic texture, and featuring dotted figures. The second part was fast in tempo and had an imitative texture.
Recitative
A speech-like style of singing used in operas oratorios, and cantatas. It follows inflections of the text resulting in rhythmic flexibility, and was usually used to advance the plot or storyline; moves through text quickly.
Recitativo Secco
Italin for "dry recitative", this was a speech-like, declamatory style of singing, supported only by continuo, and employed in opera, oratorio, and cantata.
Recitativo Accompagnato
Italian for "accompanied recitative", this was a speech-like, declamatory style of singing supported by instrumental ensemble or orchestra, which allowed for greater connection with the text. It was usually employed in opera, oratorio, and cantata.
Da Capo Aria
The most common song type in Baroque opera and oratorio, this was a three-part structure (ternary form) in which in performance the return of Section A is generally ornamented.
Melisma
A group of notes sung on a single syllable/vowel, which demonstrates vocal virtuosity and often serves to highlight key words.
Libretto
The text of an opera, oratorio, or cantata, which was usually written by someone other than the composer.
Homorhythmic Texture
A texture in which all voices sing the same rhythm, which results in a blocked chordal texture (homophonic), and delivers the text with clarity and emphasis.Classicism
Classicism
A style which pertains to the highest level of excellence, and possesses enduring value or timeless quality. It refers to the cultures of Ancient Rome and Greece as well as the art, architecture, and music of the late 18th century. Emphasis on symmetry, balance, and proportion was common in this style.
Viennese School
A name used mostly to refer to the musical style forged by Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven and their contemporaries. The name derives from the fact that in the late 18th-century Vienna, Austria flourished as a musical center.
Absolute Music
Music without extra-musical associations, also known as "pure music". This form of music was generally accompanied by generic titles reflecting tempos, genres or forms (for example, Sonata, Allegretto, Menuet, Rondo).
Sonata Cycle
A multi-movement structure that emerged in the Classical era that was mainly demonstrated in the symphony, sonata, or concerto.
Menuet and Trio
A stylized dance of French origin developed in the Baroque period in triple meter which was graceful and elegant in character, accompanied by a contrasting middle section to create ternary form (ABA).
Rondo Form
Classical formal structure often used in sonata cycle in which Section A recurs three times or more in the tonic key with alternating sections creating contrast (ABACA or ABACABA).
Sonata Form
A common structure composed of the Exposition( statement of two or more contrasting themes), Development (departure), and Recapitulation (return). Also known as sonata-allegro form.
Sonato-Rondo Form
A form of music that combines the elements seen in sonata form and rondo form. The typical layout of such musical works are ABACABA (ABA functioning as the Exposition, C functioning as the Development, and the second ABA functioning as the Recapitulation).
Chamber Music
Music for a small ensemble (between two and ten players), composed for one player per part, and usually performed without a conductor.
Style Galant
French for "elegant style", this was used in reference to the pre-Classical musical style emphasizing homophonic texture, delicate ornamentation, and a "light and airy" approach.
Sturm und Drang
German for "storm and stress", this was a German literary movement of the 1770's exemplified in the works of Goethe, Schiller, and their contemporaries. It demonstrates heightened emotionalism and dramatic contrasts foreshadowing Romanticism.
Empfindsamer Stil
German for the "sensitive style" and represented in the music of C.P.E. Bach, this style used a melancholy, introspective, expressive style that foreshadows Romanticism.
Introduction
While not a standard component of the form of a Sonata, this segment is usually slow and not always related to what comes later. It establishes the tonic key, though sometimes in tonic major or minor, and creates musical tension and suspense to capture the listener's attention.
Exposition
The first movement of a sonata.
First Theme
The segment of the Exposition which establishes the tonic key, presents a distinctive melodic and rhythmic character, and often sets the mood for the entire movement.
Bridge
The segment of the Exposition which is used to initiate a move to a new key center, and often consists of scale figurations or chordal passages.
Second Theme
The segment of the Exposition that establishes a new key (dominant or relative major), and often creates contrast. It sometimes consists of several themes (theme group).
Codetta
The final segment of the Exposition that affirms the new key by extending the final cadence and generally concludes with a repeat sign (indicating a repeat of the entire Exposition). This is sometimes also referred to as the closing theme or closing section.
Development
The second movement of a sonata. Harmonic tension intensifies through modulation and increased dissonance. It manipulates the thematic material heard earlier, and includes techniques such as sequential treatment, fragmentation, inversion, and changes to orchestration. This movement may also present new material, and generally ends with a dominant preparation (emphasis of dominant harmony in anticipation of the return to the tonic key).
Recapitulation
The third and final movement of a sonata, which reverberates the Exposition with subtle differences and a longer ending segment (known as a Coda).
String Quartet
The most important chamber-music genre of the Classical era, with the performing forces: violin I, violin II, viola, and cello. It is usually in four movements (fast, slow, moderately fast, fast), and the first movement is usually in sonata form.
Coda
Latin for "tail" (cauda), this is the concluding section, reaffirming the tonic key of the recapitulation
Rocket Theme
A rapidly ascending melody outlining an arpeggio, often used as a dramatic opening motive in Classical-era works.
Rounded Binary Form
A two-part musical form: A :||: B + A :||, in which material from Section A returns within Section B.
Romanza
Italian for "romance", this was a title used in the 18th century for instrumental pieces of a tender, lyrical character.
Serenade
A multi-movement orchestral genre for small orchestras or chamber ensembles. It was a popular instrumental genre in the Classical era, often performed in aristocratic social settings and at outdoor events.
Cyclical Structure
A structure in which material heard in one movement recurs in later movements, which creates structural unity in a multi-movement work.
Motive
A short melodic or rhythmic idea; the smallest unit used to form a melody or theme.
Scherzo and Trio
Italian for "jest" or "joke", this is much like the menuet and trio, but with menuet replaced by Beethoven with a different word. This new segment, while also in triple meter but with generally more dramatic elements than the elegant menuet, could be humorous or ironic.
Theme and Variations
A structure in which a melody is stated and then undergoes a series of transformations. Changes can be made to the melody, harmony, rhythm, or orchestration, and is often used in the slow movement of a sonata cycle.
Romanticism
A reaction against classicism, dating back to late 18th-century literature that served as inspiration for art and music. It employs emphasis on creative imagination and expression of emotions.
Exoticism in music
An important element of 19th-century musical style, sparked by fascination with foreign lands and cultures, which evoked through melody, rhythm, harmony, and orchestration.
Nationalism in music
An important element of 19th-century musical style, defined by patriotism expressed through music, with influence of folk song and dance, myths and legends, landscapes, and historical events.
Program Music
A significant trend in 19th-century music in which instrumental music was composed with extra-musical associations (be it literary, poetic, or visual). This style includes descriptive titles that identified the connection. Some works include a written text or "program" provided by the composer.
Rubato
An Italian term meaning "robbed time", that defines rhythmic flexibility (leeway allowing speeding up or slowing down), and used as an expressive device for interpreting music.
Art Song
The setting of a poem to music, usually intended for solo voice with the accompaniment of a piano.
Lied
The setting of a German poem to music, usually intended for solo voice with piano accompaniment. It flourished in the 19th century.
Song Cycle
A collection of art songs united by a central theme or narrative thread, intended to be performed together.
Strophic
A song structure where the same music is performed for each verse of the accompanying poem. As a result, little connection can be achieved between the words and music.
Modified Strophic
A song structure which allows for some repetition of music, with some changes to the melody, harmony, and accompaniment take place to reflect the text.
Durchkomponiert
A song structure that avoids the repetition of entire sections of the music, and as a result, melody, harmony, and piano accompaniment are able to reflect the meaning of the text. Sometimes called "through-composed".
Polonaise
A stately Polish dance in triple meter transformed by Chopin into a virtuosic piano composition, often proud and majestic in character, and often including characteristic rhythmic figures.
Chromaticism
From the Greek word "khroma" meaning color, this was a style that employed extensive use of notes outside the prevailing key signature. It was increasingly used for heightened expression in 19th-century music.
Program Symphony
A 19th-century, multi-movement orchestral work modeled after 18th-century symphony with programmatic elements. It often includes a descriptive title and accompanying text that outlines the program.
Idée Fixe
French for "fixed idea", this was a technique devised by Berlioz encompassing a recurring theme which undergoes transformation and serves as a unifying thread in a multi-movement composition. In "Symphonie Fantastique", it represents "the beloved".
Ophicléide
A now obsolete brass instrument which was the predecessor of the tuba.
Portamento
Italian for "carrying", this was a technique of sliding smoothly from one note to the next. Originally used as a vocal technique, it was adapted by Berlioz as a novel instrumental technique.
Col Legno
Italian for "with the wood", this was a novel string effect invented by Berlioz in which players tap on the strings with the wooden parts of their bows.
Cloches
French for "bells", this is a pitched percussion instrument that emits a ringing sound when struck with a mallet or hammer.
Dies Irae
Latin for "day of wrath", this is a monophonic chant melody dating from the late Middle Ages, drawn from Roman Catholic requiem (Mass for the Dead). 19th-century audiences would have associated the tune with funeral services.
Opera
A genre in which a drama is sung, which combines vocal and instrumental music with drama (staging and acting), visual arts (costume and scenery), and often dance. Components include recitative, arias, ensembles, and choruses. It was invented in Italy around 1600 by Claudio Monteverdi (the first of which being L'Orfeo).
Prelude (in opera)
An orchestral work, serving as an introduction to an opera, used in the mid-19th century in place of traditional overture. There is no prescribed form, but it often includes themes to be heard later in the opera.
Verismo
An Italian term meaning "realism". This was an opera style that became popular in Italy during the 1890s and early 1900s in which story lines often project a gritty realism which usually culminate in a violent ending. Puccini was the master of this style.
Pentatonic Scale
A scale consisting of five different pitches, for example, C-D-F-G-A. It is easily rendered by playing the five black keys on the piano, and is common to the folk music of many European and Asian cultures.
Whole-tone Scale
A non-traditional scale employed by composers of the late 19th and 20th centuries. It consists of six different pitches, all spaced a whole tone (whole step) apart, for example, C-D-E-F#-G#-A#-C.
Aria
Italian for "air", this was a solo song heard in an opera, oratorio, or cantata. It is highly emotional, often virtuosic, and may have lyrical or dramatic character.
Parlando
An Italian term meaning "speech-like", which defines performing in a declamatory style.
Violinata
A device used frequently by Puccini in which orchestral doubling of the vocal line takes place.
Habanera
A Cuban dance-song with a 2/4 meter, and a characteristic motive, often used as an ostinato.
Impressionism
A style of painting developed in the late 19th century, led by French painters Claude Monet, Édouard Manet, and Edgar Degas, it was a conscious reaction to earlier formal, "learned" style. It featured new techniques that explored the play of light, new textures such as visible brush strokes, and subject matter drawn from everyday life.
Expressionism
A Viennese art movement led by painters such as Wassily Kandinsky, and Oskar Kokoschka. It depicted human angst, obsessions, and compulsions. The imagery was often exaggerated, distorted, and even nightmarish.
Expanded Tonality
The use of extremely chromatic harmony while still maintaining allegiance to a tonal center.
Polytonality
The simultaneous use of two or more tonal centers.
Modal scales
The use of scales (modes) in which the pattern of whole steps and half steps is different from conventional major and minor scales (for example: Dorian, Lydian, Mixolydian, etc.). It was common in music of the Middle Ages and Renaissance (before the time of tonality), and rediscovered by 20th-century composers.
Atonality
The total absence of any tonal center, characterized by unresolved dissonances.
Twelve-tone Method
Atonal music based on an arrangement of all twelve chromatic pitches (tone row). It was developed by composer Arnold Schoenberg.
Impressionism in music
A musical movement which reflected the French artistic movement of the same name. It employed expanded harmonic vocabulary (whole tone, modal, pentatonic scales and parallel chords) which were used to subtly suggest images rather than directly depicting them. It featured innovative orchestral colors, including individual treatment of instruments and use of muted instruments, as well as an obscuring of the metric pulse.
Antique Cymbals
Small brass disks (finger cymbals) used to produce a gentle ringing sound when struck together.
Symbolism
A French literary movement of the late 19th century. Writers of this movement include Paul Verlaine and Stéphane Mallarmé. The authors of this movement sought to suggest subject matter rather than depict it specifically.
Symphonic Poem
One of the most popular forms of orchestral program music, this was a single movement work, generally in free form, with literary or pictorial associations. It was invented by Franz Liszt.
Ballet
A highly stylized type of dance which often interprets a story, first developed in the 17th century at the court of Louis XIV. 19th-century ballet reached its zenith at the Russian court, where Russian dancers dominated the ballet scene throughout most of the 20th century.
Choreography
The art of designing the dance steps and movements in a ballet (or musical).
Cadenza
A solo passage heard in a concerto, aria, or any large orchestral work, often of a virtuosic nature, which suggests an improvised style.
Primitivism
An effect created largely through rhythm, that uses strong accents, heavy syncopation, polyrhythms, and an expanded percussion section. It is best demonstrated in Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring".
Commedia Dell'arte
An Italian term meaning "comedy of artists", which defines an improvised comedy tradition dating back to 16th-century Italy. "Stock" characters included Columbina, Arlecchino, Pantalone, Pulcinella, and Scaramuccia.
Hurdy-Gurdy
A portable string instrument dating back to the Middle Ages in which the strings are contained in a wooden case. To play it, one hand turns a crank (handle) which activates a circular bow inside, while the other hand plays a keyboard that stops the strings.
Changing Meter
A shift of metrical groupings, manifested through changes of time signature.
Folk Song
Songs of unknown authorship, passed down through oral tradition rather than written down.
Musical
A uniquely American genre defining a play with spoken dialogue but featuring musical numbers: songs, dances, and choruses. The staging (sets, costumes, lighting) is often spectacular.
Verse-Chorus Structure
A common song structure in popular music in which verses develop the character/storyline, while the "chorus" acts as a tuneful refrain.
Mambo
A dance of Afro-Cuban origins popular in the 1940s and 1950s played moderately fast in common time, and usually characterized by rhythmic ostinatos as well as "riff' passages (short melodic ostinatos) for wind instruments.
Cha-Cha
A popular Cuban dance of the early 1950s, derived from the mambo. Its name is derived from the sound of its characteristic rhythm.
Senza Misura
An Italian term literally meaning "without measure", defining music played freely, without strict meter.
Quasi Berceuse
A combination of Latin and French terms meaning "In the style of a lullaby".
Perdendosi
An Italian term literally meaning "wasting away", which is a performance indication to let the sound diminish gradually or die away completely.
Arch Form
A sectional structure, based on repetition in reverse order (for example, ABCBA), which imparts an overall symmetry.
Petrushka Chord
A dissonant polychord used by Stravinsky in his ballet "Petrushka", which consists of a C major and F sharp major apreggio, played together. Used as a signature theme for the character of Petrushka.
Fortspinnung
A German term describing a continuously unfolding melody.
Hemiola
A three:two ratio of beats, usually achieved through three quarter notes in one register, and two dotted quarter notes in the opposite register.
Vivaldi
-contributed to the development of the three-movement concerto structure
Vivaldi
-leader in establishing ritornello form
Vivaldi
-developed idiomatic writing for strings
Vivaldi
-exploited string virtuosity through technically demanding writing, including rapid passage-work, string crossings, arpeggio functions, double stops
Vivaldi
-incorporated programmatic writing, descriptive titles
Vivaldi
-frequent use of sequences
Vivaldi
-fond of asymmetrical phrase lengths
Bach
-his music represents a high point in over 100 years of Baroque musical practice
Bach
-personal style synthesized the leading musical developments of this era
Bach
-composed works in virtually every genre of his day, except opera
Bach
-personal faith was a source of inspiration for his creative work; as a devout Lutheran, he dedicated all his works "To the Glory of God"
Bach
-great master of the contrapuntal art, as demonstrated in the fugues of "The Well-Tempered Clavier"
Bach
-absorbed influences of international styles - German (Lutheran chorale tradition, counterpoint); French (dance rhythms, ornamentation); Italian (operatic lyricism, ritornello form, idiomatic string writing)
Bach
-virtuoso organist, as reflected in his organ and keyboard works.
Bach
-he perfected existing forms rather than defining new ones.
Handel
-cosmopolitan style; absorbed international currents of the day: German counterpoint, Italian opera, French overture
Handel
-alternation of homorhythmic passages (homophonic) with contrapuntal textures (polyphonic)
Handel
-use of very basic elements (chordal passages, scale figures) makes his style accessible and appealing
Handel
-conveys a sense of pageantry and dramatic theatrical style through grandiose gestures such as full SATB choral sound, bold contrasts of dynamics
Handel
-effective use of word painting
Handel
-extended sequential writing
Vivaldi
-"Agitate da due venti" from "Griselda"
Bach
-Cantata no. 140, "Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme" BMV 140, first movement
Handel
-"The Harmonious Blacksmith", from Suite No. 5 in E Major, HWV 430
Handel
-"He Spake the Word", from "Israel in Egypt", HWV 54
Haydn
-regarded as the "father" of the symphony and string quartet because of his significant contributions to both genres
Haydn
-contributed to the development of sonata form in terms of formal elements, melody, and harmony: he included slow introductions that feature ambiguous tonality, suspenseful atmosphere, and chromatic harmony
Haydn
-his expositions are often monothematic - first and second themes identical or similar, but in different keys
Haydn
-influenced by folk songs and dances; used simple diatonic melodies with a narrow range
Haydn
-included interesting sound effects: pedal points to suggest bagpipes, pizzicato strings to suggest guitar
Haydn
-musical playfulness demonstrated by sudden dynamic changes or abrupt silences
Haydn
-dramatic elements included sudden accents and bold changes of chords or keys (for example his use of a loud C major chord, in "The Creation" to depict the word "light")
Mozart
-exemplified Viennese Classical ideals: elegance, balance, poise, refinement, sophistication
Mozart
-virtually all Classical genres were explored, advanced, and developed
Mozart
-utilized mainly symmetrical phrase structures (four-measure phrases)
Mozart
-contributed to the development of sonata form
Mozart
-contributed to the establishment of a three-movement concerto structure
Mozart
-harmonic language balanced diatonic and chromatic elements
Mozart
-influenced by famous Mannheim orchestra: orchestral writing expanded the use of wind instruments
Mozart
-influenced by J.C. Bach in development of piano concerto
Mozart
-crystallized the 18th-century piano style, both in his solo works and concertos
Mozart
-opera was central to his career: made important contributions to three types: 1. "Opera Seria" (serious Italian opera, sung throughout) including Idomeneo. 2. "Opera Buffa" (Italian comic opera, sung throughout) including The Marriage of Figaro. 3. "Singspiel" (German comic opera with spoken dialogue) including The Magic Flute.
Mozart
-created compelling, realistic characters dramatically and musically
Mozart
-absorbed vocal qualities and melodic lyricism into his instrumental writing (for example, slow movements)
Mozart
-works catalogued by Ludwig von Köchen in 1862 ("K" numbers in titles of works refer to this catalog)
Beethoven
-bold innovator - highly original and influential figure
Beethoven
-superb musical architect: planned and meticulously revised works in sketchbooks
Beethoven
-thematic material often grows out of short, incisive motives
Beethoven
-developed and expanded Classical genres: sonata, concerto, symphony
Beethoven
-transformed virtually every genre he touched
Beethoven
-innovations include: replacing the graceful Menuet and Trio with the more dramatic Scherzo (Symphony No. 5); use of cyclical structure (Symphony No. 5); programmatic elements (Symphony No. 6); inclusion of chorus and soloists in the symphony (Symphony No. 9)
Beethoven
-explosive accents, extreme dynamic contrasts
Beethoven
-incorporated new orchestral instruments: piccolo, trombone and contrabassoon
Beethoven
-exploited new features and improvements in the pianos of his day, for example, the expanded range.
Haydn
-Symphony No. 94 in G, "Surprise", second movement
Mozart
-"Exsultate, jubilate", K 165, "Alleluia"
Schubert
-combines Classical and Romantic traits
Schubert
-Classicism demonstrated in formal structures: sonata form with repeated exposition; variations; symmetrical phrase structures; standard Classical orchestra
Schubert
-Romanticism demonstrated through use of chromatic harmony - juxtaposition of major and minor tonality; unexpected modulations.
Schubert
-influenced by Mozart (lyrical melodic style) and Beethoven (symphonic writing)
Schubert
-influenced by German Romantic poets, especially Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Schubert
-close connection of text and music in art songs: uses harmony to highlight key words (text painting)
Schubert
-increased role of piano in art songs: piano accompaniment often depicts specific elements of the poem
Schubert
-introduced new psychological intensity into individual songs and song cycles
Schubert
-vocal lyricism pervades all his works
Schubert
-sorrow and deeply personal emotions are reflected in many works ("Death and the Maiden", "Die Winterreise", Fantasy in F Minor)
Chopin
-wrote almost exclusively for piano (or piano with voice or instruments)
Chopin
-melodic lines have vocal qualities reminiscent of the 'bel canto' style in opera: long filigree passages, extended embellishments, and ornamental passages are prominent in nocturnes and other lyrical works
Chopin
-explored a new harmonic language: chromaticism, unexpected modulations, unusual juxtapositions, and modal inflections
Chopin
-used original and innovative pianistic figurations: unusual spacing of chords, sweeping arpeggiation, expanded range
Chopin
-exploited new capabilities of the piano; employed greater virtuosity in response to technological advances, for example, cast iron frame allowed for thicker strings that produced fuller tone
Chopin
-improvisatory qualities in many works such as Preludes and Impromptus
Chopin
-musical nationalism in Polish dances including Polonaise, Mazurka and Krakowiak
Chopin
-influenced by Bach's counterpoint, Mozart's lyricism, Bellini and Donizetti's Bel Canto style
Berlioz
-highly individual and iconoclastic; as a non-pianist, he freely explored orchestral writing on his own terms, unrestricted by pianistic conventions
Berlioz
-an avid reader; influenced by Shakespeare, Byron, Goethe, Victor Hugo, Walter Scott
Berlioz
-influenced by Beethoven (dramatic power, cyclical elements, addition of chorus)
Berlioz
-vivid and original approach to orchestration; created unusual instrumental effects
Berlioz
-expanded size and make-up of the orchestra, often specifying grandiose performing forces
Berlioz
-preferred large-scale forms (symphony, oratorio); wrote few small works and character pieces
Berlioz
-embraced programmatic writing in program symphonies and concert overtures
Berlioz
-with Wagner and Liszt, advocated "Music of the Future," a modern aesthetic embracing progressive chromatic harmony, thematic transformation, and cyclical forms
Puccini
-passion for opera ignited when he saw Verdi's "Aida" as a teenager
Puccini
-first major success, "Manon Lescaut" (1893) was followed by numerous others
Puccini
-supreme melodist as demonstrated in many memorable arias
Puccini
-melodies exhibit great flexibility and suppleness, bending and moving gracefully
Puccini
-creates a rubato-like effect through continual changes of tempo indicated in the score
Puccini
-arias frequently begin in upper register and work their way downward
Puccini
-great variety in orchestral color
Puccini
-orchestra used to create atmosphere, project character
Puccini
-employed 'violinata' technique (doubling vocal parts with instrumental lines)
Puccini
-frequently drawn to the melodramatic aspects of the 'verisimo' style
Puccini
-exoticism evident in choice of settings and subject matter ("Turandot", "Madama Butterfly", "Girl of the Golden West")
Debussy
-highly original and innovative; influential both in France and internationally
Debussy
-influenced by Impressionist painters: parallels drawn in choice of subject matter, instrumental color, understated nuances, and obscuring of metric pulse
Debussy
-set the poetry of Symbolist poets Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, Pierre Louÿs, and Paul Verlaine to music
Debussy
-like the Symbolist poets, he experimented with unorthodox approaches to grammar and syntax through formal structure and phrasing; evoking rather than narrating, suggesting rather than depictingDebussy
Debussy
-explored Western and non-Western scale systems, including whole-tone, pentatonic, and modal scales
Debussy
-innovative approaches to harmony: parallel chord streams; open fifths and octaves reminiscent of the earliest polyphonic practices ('organum'); quartal harmony (chords built on fourths)
Debussy
-varied use of rhythm (for example free-flowing and rhapsodic, motoric, dance character)
Debussy
-programmatic elements (pastoral, water imagery, sunlight, moonlight)
Debussy
-drawn to mythological themes
Debussy
-often witty and satirical
Debussy
-returned to sonata form in later works
Stravinsky (The Early Years)
-Russian nationalism expressed through use of folk song and dance and choice of subject matter
Stravinsky (The Early Years)
-influenced by rich orchestration of Rimsky-Korsakov
Stravinsky (The Early Years)
-primitive style: driving rhythms, primal energy, percussive approach
Stravinsky (The Early Years)
-other features include use of dissonant harmony, polytonality, ostinato, syncopation, and polymeter
Stravinsky (The Transitional Years)
-created more intimate works with reduced forces in response to the devastation wrought by World War 1
Stravinsky (The Transitional Years)
-seeds of neo-Classical style are sown
Stravinsky (The Middle Years)
-neo-Classical style adopted with emphasis on formal design, absolute music
Stravinsky (The Middle Years)
-emotional restraint, balance, discipline, cool detachment
Stravinsky (The Final Years)
-embraced Arnold Schoenberg's twelve-tone method
Stravinsky (The Final Years)
-sparse textures inspired by Anton Webern
Stravinsky (The Final Years)
-explored miniatures
Bernstein
-influenced by classical forms and idioms
Bernstein
-integrated American, Hispanic, Jewish elements
Bernstein
-vibrant orchestration a hallmark of style
Bernstein
-melodic style fuses popular and classical elements
Bernstein
-rhythms drawn from popular dance styles and jazz tradition
Bernstein
-harmonic language dissonant but essentially neo-Classical
Louie
-her style combines traditional structures with a contemporary language that retains an emphasis on expression and communication
Louie
-represents a pan-ethnic perspective, combining traditional Asian music with influences of Western style
Louie
-reflects influences of minimalism
Louie
-some works incorporate electronic technology
Louie
-includes programmatic elements
Louie
-influenced by Canadian First Nations music and natural imagery
Louie
-musical influences include Igor Stravinsky, Claude Debussy, Olivier Messiaen
Louie
-musical humor comes across in many stage works, which quote the music of past composers (for example, the comic opera Burnt Toast, which quotes Mozart and Wagner)
Louie
-varied harmonic language embraces tonality, modality, extreme dissonance
Louie
-piano music draws on the instrument's expressive quality through extensive use of pedal and delicate wind-chime-like figuration
Vivaldi
-known as "il prete rosso" (the red priest)
Vivaldi
-a colorful figure in the musical life of Venice, he was also an ordained Catholic priest
Bach
-born in Eisenach, Germany, 1685
Bach
-music was the family profession for five generations; father was a court trumpeter
Bach
-orphaned at age ten; musical training continued by oldest brother, Johann Christoph, who taught him academic studies in Latin, Greek and theology
-sang in choirs, became accomplished violinist and virtuoso organist
-trained in instrument building and repair
-held various positions: court violinist, chamber musician, and organist
Bach
-granted leave from his position at Arnstadt to meet famous organist Dietrich Buxtehude in Lübeck; walked over 200 miles each way. Totally inspired, he stayed an extra three months without authorization
Bach
-married Maria Barbara (distant cousin) shortly after arriving in Mülhausen in 1707; two of their children, Carl Philipp Emanuel and Wilhelm Friedemann, became successful musicians
Bach
-became court organist and chamber musician to the Duke of Weimar in 1708
-enjoyed increasing fame as an organist in this period - composed many organ works
Bach
-composed music for Lutheran church services - cantatas, choral settings
-accepted salary advance for a new position at Cöthen; this angered the Duke of Weimar, which resulted in a month in jail
Bach
-in 1717 became Kapellmeister to Prince Leopold of Cöthen, an avid supporter of the arts
Bach
-Calvinist views of the court influenced musical activities: no music performed in churches
-many solo and chamber works composed during this period - suites, concertos, sonatas, solo keyboard works, including "The Well-Tempered Clavier", Book One
Bach
-sudden death of Maria Barbara in 1720 led him to marry Anna Magdalena Wilcke, a court singer, a year later; their sons, Johann Christian and Johann Christoph, became successful musicians
Bach
-left Cöthen in 1723 for Leipzig, where he was appointed Cantor of St. Thomas School
-many responsibilities: teaching, composing, directing choirs, and supervising musical activities in several churches
Bach
-became director of Collegium Musicum in 1729, a performing ensemble for university students
-important large-scale works written in this period: "Goldberg Variations", "Art of Fugue"
-frequently traveled to test new keyboard instruments
Bach
-visited Frederick the Great at Potsdam, where son Carl Philipp Emanuel was employed; wrote a contrapuntal work based on a theme provided by the king ("The Musical Offering")
Bach
-died July 28th, 1750; likely cause was a stroke
Handel
-born in Halle, Germany in 1685
-father was a prosperous barber-surgeon who discouraged son's musical pursuits
Handel
-studied law at University of Hale
-pursued music professionally after his father's death
Handel
-in Hamburg in 1703, he worked as a violinist and harpsichordist in opera orchestra
-composed earliest operas: "Almira" and "Nero"
Handel
-he moved to Italy in 1706 to work for Prince Ferdinand de Medici, Prince Francesco Mario Ruspoli and others
Handel
-during his time in Italy, he absorbed aspects of Italian music style and language; evident in operas, oratorios, and concertos
Handel
-visited major cities between 1706 and 1710 such as Florence, Rome, Naples and Venice, where musical works were performed
Handel
-moved back to Germany in 1710, and was appointed Kapellmeister to George Ludwig, Elector of Hanover (future King George I)
-elector allowed him to travel to London; visited there twice, and eventually stayed in 1712
Handel
-in London, where he stayed for the rest of his life, his annual salary was awarded by Queen Anne, the first of many royal commissions and patronage appointments
Handel
-with the death of Queen Anne in 1714, the Elector of Hanover (this composer's former patron) was proclaimed King George I
-other influential patrons included Earl of Burlington, and Duke of Chandos
Handel
-he co-founded The Royal Academy of Music in 1719 to promote Italian opera in London
Handel
-composed, directed, and produced many London productions, including "Guilio Cesare", "Tamerlano", "Rodelinda", "Alcina", and "Serse"
-worked with leading singers of the day including Faustina Bordoni and Francesca Cuzzoni
Handel
-with the death of King George I, this composer was commissioned to write music for the coronation of King George II
-became a British subject
Handel
-with the success of John Gay's English-language ballad opera "The Beggar's Opera", the public grew tired of Italian opera, forcing this composer to grow unsure of his future
-this led him to write write in other genres aside from operas including oratorios, concertos, and concerto grosso
Handel
-"Messiah" premiered at benefit concert in Dublin, Ireland in 1742; great success
-eventually stopped writing operas, yet became very successful through writing oratorios which were far less costly to produce, oratorios in the English language, which were more appealing to middle-class audiences
Handel
-retired from public performance due to failing eyesight in 1753
-remained unmarried; gave generously to charity in later years
-continued to compose in final years, even when blind
Handel
-died April 14th, 1759, famous and wealthy; interred at Westminster Abbey
Haydn
-born in Rohrau, Austria in 1732
Haydn
-father was a wheelwright, mother was a cook; brothers Michael and Johann also became musicians
-childhood talents recognized; recruited to be a choirboy at St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna
Haydn
-educated at St. Stephen's but also self taught; considered Nicola Porpora (Italian singer-composer) to be his only teacher
Haydn
-dismissed from St. Stephen's after his voice changed; became freelance musician in Vienna, an emerging cultural center
-these were difficult years: he earned a living by composing, performing, teaching, and accompanying; gradually gained attention of potential patrons
Haydn
-began first full-time position as Kapellmeister (music director) to Count Ferdinand von Morzin in 1759; duties included conducting, composing, performing; composed first symphony in this position
Haydn
-married Maria Anna Keller in 1760, only for it to lead to an unhappy, childless marriage
Haydn
-began employment in Eisenstadt with the wealthy and influential Esterházy family in 1761 as assistant Kapellmeister
Haydn
-became Kapellmeister and moved with Esterházy family in 1766 to Esterháza estate (magnificent palace; second only to Versailles)
Haydn
-his contract stipulated a dress code, deportment, and musical expectations; duties included training instrumentalists, conducting, composing, and performing chamber music
-supplied all music for the court opera house, theater and chapel
-despite restrictions, he was free to discover his artistic voice and creative freedom
-explored the leading genres of the day - symphony, opera, string quartet
Haydn
-reputation gradually grew outside the House of Esterházy; published many works, received commissions from other sources (for example, "Paris" Symphonies)
Haydn
-developed friendship with Mozart; they respected and admired each other despite their age difference; dedicated string quartets to one another
Haydn
-in 1790, he moved to Vienna after Prince Anton succeeded Prince Nikolai; Anton was not a music lover - paid this composer a pension but relieved him of all duties
-first trip to London: engaged by concert promoter Johann Peter Salomon for a series of concerts
Haydn
-composed and conducted the first six of his "London Symphonies"; according to contemporary accounts, he "electrified" audiences
-received an honorary doctorate from Oxford University
-met Beethoven in 1792 in Vienna, who he taught briefly
Haydn
-second trip to London in 1794: last six symphonies were critically and financially successful
-moved back to Vienna permanently in 1795
Haydn
-in later years, he wrote oratorios ("The Creation" and "The Seasons"), six masses for Prince Nicholas II (Anton's successor), and more string quartets
Haydn
-wanted Austria to have a patriotic anthem like England's "God Save the King"; wrote the music for "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" (God Save Emperor Franz); the melody later became Germany's national anthem
Haydn
-in 1802, he retired due to failing health
-made his last public appearance in 1808 at performance of "Die Schöpfung" ("The Creation")Haydn
Haydn
-died May 31st, 1809; Mozart's Requiem was performed at his memorial service
Mozart
-born in Salzburg, Austria in 1756
-father was Leopold, a highly esteemed violinist, court musician, composer, and author of "A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin Playing" ("Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule")
Mozart
-he was a child prodigy, revealing precocious natural talent at an early age
-received early instruction from his father Leopold, who oversaw his development as a virtuoso harpsichordist, pianist, organist, violinist, and composer
Mozart
-his father Leopold planned extensive tours across Europe to showcase his son's abilities: he played for Empress Maria Theresa at age six and met Johann Christian Bach (whose influence would prove significant) at age eight
Mozart
-he often perforemd with his older sister Maria Anna ("Nannerl") who was also a gifted musician
Mozart
-in 1769 at age 6, he was appointed concertmaster (unpaid) at the court where his father Leopold was employed
Mozart
-in 1771, he received his first salary as the concertmaster in Salzburg when the new archbishop - Hieronymus von Colloredo - was elected
Mozart
-the relationship between this composer and the archbishop of Salzburg - Hieronymus von Colloredo - became increasingly antagonistic, which resulted in the young composer's dismissal and subsequent reinstatement
Mozart
-made three extensive visits to Italy where he gave many concerts and composed several operas
-while in Italy, he received two diplomas from Açademia Filarmonica (Bologna and Verona)
-other tours to Munich, Augsburg, Mannheim, and Paris
Mozart
-in 1778, his mother died while on tour with him in Paris
Mozart
-in 1779, his passion for opera was fueled after the success of "Idomeneo" in Munich
-dissatisfied in Salzburg; requested dismissal from the Archbishop
Mozart
-in 1781, he moved to Vienna, hoping to attain an official position at the imperial court of Joseph II
-enjoyed relative prosperity as a freelance pianist, teacher, and composer, but tended to live beyond his means
-despite successes, financial woes persisted throughout his career
Mozart
-became good friends with Haydn, despite their age difference, to whom he dedicated several string quartets
Mozart
-early court commission resulted in "The Abduction from the Seraglio", a "Singspiel" (German comic opera)
Mozart
-married Constanze Weber in 1782, an opera singer, against his father's wishes; only two of their six children survived infancy
Mozart
-in 1782 he joined the Order of Freemasons, a secret society of enlightened thinkers; Leopold Mozart and Joseph Haydn also became members
Mozart
-successful premiere of "The Marriage of Figaro" in 1786, written with the librettist Lorenzo da PonteMozart
Mozart
-more successful performances in Prague: "Marriage of Figaro" and "Don Giovanni"
Mozart
-named Imperial Court Chamber Music Composer to Emperor Joseph II in 1786
-heard the young Beethoven perform in 1787; very impressed
Mozart
-in his final year, 1791, his financial situation became worse, accompanied by declining health
-he began work on a Requiem (mass for the dead), commissioned by Count Franz von Walsegg who had intended to claim it as his own
Mozart
-collaborated on "The Magic Flute" with Emanuel Schikaneder (librettist, director, and impresario) in 1791; a very successful opera that contained veiled references to Masonic rituals
Mozart
-commissioned to write "The Clemency of Titus" for coronation of Leopold II as King of Bohemia in 1791
Mozart
-died December 5th, 1791; inexpensive funeral, buried in an unmarked grave
-Requiem unfinished; left sketches from which his student Franz Xavier Süssmayr completed the work
Beethoven
-born in Bonn, Germany in 1770 to a musical family
Beethoven
-grandfather, Ludwig, was Kapellmeister at Electoral court; source of inspiration for Ludwig, even though he died when this composer was three
Beethoven
-father, Johann, was a singer and instrumentalist at the Electoral court; he was a harsh, severe parent who became an alcoholic
Beethoven
-received early musical training from father; later studied composition and counterpoint with Christian Neefe, court organist in Bonn
Beethoven
-early career in Bonn began as an organist and violist in court orchestras
-in 1787 he traveled to Vienna intending to study with Mozart; his mother's illness compelled him to return to Bonn after a short time
Beethoven
-became head of household after mother's death, which plummeted his father further downwards into alcoholism; financially responsible for brothers Caspar and Nikolaus
Beethoven
-moved to Vienna in 1792; close relations between the courts in Bonn and Vienna helped him get established
-briefly studied with Haydn; dedicated his first three piano sonatas to him
Beethoven
-attracted the patronage f Viennese nobility; gained financial support and commissions
-influential patrons include Prince Lobkowitz, Prince Lichnowsky, and Count Rasumovsky
Beethoven
-first solo concert appearance in Vienna in 1795, followed by concerts in Prague, Dresden, Leipzig, and Berlin
-had many romantic infatuations, but remained single
Beethoven
-began to lose hearing in his mid-twenties (tinnitus); attempts at treatment failed
Beethoven
-wrote a letter to his brothers in 1802 (known today as the Heiligenstadt Testament) in which he revealed his inner turmoil and conflict; contemplated suicide but rose above the crisis
Beethoven
-believed in the motto of the French Revolution: "Liberté, égalité, fraternité" (Liberty, equality, fraternity)
Beethoven
-admired Napoleon but grew disillusioned with him; removed Napoleon's name from the dedication of Symphony No. 3, "Eroica", after he declared himself emperor
Beethoven
-made his last concert appearance as a pianist, performing the "Archduke" Piano Trio, op. 97 in 1814
-gained custody of nephew Karl after a lengthy legal battle with his sister-in-law (brother Caspar had died in 1815)
Beethoven
-while totally deaf in later years, he continued to compose
-visitors wrote in conversation books
-spent final years living in isolation; becoming increasingly withdrawn and anti-social
Beethoven
-devastated by Karl's suicide attempt in 1826; fell gravely ill
Beethoven
-died March 26th, 1827, apparently from pneumonia
-highly respected in Vienna; funeral attracted thousands of admirers
Schubert
-born in Vienna, Austria in 1797
-father (Franz Theodor) was a schoolmaster)
Schubert
-learned to play the violin and piano in childhood; father was his first teacher
-played viola in the family string quartet
Schubert
-in 1808, his beautiful voice gained him admittance to the Imperial chapel choir school
Schubert
-esteemed composer Antonio Salieri taught him theory and composition
Schubert
-trained to become a school teacher; taught briefly at his father's school
-began to write songs in his late teens (for example "Gretchen an Spinnrade", "Erlkönig")
Schubert
-worked as a freelance musician in Vienna; lived in poverty
-sold some songs through private subscription, often for a very low price
-worked briefly for the Esterházy family in Hungary in 1818
Schubert
-had a dedicated circle of friends and admirers, included renowned baritone Johann Michael Vogl, but was not widely acknowledged as a composer
Schubert
-affluent Sonnleithner family initiated musical evenings showcasing his works; events came to be known as "Schubertiades"
Schubert
-in 1822, this composer began to suffer from syphilis; health continued to deteriorate from this time
Schubert
-in 1827, he visited Beethoven on his deathbed - this was their only meeting
Schubert
- died November 19, 1828 at the age of thirty-one
Chopin
-born in Żelazowa Wola, Poland in 1810; family later moved to Warsaw
Chopin
-father was French; emigrated to Poland as a teenager; worked as a French tutor for children of upper class families
-mother was Polish
Chopin
-child prodigy (comparisons made to Mozart); gave first concert at age six
-first work published in 1817 at age 7 (Polonaise in G Minor)
Chopin
-in early teens (1823), began lessons with Józef Elsner, director of new Warsaw Conservatory; after high school, studied harmony, counterpoint, and composition
Chopin
-spent several summers in rural Poland, where he was exposed to Polish folk music and traditions
Chopin
-in Warsaw, played in salons of Polish aristocrats who would later become his patrons and supporters in Paris
Chopin
-plagued by frail health and delicate constitution throughout childhood and youth
Chopin
-in 1829 he took a short trip to Vienna; performed his op. 2 Variations on Mozart's "Là ci darem la mano" (from "Don Giovanni") to great acclaim
Chopin
-returned from Vienna to Warsaw in 1830 to continued success as composer and pianist
Chopin
-departed for an extended concert tour; devastated when Warsaw was invaded by Russian forces while he was in Vienna; notes in his diary express his shock and horror, and the "Revolutionary" Etude, op. 10, no. 12 was likely composed at this time
Chopin
-settled in Paris along with many exiled Polish countrymen; expressed his patriotism in nationalistic works such as mazurkas and polonaises; did not return to Poland because of continued political unrest and instability
Chopin
-in Paris, met many important musicians (Franz Liszt, Hector Berlioz), artists (Eugène Delacroix), and writers (Victor Hugo, Heinrich Heine)
Chopin
-primary sources of income were from teaching members of aristocracy, and publishing piano compositions
-performed surprisingly few public recitals, but played frequently in salons of nobility
Chopin
-had several romantic relationships, including brief engagement to Maria Wodzinska, whose parents considered him unsuitable because of his fragile health
Chopin
-began a ten-year love affair with Aurore Dudevant in 1836, prominent novelist who used pen name George Sand; composed many significant works during this relationship
Chopin
-spent winter holiday in Majorca in 1838; became very ill but eventually recovered; several of the opus 28 preludes were written during this time
Chopin
-back in France, spent long periods at George Sand's summer home in Nohant; happy productive years
Chopin
-romance with George Sand ended bitterly in 1847
Chopin
-traveled to England and Scotland for performances in 1848 organized by devoted student Jane Stirling; his health deteriorated and he was very weak by the end of the trip
Chopin
-died October 17, 1849 at age thirty-nine, surrounded by friends and admirers
-buried at Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris; as requested by this composer, his heart was returned to Poland where it rests at the Church of the Holy Cross in Warsaw
Berlioz
-born in Côte-Saint-André, near Lyon, France in 1803
-father was a physician
Berlioz
-began music studies at age twelve - learned to play guitar and flute, but not piano
-in 1821 he went to Paris to study medicine; lost interest and found his true passion for music; his parents were disappointed when he quit medical school
Berlioz
-in 1826 he began formal music studies at the Paris Conservatoire
Berlioz
-like many of his contemporaries, this composer fell under the spell of Beethoven's music; this had a long-lasting effect on the evolution of his style; a biography of Beethoven and a series of essays on the nine symphonies were among this composer's literary works
Berlioz
-after three failed attempts, finally won the Prix de Rome, the highest honor awarded to composition students in 1830; this prize required him to live and study in Rome; he also traveled to other Italian cities
Berlioz
-in 1830 his career launched with the celebrated premiere of "Symphonie Fantastique"
Berlioz
-met Franz Liszt and began an important friendship that would last for decades
-in 1833 he married Shakespearean actress Harriet Smithson, who was the inspiration for "Symphonie Fantastique" (he had been obsessed with her for years); they had a son Louis
Berlioz
-successful career as a conductor; appeared in major European cities; garnered international acclaim in England, Germany, and Russia
-prolific writer, critic, and author: major works include "Grande triaté d'instrumentation et 'dorchestration modernes" ("Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration") and an autobiography, "Mémoires"
Berlioz
-awards included prestigious "Légion d'honneur", the highest decoration in France, in recognition of his accomplishments
Berlioz
-in 1844 his marriage ended in separation; this composer moved in with singer Marie Recio, although he still supported Harriet
Berlioz
-following Harriet Smith's death in 1854, this composer married Marie Recio
Berlioz
-died March 8, 1869; buried with both wives in Montmartre cemetery
Debussy
-born in St-Germaine-en-Laye, France in 1862
-father was a china shop owner
-mother was a seamstressDebussy
Debussy
-began piano lessons at age 7
-entered Paris Conservatoire
-aspired to be a concert pianist, but interest soon turned to composition
Debussy
-teachers included Antoine-François Marmontel (piano), Émile Durand (harmony), and Ernest Guiraud (composition)
-received many awards and gold medals at the Conservatoire
Debussy
-awarded Prix de Rome for cantata "L'enfant prodigue" in 1884
Debussy
-stayed at Villa Medici in Rome where he explored a range of genres
-enjoyed a varied career as a pianist, collaborative artist, conductor
Debussy
-turbulent private life; had several scandalous romantic relationships
Debussy
-employed as piano teacher for family of Nadezhda von Meck, Tchaikovsky's patron, in 1880
Debussy
-music critic for the "Revue blance", artistic journal published in Paris
Debussy
-attended Paris World Exposition in 1889; exposed to Asian art and music including Javanese gamelan ensemble
Debussy
-gained fame and notoriety with premiere of "Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune"
Debussy
-married first wife in 1899, Rosalie ("Lilly") Texier, whom he later left
Debussy
-reputation enhanced with premiere of opera "Pélléas et Mélisande"
Debussy
-after breaking up with previous wife Rosalie Texier, this composer married Emma Bardac in 1909; their daughter Claude-Emma ("Chou-Chou") was born in 1905
Debussy
-interacted with many prominent contemporary composers in Paris, including Gabriel Fauré, Erik Satie, Ernest Chausson, Maruice Ravel, and Igor Stravinsky
Debussy
-died of cancer March 25, 1918, just prior to the end of WWI
Stravinsky
-born June 17, 1882 in Oranienbaum, near St. Petersburg, Russia
Stravinsky
-father (Fyodor) was a highly respected opera singer (bass) at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg
-mother was a competent, fluent pianist
Stravinsky
-well-to-do family; had early lessons in piano and harmony but parents discouraged musical career
-entered law school at University of St. Petersburg in 1901; also took private music theory lessons
Stravinsky
-he met Vladimir Rimsky-Korsakov in law school, son of famous Russian composer, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov; through this connection, he met the master composer, who mentored him for several years
Stravinsky
-devoted himself to music and did not graduate from law school
-married childhood friend and cousin, Katerina Nossenko
Stravinsky
-early orchestral piece - "Fireworks" - impressed Sergei Diaghilev, director of "Les Ballets Russes" in Paris
Stravinsky
-early ballets commissioned by Diaghilev launched this composer's career: "The Firebird" (1910), "Petrushka" (1911)
Stravinsky
-"The Rite of Spring" (choreographed by Nijinsky) premiered in Paris in 1913; primitive sounding music and unconventional choreography shocked the audience; a riot erupted
Stravinsky
-sought refuge in Switzerland in 1914 because of WWI
-in response to 1917 revolution, severed ties with Russia (did no return, even to visit, until 1962)
Stravinsky
-returned to Paris in 1920; collaborated with leading artistic luminaries including Diaghilev and Pablo Picasso
Stravinsky
-visited United Sates on several occasions in late 1930s: conducted, performed, and completed commissions
Stravinsky
-first wife died after long illness - second wife was Vera de Bosset
Stravinsky
-lectured at Harvard, University of California, Los Angeles, and University of Southern California, eventually settled in Los Angeles
-became an American citizen
Stravinsky
-in late 1940s, began long and important friendship with American composer/conductor Robert Craft, (author of "Conversations with Stravinsky" and "Chronicles of a Friendship"
Stravinsky
-died April 6, 1971 in New York City
-buried on the island of San Michele, Venice, Italy, a few yards from the grave of Sergei Diaghilev
Bernstein
-trained at Harvard University and the Curtis Institute
Louie
-born July 30, 1949 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Louie
-Chinese heritage; offspring of second-generation Canadians
Louie
-childhood piano studies with Jean Lyons
-earned ARCT in Piano Performance from the Royal Conservatory of Music
Louie
-started undergraduate study as a psychology major but switched to music; graduated from UBC
-pursued Master's degree in composition at University of California at San Diego in 1970; main teachers were Robert Erickson and Pauline Oliveros
Louie
-under Oliveros, was part of eight-member Women's Ensemble that performed meditations through exercises in sound and movement; influenced her compositional approach
Louie
-early college teaching career in California began in 1970
Louie
-returned to Canada; settled in Toronto in 1980
Louie
-in 1983 this musician became founding director of Esprit Orchestra, an ensemble of significant for its devotion to Canadian composers and premieres of new works
Louie
-current focus of career is composition but has taught theory and composition on occasion at The Royal Conservatory of Music, York University, University of Western Ontario
Louie
-recipient of numerous awards, including two Junos, an honorary doctorate from University of Calgary, SOCAN (Society of Composers, Authors and Music Publishers of Canada) and the Order of Canada
Louie
-married to composer and conductor Alex Pauk; they have two daughters
Vivaldi
-over 400 concertos, both concerto gross and solo concerto; mostly for violin but also for bassoon, oboe, flute, recorder, viola, cello, and mandolin
Vivaldi
-over 40 operas including "Orlando Furioso" and "Griselda"
Vivaldi
-sacred works: oratorios, including "Juditha Triumphans"; motets and "Gloria"
Bach
-keyboard works: collections for students ("Notebook for Anna Magdalena" and "Notebook for Wilhelm Friedemann"); two part inventions; three-part inventions (otherwise known as sinfonias); "The Well-Tempered Clavier"; toccatas, 6 French suites, 6 English suites, "Italian Concerto", "Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue"
Bach
-organ: chorale preludes, toccatas, passacaglias, fugues
Bach
-chamber music: six unaccompanied suites for cello; six unaccompanied sonatas and partitas for violin; sonatas for flute, viola da gamba, violin, and harpsichord
Bach
-orchestral works: six "Brandenburg Concertos", four orchestral suites, violin concertos, harpsichord concertos
Bach
-vocal works: approximately 200 cantatas, passions ("St. Matthew Passion", "St. John Passion", "Mass in B Minor")
Handel
-operas: "Rinaldo", "Guilio Cesare", "Serses", "Orlando"
Handel
-oratorios: "Messiah", "Judas Maccabeus", "Israel in Egypt"
Handel
-sacred vocal works: "Ode for Saint Cecilia", "Te Deum"
Handel
-orchestral works: suites ("Water Music", "Music for the Royal Fireworks") Concerti Grosso, organ concertos
-chamber music: trio sonatas
-keyboard works for organ and harpsichord
Haydn
-symphonies: over 100, including no. 94, "Surprise"; no. 100, "Military"; no. 104, "London"
-concertos: for piano, violin, cello, and trumpet
Haydn
-string quartets: 68, including op.76, no. 2, "Quinten"; op.76, no. 3 "Kaiser"
-piano sonatas: over 40
Haydn
-oratorios: "The Creation", "The Seasons", "The Seven Last Words of Christ"
Haydn
-sacred vocal works: masses, including "Lord Nelson Mass", "Mass in the Time of War"
Haydn
-operas: 14, including "Armida"
Haydn
-novelties: marionette theater works, compositions for the baryton, a now obsolete string instrument
Mozart
-symphonies: over 40, including no. 35, "Haffner"; no. 36, "Linz"; no. 38 "Prague"; no. 40; and no. 41, "Jupiter"
Mozart
-concertos: piano (27); violin (5); flute, flute and harp, oboe, clarinet, horn
Mozart
-chamber music: string quartets (23), including "The Hunt" and "Dissonance"; duo sonatas, trios, quintets, serenades, divertimenti
Mozart
-operas: more than 20, including "The Abduction from the Seraglio", "Don Giovanni", "Così fan tutte", "Idomeneo", "The Marriage of Figaro", and "The Magic Flute"
Mozart
-vocal works: Lieder, concert arias, motets, and masses, including "Coronation Mass" and "Requiem Mass"
-solo piano music: sonatas, fantasias, variations
Beethoven
-solo piano works: 32 piano sonatas, including the "Pathétique", "Moonlight", "Waldstein", "Appassionata", "Tempest", and "Hammerklavier"; many sets of variations and smaller-scale works (for example "Für Elise")
Beethoven
-symphonies: 9, including "Eroica" (No. 3), "Pastoral" (No. 6), and "Choral" (No. 9)
Beethoven
-other orchestral works: overtures, including "Egmont" and "Leonora"
Beethoven
-concertos: 5 for piano, including "Emperor" (No. 5); one violin concerto; triple concerto for piano, violin, and cello
Beethoven
-chamber music: large variety, including 18 string quartets, 10 sonatas for violin and piano, piano trios, including "Ghost" and "Archduke"
Beethoven
-one opera: "Fidellio"
Beethoven
-other vocal works: mass - "Missa solemnis", oratorio - "The Mount of Olives", song cycle - "An die ferne Geliebte" ("To the Distant Beloved")
Schubert
-Lieder: 600, including "An die Musik", "Ständchen", "Die Forelle", "Heidenröslein", "Ave Maria"
Schubert
-song cycles: "Die Winterreise", "Die schöne Müllerin"
Schubert
-symphonies: 9, including no. 9 "Great", no. 8 "Unfinished"
Schubert
-chamber music: 15 string quartets (including "Death and the Maiden"), "Trout" Quintet, piano trios, octet for winds, duo sonatas
Schubert
-piano works: sonatas, impromptus, "moments musicaux", variations, dances, duets
-choral music: 7 masses
-operas: including "Fierrabras"
Chopin
-solo piano: etudes, dances (waltzes, mazurkas, polonaises), nocturnes, preludes, ballades, scherzos, sonatas, "Berceuse", "Barcarolle", and "Fantaisie in F Minor"
Chopin
-piano and orchestra: concertos in E minor and F minor, variations, Krakowiak
-chamber music: cello sonata, piano trio
Chopin
-songs for voice and piano with Polish texts
Berlioz
-program symphonies: "Symphonie Fantastique", "Harold in Italy", "Romeo and Juliet"
Berlioz
-concert overtures: "Waverly", "Rob Roy", "Le Corsair", "King "Lear"
Berlioz
-song cycle (voice with orchestra): "Les nuits d'été"
Berlioz
-operas: "Les Troyens", "Béatrice et Bénédict", "Benvenuto Cellini"
Berlioz
-choral works: "La damnation de Faust", "Te Deum", "Requiem"
Berlioz
-oratorio: "L'enfance du Christ"
Puccini
-operas: 12, including "Madama Butterfly", "La Bohème", "Tosca", and "Turandot"
Debussy
-orchestral works: symphonic poem - "Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune" suites - "La mer"; "Images"; "Nocturnes"
Debussy
-solo piano: "Suite Bergamasque"; "Pour le piano"; "Estampes"; "Images"; "Préludes" (two books); "Études"; "Children's Corner"; several character pieces
Debussy
-vocal works: French art songs including "Beau Soir", "Mandoline" and song cycle "Chansons de Bilitis"
Debussy
-opera: "Pélléas et Mélisande"
-chamber music: string quartet, sonatas for violin and piano, cello and piano
Stravinsky
-ballet: "The Firebird", "Petrushka", "The Rite of Spring" ("La sacre du printemps"), "Pulcinella", "The Card Party", "Agon"
Stravinsky
-orchestral works: "Symphonies of Wind Instruments", "Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments", Violin Concerto in D, "Ebony Concerto", Symphony in C
Stravinsky
-choral works: "Symphony of Psalms", "Persephone", "Threni", "Canticum Sacrum", "Requiem Canticles"
Stravinsky
-staged/theatrical: "The Nightingale", "The Wedding", "The Soldier's Tale", "The Flood"
Stravinsky
-operas: "Mavra", "The Rake's Progress"
Stravinsky
-opera/oratorio: "Oedipus Rex"
-song collections, solo piano, chamber music
Bernstein
-musicals: "On the Town"; "Wonderful Town"; "Candide"; "West Side Story"
Bernstein
-operas "Trouble in Tahiti", "A Quiet Place"
Bernstein
-ballets: "Fancy Free"; "Facsimile"; "Dybbuk"
Bernstein
-film score: "On the Waterfront"
Bernstein
-chorus and orchestra: "Chichester Psalms"; "Songfest"; "Mass"
Bernstein
-orchestral works: 3 symphonies, including no. 1, "Jeremiah"; no. 2, "The Age of Anxiety"; and no. 3, "Kaddish"; "Serenade"
Bernstein
-chamber music including "Prelude, Fugue and Riffs" (clarinet and jazz ensemble)
Bernstein
-incidental music, songs, song cycles, including "I Hate Music"
Louie
-keyboard music: including "Dragon Bells", "Scenes from a Jade Terrace", "Music for Piano", "Fast Forward"
Louie
-chamber music: including "Demon Gate", "Edges"
Louie
-orchestral works: including "Music for Heaven and Earth", "The Eternal Earth", "Music for a Thousand Autumns", "O Magnum Mysterium" (written in memory of Canadian pianist Glenn Gould)
Louie
-film scores: "The Five Senses", "Last Night"
Louie
-vocal works: "Songs of Enchantment"
Louie
-operas: including "The Scarlet Princess" (with David Henry Hwang), "Toothpaste", "Burnt Toast"
Louie
-electronic music: "Molly"
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
Genre: solo violin concerto
Date of composition: 1725
Performing Forces: Solo violin, strings, and continuo
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
(fill in the blank with the name of the piece and it's composer using the correct syntax)

__________("Spring") from "Le Quattro Stagioni (The Four Seasons)
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
Subtitle of Collection: "Il cimento dell'armonia e dell'invenzione" ("The Contest between Harmony and Inspiration)
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
Source of Inspiration (program): sonnets, most likely written by the composer who wrote this musical work, describing the four seasons of the year; portions of the text were printed above the corresponding passages in the original score.
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
-FIRST MOVEMENT-
Key: E Major
Tempo: "Allegro"
Time Signature: 4/4 (C)
Form: ritornello form
Opening dynamic level: "forte"
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
Poetic text associated with the first movement:
Birds celebrate with festive song; murmuring streams are caressed by gentle breezes. Storm clouds darken the sky, bringing thunder and lightning. After the storm, the birds resume their joyful singing.
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
The ritornello theme of the first movement of this piece (depicted in the first 13 measures) uses spirited rhythmic figures, bright character, and celebratory dance-like quality to depict it's associated poetic image.
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
This segment (beginning on mm. 13) uses high-pitched trills in the violin solo part and repeated-note staccato figures along with descending passages of 32nd notes in the second violin part to depict the image of birds singing.
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
To depict the sound of murmuring streams caressed by gentle breezes, the violins play a rapid, undulating figure of slurred sixteenth notes with a dynamic marking of "piano". This segment begins on mm. 31.
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
As a storm cloud forms darken the sky carrying with them barrages of thunder and lightning, the music in this piece (beginning mm. 44) commences in "tremolando" passages (quick repetition of notes) played by the violins to evoke thunder, while slurred rising 32nd-notes suggest lightning.
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
The second movement of this work employs a drastic change in quality from the first and third movements. As night falls, a goatherd is depicted sleeping in a flowery meadow with a faithful watchdog barking beside him. The leaves rustle gently as the moonlight falls on them.
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
-SECOND MOVEMENT-
Key: C sharp minor
Tempo marking: "Largo et pianissimo sempre"
Time Signature: 3/4
Features: Reduced orchestration (no cello or "continuo")
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
During the second movement of this piece, the first and second violins play a subtle, melodic passage of dotted 16th notes in parallel thirds that very infrequently fluctuates between the registers, depicting the sound of the rustling leaves.
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
During the second movement of this piece, the viola part plays a short ostinato (consisting of a C# eighth-note on the downbeat followed by a C# quarter-note) that doesn't change throughout the entire movement, suggesting a barking dog watching faithfully over the rest of the piece.
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
The violin solo's part during this movement is dominated by a slow, melancholic yet reverent melody, rarely (if ever) fluctuating between the octaves available, and not once using a note value shorter than an eighth note. This melody depicts a sleeping goatherd in a flowery meadow, and its oneiric undertone outlines the moonlight falling upon him. It gives the entire movement atmosphere.
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
-THIRD MOVEMENT-
Key: E major
Tempo: "Allegro"
Time Signature: 12/8
Form: ritornello form
Features: rustic elements are employed in this movement such as the musical suggestion of bagpipes.
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
Poetic text associated with the third movement: Nymphs and shepherds dance gaily to the festive sound of rustic bagpipes as they welcome spring.
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
The music of this movement is lyrically choreographed, especially in the violin solo parts. In 12/8 meter with jocular dotted-eighth rhythms, bouncing melodies and lilting trills, a celebratory atmosphere is created that depicts the poetic text associated with this movement incredibly accurately.
La Primavera, op. 8, no. 1, Vivaldi
A low droning bass note is played by the strings during the third movement of this piece, depicting the lull of bagpipes accompanying the dance-like character of the melody (held by the violin solo).
The Well-Tempered Clavier, Bach
Genre: keyboard music - preludes and fugues
Date of composition: Book 1 - 1722, Book 2 - 1742
Structure: two books. Each book contains twenty-four preludes and fugues, which are organized in pairs of tonic major and minor keys. Both books begin with preludes and fugues in C major and C minor then move up chromatically by semitone, ending with B major and B minor.
The Well-Tempered Clavier, Bach
Significance of title: The title of this musical work refers to the newly invented tuning system for keyboard instruments that allows for pieces to be written in any key. The second word of the title is the German word for any keyboard instrument other than organ.
The Well-Tempered Clavier, Bach
(fill in the blank using the correct syntax)

______; Book One, Prelude and Fugue No. 21 in B flat Major
The Well-Tempered Clavier; Book One, Prelude and Fugue No. 21 in B flat Major, Bach
-PRELUDE-
Key: B flat major
Tempo: no specific indication on the score; style implies a quick tempo, in the manner of a toccata (a very fast keyboard work demonstrating a virtuosic, improvisatory character)
Time Signature: 4/4 (C)
Texture: homophonic and polyphonic
Structure: binary (AB) form
The Well-Tempered Clavier; Book One, Prelude and Fugue No. 21 in B flat Major, Bach
This work opens in broken chord passages in the upper register played in breathless thirty-second notes and treated sequentially, while the left hand plays a descending sequence of eighth-notes. This segment (part A of an AB binary form) ends in F major (dominant key) and proceeds immediately to the next section.
The Well-Tempered Clavier; Book One, Prelude and Fugue No. 21 in B flat Major, Bach
The second segment (part B of an AB binary form) of this piece begins immediately after the A section, and continues the toccata-like style with the use of rapid cadenza-like runs that emerge from arpeggiated seventh chords. An improvisatory style is present in this segment that provides contrast to the controlled order demonstrated in the fugue that follows.
The Well-Tempered Clavier; Book One, Prelude and Fugue No. 21 in B flat Major, Bach
The prelude segment of this piece demonstrates virtuosity and technical wizardry through its relentless passages of arpeggiated thirty-second runs and improvisatory character. Many performers such as Glenn Gould interpreted the prelude of this piece to be played with a slight "rubato".
The Well-Tempered Clavier; Book One, Prelude and Fugue No. 21 in B flat Major, Bach
-FUGUE-
Key: B flat major
Tempo: (moderately) fast; no actually tempo indications are found anywhere in the score
Time Signature: 3/4
Texture: polyphonic
Number of Voices: three
Type of Answer: tonal
Countersubject: there are two countersubjects that are heard simultaneously throughout the fugue; they act as accompanying figures to the statements of the subject or answer.
The Well-Tempered Clavier; Book One, Prelude and Fugue No. 21 in B flat Major, Bach
The subject of this fugue is stated in B flat major, presented in the top voice (unusually long). It is comprised of two motives: the first is mostly disjunct, outlining the tonic-dominant seventh harmony in bouncy eighth note passages, while the second is conjunct, outlining the same harmonies in a single, fluid, 16th-note run. The tonal answer (found in the middle voice) is in F major.
The Well-Tempered Clavier; Book One, Prelude and Fugue No. 21 in B flat Major, Bach
In the middle section of the fugue of this work, the first episode leads to G minor in which the subject appears, followd by a tonal answer in C minor. The second episode leads to E flat major and a partial (two-measure) entry of the tonal answer in that key. Finally, a complete entry of the subject is found in E flat major.
The Well-Tempered Clavier; Book One, Prelude and Fugue No. 21 in B flat Major, Bach
The final section of the fugue of this work concludes with a tonal answer reaffirming the home key of B flat major. The final four measures act as a coda bringing the fugue to a strong close.
Messiah, Handel
The first appearance of this piece was on April 13th, 1742, at Neale's Music Hall in Dublin. It was an international masterpiece, with a French overture, Italian recitatives and arias, German counterpoint, and rich English choral writing.
Messiah, Handel
Genre: oratorio
Date and Circumstances of First Performance: 1742, for a benefit concert in Dublin; composed the previous summer in just twenty-four days
Source of text: biblical prose - Old and New Testaments
Librettist: Charles Jennens
Language: English
Performing forces: soprano, alto, tenor, and bass soloists; SATB chorus and string orchestra with continuo, oboes, bassoons, trumpets, and timpani
Messiah, Handel
Formal Structure: Three parts - each contains multiple movements;

Part One - The prophecy of the coming of Christ and his birth
Part Two - Christ's suffering, death, and the spread of his doctrine.
Part Three - the redemption of the world through faith
Messiah, Handel
-OVERTURE-
Title in original score: "Sinfony"
Genre: French overture
Form: A (repeated) B
Key: E minor
Time Signature: C
Tempo Marking: Grave
Texture: Homophonic
Predominant Rhythm: dotted figure (sometimes interpreted as a double-dotted rhythm)
Messiah, Handel
The "affection" created in the French overture of this piece is a sense of unknowing and fear, but with an underlying hint of hope that finds itself surmounting and cadentially conquering the terror ensued by the cimmerian minor melody.
Messiah, Handel
The tempo marking changes to "Allegro moderato" in mm. 13-24 of this work's overture, with a polyphonic (fugal) texture. The subject is introduced by the 1st violins and oboes, and the answer is real.
Messiah, "There Were Shepherds", Handel
Type of recitative: "recitativo secco"
Key: C major
Tempo: not indicated
Time Signature: 4/4 (C)
Text: "There were shepherds abiding int he field, keeping watch over their flocks by night."

The recitativo secco part of this segment predominantly contains repeated figures of eighth notes syncopated on the downbeat, with a few repeated sixteenth notes mixed in, while the secco part outlines 6-beat long chords in "piano".
Messiah, "And Io! The angel of the Lord...", Handel
Type of recitative: "recitativo accompagnato"
Key: F major
Tempo: "Andante"
Time Signature: 4/4 (C)
Text: "And Io! The angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them, and they were sore afraid."

The accompaniment of this segment is composed mainly of repeated rapidly ascending 16th-note arpeggios representing the wings of Io in action.
Messiah, "And the angel said unto them...", Handel
Type of recitative: "recitativo secco"
Key: begins in D major
Tempo: not indicated
Time Signature: 4/4 (C)
Text: "And the angel said unto them 'Fear not, for behold I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people; for unto you is born this day, in the city of David, a Savior which is Christ the Lord'."

Much like "There were Shepherds", the recitativo retains repeated figures of eighth notes syncopated on the downbeat, again with a few sixteenth notes mixed in. The secco is also very reminiscent of "There were Shepherds", however instead of 6-beat long chords the chords are worth 8-beats.
Messiah, "And suddenly...", Handel
Type of recitative: "recitative accompagnato"
Key: begins in D major
Tempo: not indicated
Time Signature: 4/4 (C)
Text: And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heav'nly host, praising God, and saying"

The vivid runs of sixteenth-on-eighth note passages being played in the violin parts accompanies the ever increasingly dramatic prophecy of "a multitude of the heav'nly host" sung in the Soprano voice.
Messiah, "Glory to God", Handel
Key: D major
Tempo: "Allegro"
Time Signature: 4/4 (C)
Text: "Glory to God, Glory to God in the highest, and peace on earth, good will towards men."
Messiah, "Glory to God", Handel
Word painting is employed during the lines "and peace on earth" through the juxtaposition of dynamics (this part being in "piano" while the opening of the segment is in "forte") and the juxtaposition of rhythmic features (the opening being jumpier and faster [through the use of dotted-eighth note rhythms] than the "peace on earth" part), implying that the music itself is at peace, as is the earth.
Messiah, "Rejoice Greatly", Handel
Key: B flat major
Tempo: "Allegro"
Time signature: 4/4 (C)
Form: ABA(1)
Text from Section A: "Rejoice, rejoice, rejoice greatly, o daughter of Zion. Rejoice greatly, shout, o daughter of Jerusalem. Behold thy king cometh unto thee..."

Key of section B: G minor
Text from Section B: "He is the righteous Savior, and He shall speak peace unto the heathen."
Messiah, "Rejoice Greatly", Handel
The word rejoice is sung on an interval of a 4th to begin with (outlining a tonic chord), the second outlining a dominant chord, with the following repetitions of the word 'rejoice' being sung in fantastic coloratura melismas.
Messiah, "Hallelujah Chorus", Handel
Key: D major
Tempo: "Allegro"
Time Signature: 4/4 (C)
Text: "Hallelujah, for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth. The kingdom of this world has become the kingdom of our Lord, and of His Christ; and He shall reign for ever and ever. King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, Hallelujah!"

The tradition of standing for this segment of the entire musical work originated from a rumor that when this piece was first performed in London in 1743, King George II was so enthralled in the divinity of this segment, that he stood up, obliging the rest of the audience to stand alongside him.

Imitative polyphony is employed on "and He shall reign for ever and ever".
String Quartet, op. 76, no. 2 ("Quinten"), Haydn
The series of string quartets to which this piece belongs, opus 76, were composed during 1796-1797 and were commissioned by Count Joseph Erdödy.
String Quartet, op. 76, no. 2 ("Quinten"), Haydn
Genre: string quartet
Date of Composition: 1797
Significance of title: "Quintus" means "fifth" in Latin: the bold descending fifths in the first violin part in the opening measures of the first movement earned this work its nickname.
Overall structure: four movements
String Quartet, op. 76, no. 2 ("Quinten"), Haydn
-FOURTH MOVEMENT-
Key: D minor - ends in D major
Form: sonata form
Tempo: "Vivace assai"
Time signature: 2/4
String Quartet, op. 76, no. 2 ("Quinten"), Haydn
The first theme of the exposition of the 4th movement of this piece is introduced by the first violin with an ascending perfect 4th interval - played "piano", and features pronounced syncopations and unexpected fermatas that arrest the forward drive.
String Quartet, op. 76, no. 2 ("Quinten"), Haydn
The jocular attitude of the exposition of the fourth movement of this piece is immediately exemplified in many ways; the abrupt changing of the main theme into D major, the jumpy staccato syncopations, intriguing differences in dynamic contrast (via the first violin being introduced in piano and fluctuating harshly) and the unexpected fermatas. The mood of the movement is slightly unsettling, unnerving if you will; the juxtaposition of minor to major segments, fast to slow segments, lulls the audience into a sense of knowingly eerie reassurance, only to abruptly reintroduce the themes in major, leading the audience to re-evaluate what they thought would be an easily identifiable haunting theme, and creates a sublime sense of terror.
String Quartet, op. 76, no. 2 ("Quinten"), Haydn
The bridge of the exposition of the fourth movement of this piece begins on mm. 22, and grows out of the first theme. The melody is presented by the second violin, and is supported by a pedal point in the cello. This segment is still in D minor.
String Quartet, op. 76, no. 2 ("Quinten"), Haydn
The second theme of the exposition of the fourth movement of this piece begins in F major (the relative major key of D minor, the original key of the first theme), and includes a descending sequence.
String Quartet, op. 76, no. 2 ("Quinten"), Haydn
Beginning on mm. 63 of the exposition of the fourth movement of this piece, descending double-stop staccato eighth-note thirds, played in the first violin part, are followed by wide descending leaps (a 14th-interval) with accents on the downbeat. This segment serves to demonstrate abrupt changes in dynamics and contrasts the F major theme juxtaposed to it.

The codetta then goes on to return (and confirm) F major (the relative major key), while the melody is supported by a tonic pedal point.
String Quartet, op. 76, no. 2 ("Quinten"), Haydn
The development section of the fourth movement of this piece uses second-theme material throughout, with frequent shifts in texture (homophonic to polyphonic) with imitation. It concludes with dominant preparation - the first violins outline a diminished seventh chord which increases the tension in mm. 66-69.
String Quartet, op. 76, no. 2 ("Quinten"), Haydn
The recapitulation section of the fourth movement of this piece returns the first theme in D minor, then unexpectedly shifts to D major (tonic major) and remains in that key until the end of the movement, contrasting from the exposition in the fact that the key shifted from D minor to the tonic major to the relative major very frequently. The bridge and second-theme group are restated in D major, and the cello is absent in mm. 180 - 202, creating tension.

The Coda introduces rapid triplets in the first violin part, and ends with unison arpeggios played "fortissimo".
String Quartet, op. 76, no. 2 ("Quinten"), Haydn
-FIRST MOVEMENT-
Tempo: "Allegro"
Key: D minor
Formal Structure: Sonata form
Listen for: Opening motive contains the descending fifths that gave the work its nickname.

-SECOND MOVEMENT-
Tempo: "Andante o più tosto allegretto"
Key: D major/minor
Formal Structure: theme and variations
Listen for: This movement demonstrates the composer's mastery of variation technique.

-THIRD MOVEMENT-
Tempo: Mennuetto: "Allegro ma non troppo"
Key: D minor
Formal Structure: ABA (ternary form)
Listen for: Nicknamed "Witches Menuet" because of its dissonant harmony. Also contains a two-part canon.

-FOURTH MOVEMENT-
Tempo: Finale: "Vivace Assai"
Key: D minor
Formal Structure: Sonata form
Listen for: This movement is characterized by the frequent use of syncopation.
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K 525, Mozart
Genre: Serenade for strings (chamber music)
Performing forces: double string quartet (with optional double bass) - often performed by a string orchestra
Date of composition: 1787
Translation of Title: "A Little Night Music"
Formal Structure: Classical sonata cycle.
Intention: To serve as light entertainment for an aristocratic audience.
Features: Symmetrical phrases, essentially diatonic harmony, and clarity of texture are characteristic features.
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K 525, Mozart
-FIRST MOVEMENT-
Key: G Major
Form: Sonata form
Tempo: "Allegro"
Time Signature: 4/4 (C)

The first theme, in unison, outlines the tonic, then dominant seventh chords. It is homophonic in texture with the melodic line played by the violin. The melody is mainly composed of quasi-disjunct passages of quarter and eighth notes.

All instruments play briefly in unison again during the Codetta of the exposition of this movement, ending with a strong perfect cadence in D major. Repeat signs are usually observed in performance.
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K 525, Mozart
The bridge of the exposition of the first movement modulates to the new key of D major,with the first violins outlining a G major triad, followed by ascending scale movement leading to the new key. The section is very contrasting throughout, being composed of a "sforzando" half-note followed by a passage of "piano" trills in 16th and 32nd notes, followed by an ascending, crescendo-ing "tremolando" passage.
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K 525, Mozart
The second theme, outlined in mm. 28 - 31, contrasts with the first theme greatly, both in dynamic quality (the first theme being loud while this is to be played soft), and in rhythm; the melody beginning with a frisky downward turn that features a triplet sixteenth-note figure.

The second theme is divided into two distinct segments, the first being outlined above, the second being built on mm. 36 - 39 built from a repeated eighth-note figure with high trills that creates an insistent quality.
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K 525, Mozart
The development of the first movement of this piece is rather short, beginning mm. 51, and opens with first-theme material in D major. It quickly moves from D major to C major; then features material from theme 2b. Toward the end of the development there is a strong emphasis on the dominant chord (dominant preparation), which prepares the listener for the return of the main theme in the tonic key.
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K 525, Mozart
The first theme returns exactly as presented in the Exposition, in the Recapitulation. The bridge however unexpectedly cadences in D major (like the Exposition); the bridge is usually altered in the Recapitulation to remain in the tonic. The second theme group fulfills the listener's expectations: it brings return of the G major, and the "coda" grows out of the "codetta", ending with a reference to the first theme.
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K 525, Mozart
-SECOND MOVEMENT-
----(ROMANZA)---
Key: C major
Form: Rondo form (ABACA Coda)
Tempo: "Andante"
Time Signature: 2/2 (cut time)

The character of Section A of this movement is very lyrical, understated, simple, and elegant. It unfolds over a tonic pedal, and balance is achieved through four-measure phrases with clear-cut cadences. The internal structure of this section is rounded binary form. It starts out "piano" with repeated eighth-notes followed by passages of slurred eighth-notes and dotted quarter-notes.
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K 525, Mozart
Section B of the second movement of this work starts out in "piano" in mm. 17. A new melody is introduced which becomes more active rhythmically. The new melody is very contrasting to the melody of Section A, being much more opulent, embellished in chromaticisms, and vivid, being composed of bouncy staccato eighth notes juxtaposed to slurred sixteenth-note passages.
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K 525, Mozart
After section A is restated, section C of the second movement of this work opens in a new key, the tonic minor of section A (C minor). It is composed of an imitative dialogue between the outer parts. The second violin and viola parts are dominated by repeated sixteenth-note figures played "piano" with some jumps to the ever-abrupt "fortepiano". The first violin part, also piano, is disjunct and soft-spoken, having short notes few and far between with turns on the downbeat of repeated jumps.

Section A then returns in C major, and the Coda grows out of section A material, it brings the movement to a gentle close.
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K 525, Mozart
-THIRD MOVEMENT-
Key: G major
Form: ABA (Ternary)
Time Signature: 3/4

The internal structure of this menuet is rounded binary, phrases are typically four measures long. A robust character is employed through the use of "forte" dynamics, and a dance-like quality is reinforced through rhythmic accentuation. The melody is composed mainly of staccato quarter notes with the occasional shift into slurred eighth notes and sixteenth-note trills.
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K 525, Mozart
The Trio of the third movement of this piece starts in a new key, D major (the dominant key of G major), contrast is achieved through "sotto voce" (literally translating to 'under-the-voice') indication, more lyrical character, and "legato" lines. More chromatic inflections are present here than in the menuet.

The Menuet then returns in G major, completing the Ternary form.
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K 525, Mozart
-FOURTH MOVEMENT-
Key: G major
Form: sonata-rondo form
Tempo: "Allegro"
Time Signature: 2/2 (cut time)

The first theme, opening with a one-beat anacrusis with a staccato eighth-note rocket theme outlining the tonic arpeggio, is spirited and light-hearted in character. The rest of the melody is comprised of repeated quarter-notes jumping back and fourth with the occasional turn placed between two slurred notes.
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K 525, Mozart
The second theme of the fourth movement of this piece begins with a downward turn of a minor sixth. The melody is very conjunct, contrasting to the disjunct nature of the first theme, and employs some chromatic embellishments.
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K 525, Mozart
-FIRST MOVEMENT-
Key: G Major
Form: Sonata form
Tempo: "Allegro"
Time Signature: 4/4 (C)

-SECOND MOVEMENT-
----(ROMANZA)---
Key: C major
Form: Rondo form (ABACA Coda)
Tempo: "Andante"
Time Signature: 2/2 (cut time)

-THIRD MOVEMENT-
Key: G major
Form: ABA (Ternary)
Time Signature: 3/4

-FOURTH MOVEMENT-
Key: G major
Form: sonata-rondo form
Tempo: "Allegro"
Time Signature: 2/2 (cut time)
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
This is the piece where the famous four-note motive of "three shorts and a long" appears and reappears in various guises in each movement.
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
Genre: Symphony
Performing Forces: symphony, orchestra (strings, piccolo, flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, contrabassoon, trumpets, French horns, trombones, and timpani)
Date of composition: 1807-1808 (Middle Period of this composer's life)
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
-FIRST MOVEMENT-
Key: C minor
Form: Sonata form
Tempo: "Allegro con brio"
Time signature: 2/4

The first theme of the exposition of the first movement of this piece contains the prestigious four-note motive - comprised of a short-short-short-long rhythm - which is stated in unison by clarinets and strings: the descending third is repeated sequentially a step lower. Fermatas arrest the forward drive of the theme, generating tension and a restless character. The first theme then grows out of this initial statement: repeated sequentially in a series of descending statements.

The Codetta of the exposition first movement of this piece reuses first theme material, punctuating the close of the exposition with decisive perfect cadences.
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
The bridge of the exposition of the first movement of this piece grows out of the first theme, still using the omnipresent short-short-short-long motif found in this piece, and still played "fortissimo", but this time without fermatas and played in E flat major (the new key to which this section modulates). It is too be played by the French horns.
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
The second theme of the exposition of the first movement of this piece is extremely different from the first theme. Starting off in the new key of E flat major, and played by the woodwinds and first violins, the "piano" and "legato" phrases create contrast. The rhythm of the four-note motive (short-short-short-long) in the cellos and basses provides a persistent background to this (more) lyrical theme.
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
The Development of the first movement of this piece opens boldly with the French horns, and draws principally on the first theme. Tension is generated by the use of several techniques, including:
1) manipulation and breaking-down of the four-note figure.
2) filling-in of the interval of a third.
3) inverting the motive.
4) and expanding the passage through forceful repetition.

Abrupt dynamic contrasts contribute to the dramatic energy and at the end of the Development, tension builds through repetitions of the basic theme played "fortissimo" by the full orchestra in unison.
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
The Recapitulation of the first movement of this piece returns the first theme, followed by a short, melancholy oboe solo that resembles a cadenza. The bridge follows, altered to stay in the tonic key, and the second theme returns surprisingly in the key of C major, not C minor as expected. The Codetta is also in C major, followed by a length Coda, which restores C minor while it continues to fragment and expand on the first theme.
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
-SECOND MOVEMENT-
Key: A flat major
Form: two themes with variations
Tempo: "Andante con moto"
Time Signature: 3/8

Theme A grows out of an ascending broken tonic triad in the low strings. This theme is characterized by elegant dotted rhythms, and is marked "dolce" and played "legato". The melody is mainly conjunct, dominated by rapid slurred dotted sixteenth-note rhythms.
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
Theme B begins in A flat major, but shifts boldly to C major in m. 32. It is played by the woodwinds and violins (which is based on the short-short-short-long rhythm) marked "dolce" and "legato". The melody is not significantly simpler than the first theme, but differences in complexity of the theme are apparent. Dynamic contrast is an important aspect of this theme, jumping within three bars from "pianissimo" to "fortissimo".
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
Variation 1:
-Theme A is played by violas and cellos in smooth, running sixteenth notes
-Theme B follows (unchanged)

Variation 2:
-Theme A returns in running thirty-second notes played in the low strings
-Theme B follows (unchanged)

Variation 3:
-Theme A is presented by the woodwinds in contrary motion
-suddenly, without preparation, Theme B recurs in C major as opposed to A flat major.

Variation 4:
-Theme A is played in A flat minor (tonic minor key) in a clipped, march-like fashion

Coda:
-marked "più mosso"
-bassoons begin, playing Theme A material
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
-THIRD MOVEMENT-
Key: C minor
Form: ABA (ternary form) - Scherzo and Trio replaces the traditional Menuet and Trio
Tempo: "Allegro"
Time Signature: 3/4

The first theme of the Scherzo part (part A of ABA Ternary form) opens with a "pianissimo" rocket theme of quarter-notes initiated by the low strings. The melody is mainly composed of a half-note quarter-note rhythmic inflection being repeated with alterations such as slurs placed in different areas, staccatos and even a "poco rit." and fermata.
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
The second theme of the Scherzo part of the third movement of this piece is a bold, subsidiary theme, played "forte" by the French horns. Once again, the short-short-short-long motif is returned from the first movement. This theme contrasts nicely to the bouncy yet soft-spoken first theme with more conjunct, unquavering melodies, less chromaticisms, and a complete reciprocation of the dynamic level.
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
The Trio part of the third movement of this piece is in the new key of C major, and features extensive use of woodwinds and strings. The texture is imitative, and in a rare move the composer of this piece gives the theme to the double basses; in the past they played only a supporting role. The character of the Trio is playful and energetic, in marked contrast to the dark Scherzo.
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
The Scherzo then returns once again, completing the ABA ternary form, this time with Theme 1 abbreviated, and Theme 2 now strangely "pianissimo", played now by "pizzicato" strings and "staccato" winds. Suspense is achieved at the end of the movement by a deceptive cadence that leads into a transitional passage. The timpani plays the short-short-short-long rhythm softly, and a blazing crescendo leads directly into the final movement (without break).
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
-FOURTH MOVEMENT-
Key: C major
Form: Sonata form
Tempo: "Allegro"
Time Signature: 4/4 (C)

The exposition of this movement begins by outlining a tonic chord in "fortissimo" trumpets in the first theme, giving off a majestic touch.
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
The bridge of the exposition of the fourth movement of this piece, beginning on mm. 26, features French horns, and leads directly into G major. The rhythm of the bridge is similar to that of the first theme, being comprised mainly of dotted half-notes followed by either a quarter note or a dotted eighth-note rhythm.
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
The Second theme of the fourth movement of this piece opens with a new triplet eighth-note figure that introduces a vigorous theme. The theme ascends in a stepwise motion, echoed by descending figures. Dramatic contrasts between "fortissimo" and "piano" occur, and for the last time, the short-short-short-long motive is restated.

The Codetta of the exposition of the fourth movement of this piece opens in mm. 64, initiated by the woodwinds and violas. It descends in four-note fragments, and features interesting double-dotted rhythms and usage of "fortepiano" dynamics.
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
The Development of the fourth movement of this piece is based on the second theme material but inverted, expanded, and treated imitatively between instruments. Toward the end of the Development the Scherzo theme is unexpectedly recalled, now "pianissimo" (similar to the recalling of the Scherzo in the ternary form of the third movement), played by the woodwinds and "pizzicato" strings. Extended dominant preparation on the note G leads into the Recapitulation.
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
All musical material from the exposition returns but remains in C major. The Coda however features the piccolo, standing out above the orchestra, playing rapid ascending scales. At the Presto (mm. 362), codetta theme is played quickly, leading in to a bold and dramatic conclusion. The final tonic chord is reiterated many times.
Symphony No. 5, op. 67, Beethoven
-FIRST MOVEMENT-
Key: C minor
Form: Sonata form
Tempo: "Allegro con brio"
Time signature: 2/4

-SECOND MOVEMENT-
Key: A flat major
Form: two themes with variations
Tempo: "Andante con moto"
Time Signature: 3/8

-THIRD MOVEMENT-
Key: C minor
Form: ABA (ternary form) - Scherzo and Trio replaces the traditional Menuet and Trio
Tempo: "Allegro"
Time Signature: 3/4

-FOURTH MOVEMENT-
Key: C major
Form: Sonata form
Tempo: "Allegro"
Time Signature: 4/4 (C)
Erlkönig, op. 1, D 328, Schubert
Genre: "Lied"
Date of composition: 1815
Source of text: poem by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, inspired by German legend of the Erlking, a sinister supernatural elf who dwells in the forest; anyone who is touched by him dies
Song type/structure: "durchkomponiert"
Performing forces: solo voice and piano
Key: originally G minor (transposed 13 times throughout the piece to accommodate the vocal range of the performer)
Time Signature: 4/4 (C)
Tempo: "Schnell" (German for "fast")
Erlkönig, op. 1, D 328, Schubert
Summary of Text Associated with this music:
On a windswept night a father is riding urgently with his ailing son. The boy, in his delirium, sees the Erlking. The menacing elf tries again and again to lure away the frightened child. The boy becomes increasingly fearful and agitated despite his father's attempts to calm and reassure him. Father and son continue their journey with great urgency. As they arrive at the courtyard, the father looks down to find his son dead in his arms.
Erlkönig, op. 1, D 328, Schubert
The lied opens with the piano, the upper register playing vigorous repeated octave triplets in the right hand, while, representing the horse galloping. Arched melody is present in the left hand. It is all to be played "forte". Almost immediately a sense of unknowing terror is established, an unsettling undertone of the presence of the Erlking in the night.
Erlkönig, op. 1, D 328, Schubert
The narrator's voice stays in the middle register, the father's notes are pitched in the lower register with "legato" phrases attempting to maintain a calm mood, the son returns the singer's voice to the upper register, suggesting his youth and childlike innocence, and the Erlking sings in the middle register, addressing the boy with an insincere sweetness (via major tones) that does not fool the child.
Erlkönig, op. 1, D 328, Schubert
The child's voice stays relatively high in the register, quavering infrequently, and in a minor tonality. The note values and rhythms in the second cadenza also tend to stay in a "short-long-short-short" rhythm, giving the music a rather enticing sound (especially when juxtaposed to the longer rhythms imposed by the father's musical style), representing the fearful anxiety present in the child. After the father's first interlude, the style of the child's rhythms begins to shift to a "short-long-long-short-short-short", coupled with forte notes which gives a bit more of a terrified inquisition to the music, as opposed to an enticing anxiety present previously.
Polonaise in A flat Major, op. 53, Chopin
Genre: Solo piano work
Date of Composition: 1842
Formal Structure: ABA1 (with Introduction and Coda)
Key: A flat major
Time Signature: 3/4
Tempo: "Maestoso"
Origin of nickname: The nickname "Polonaise Héroïque" was given to the piece by the composer's lover at the time, Aurore Dudevant (better known by her pseudonym George Sand), who at the time was responding vigorously patriotically to the French Revolution of 1848 (which actually began a few years earlier). Once she heard the piece, she responded in a letter to the composer describing her envy for the nationalism she found in the music, saying it should "from now on be a symbol of heroicness!".
Polonaise in A flat Major, op. 53, Chopin
The Introduction of this piece opens with immediate "sforzando" dominant octaves, followed by a technically challenging run of chromatically ascending crescendo-ing parallel sixteenth-note fourths. This theme is expanded through sequential repetition, and eventually resolved from its rather dissonant first impression, leading into some truly majestic chords, that open into Section A.
Polonaise in A flat Major, op. 53, Chopin
Section A of this piece truly begins to showcase the virtuosic transformation of the polonaise style, introducing traditional rhythms with added embellishments such as grace notes and complicated passages of rolled chords. The principal theme is announced in the right hand using the characteristic polonaise rhythm. The theme is harmonized in thirds, while the left hand plays octaves which leap vigorously over a span of three octaves. A sweeping ascending scale is heard three times in this section.
Polonaise in A flat Major, op. 53, Chopin
Section B of this piece begins in E major, and opens with repeated rolled chords for a few measures, until it abruptly stops to let the left hand open up into an ostinato of descending staccato octave sixteenth-notes. It is labelled "sotto voce" for the first segment of the right hand (which is comprised of complicated dotted eighth-note chordal rhythms), until a climax is achieved and a brilliant passage of "fortissimo" chords is played with a dramatic shift down a half step to the key of D sharp major.
Symphonie Fantastique, Berlioz
English Translation of full title: Fantastic Symphony: Episode in the Life of an Artist
Date of Composition: 1830
Sources of Inspiration: longstanding infatuation with actress Harriet Smithson; revolutionary climate of the time, including public executions; controversial literary works.
General Program: a lovesick artist takes opium in an attempt to commit suicide; the drug, too weak to kill, puts him into a deep sleep; we glimpse his dreams and nightmares which are haunted by visions of his beloved (Harriet Smithson)
Performing Forces: symphony orchestra (expanded)
Symphonie Fantastique, Berlioz
-FIRST MOVEMENT-
---"Reveries, Passions"---
Key: C minor - shifting to C major
Tempo: "Largo" - later becoming "Allegro agitato e appassionato assai" at the "idée fixe", which represents his beloved.
Time signature: 4/4 (C)
Program: in his drugged stupor, the weary musician recalls the yearning passion that his beloved ignited in him.
Symphonie Fantastique, Berlioz
The symphony starts slowly, a common trait of classical style symphonies. The music is sad and uneasy in expression, and the music doesn't just play melancholy it is melancholy, through long, reverent notes and lulling slurred motifs. The artist is still remembering his loneliness, until the idée fixe where his inebriated stupefaction reminds him of how he first fell in love. (represented through fast, running, joyous segments immediately followed by a lilting sigh in a relative minor key, followed by the same peaceful, langorous mood of the sigh but in a major key)
Symphonie Fantastique, Berlioz
-SECOND MOVEMENT-
---"A Ball"---
Key: A major
Tempo: "Allegro non troppo"
Time signature: 3/8 (waltz)
Program: he (the lovesick artist) dreams that he is attending a glittering ball; he glimpses his beloved.
Symphonie Fantastique, Berlioz
To create a sense of impending excitement, the low strings quietly open the second movement of this musical work with churning and heaving sounds. A harp enters with a glissando. Almost as if the doors are flung open, revealing a sumptuous and opulent ballroom scene, the music begins to crescendo and climax, harp glissandi becoming more and more frequent, and the higher strings opening up in a grandiloquent melody. (Berlioz had two harps positioned at either side of the stage to achieve a more impeding, grande sound)
Symphonie Fantastique, Berlioz
-THIRD MOVEMENT-
---"Scene in the Fields"---
Kay: F major
Tempo: "Adagio"
Time Signature: 6/8
Program: He escapes to the countryside in search of tranquility. While he listens to the lonely piping of shepherds his thoughts return to the beloved and his soul is filled with foreboding.
Symphonie Fantastique, Berlioz
-FOURTH MOVEMENT-
---"March to the Scaffold"---
Key: G minor
Tempo: "Allegretto non troppo"
Time Signature: 4/4 (C)
Program: He dreams that in a fit of jealous passion he has killed his beloved and been sentenced to death. He is marched to the scaffold for his execution. As his head is laid on the chopping block, his last thought is of his beloved. That thought is interrupted by the fall of the blade, and his severed head tumbles to the ground.
Symphonie Fantastique, Berlioz
The composer musically captures the image of the artist's head tumbling to the ground after the decapitation in the fourth movement of this work through the use of a bassoon playing "mezzo-piano" notes spaced an octave apart downward, implying that each note played represents each time the head bounces off something and slowly tumbles to the ground.
Symphonie Fantastique, Berlioz
-FIFTH MOVEMENT-
---"Dream of a Witches' Sabbath"---
Key: opens in C minor
Tempo: begins in "Larghetto" but later changes to "Allegro"
Time Signature: begins in 4/4
Program: The composer outlined this program as follows:
"He sees himself at a witches' sabbath, in the midst of a hideous gathering of sorcerers and monsters of every kind who have come together for his funeral. Strange sounds, groans, outbursts of laughter; distant shouts which seem to be answered by more shouts. The beloved melody appears once more, but now lost its noble and shy character; it is now no more than a vulgar dance tune, trivial and grotesque: it is she who is coming to the sabbath... Roars of delight at her arrival... She joines the diabolical orgy... The funeral knell tolls, burlesque parody of the "Dies irae", the dance of the witches. The dance of the witches combined with the "Dies irae"."

The idée fixe is transformed at this point, his beloved has become one of the witches. Played by the clarinet in 6/8 meter gigue-like rhythm, with trills and grace notes, the once amorous main theme is malformed and grotesque now. Finally, the "Dies irae" occurs in mm. 127, with a new key of C minor, intoned solemnly by the bassoons and "ophicléide", repeated by the brass choir in diminution.

The dance of the witches occurs at mm.241, in the new key of C major, with fugal texture. A mocking tone is heightened by stabbing syncopated chords and jarring dissonance. "Dance of the Witches" is then combined with the "Dies Irae", and "col legno" is employed.
Madama Butterfly, Puccini
Genre: Italian "verismo" opera (this composer called it a "tragèdia giapponese)
Source of plot: based on a play by David Belasco
Librettists: Giuseppe Giacosa and Luigi Illica
Date of Premiere: 1904
Basic Synopsis: This opera tells the story of a Japanese geisha who marries an American naval officer, only to have him abandon her and return three years later with his American wife.
Place and Time: A house on a hilltop in Nagasaki, Japan; about 1900
Madama Butterfly, Puccini
Principal Characters of this Opera:
Cio-Cio-San, soprano, a fifteen-year-old geisha known as Butterfly

Suzuki, mezzo soprano, Butterfly's housekeeper and friend

B.F. Pinkerton, tenor, Benjamin Franklin, a lieutenant in the US Navy

Sharpless, baritone, the US consul in Nagasaki
Madama Butterfly, Puccini
Additional Characters:
Kate Pinkerton - Pinkerton's American wife
Goro - a marriage broker
Prince Yamadori - a wealthy suitor
The Bonze - Cio-Cio-San's uncle
Trouble - Cio-Cio-San's (and Pinkerton's) son
Madama Butterfly, Puccini
Plot Synopsis:
-Act One-
Pinkerton rents a house for 999 years, amused by the fact that he may cancel the contract at any time. He looks forward to his quaint Japanese wedding; he will remain steadfast, at least until he takes on "a real American wife." Butterfly arrives; she is so in love with Pinkerton; the price she has had to pay is to turn her back on her disapproving family and her religion. They wed and celebrate their blissful union in a rapturous duet.

-Act Two, Scene One-
Almost three years later, Butterfly still waits daily for the promised return of her husband. Suzuki tries to comfort Butterfly; their financial desperation causes her to doubt Pinkerton will ever return. Butterfly angrily defends her husband; in her famous aria "Un bel dì vedremo," she declares her faith and love. Sharpless, Pinkerton's close friend, comes to the house intending to break the sad news: Pinkerton is about to return to Japan accompanied by his American wife. Sharpless is stunned to learn that Butterfly has borne her husband a beautiful son; he leaves without delivering the disturbing news about Pinkerton. A gunshot from the harbor announces the arrival of Pinkerton's ship; Butterfly and Suzuki fill the house with blossoms to welcome him home. Night begins to fall as Butterfly, Suzuki, and Trouble wait patiently for Pinkerton to ascend from the harbor.

-Act Two, Scene Two-
Night turns to day; Pinkerton has not yet arrived; Butterfly is persuaded to retire to the next room to sleep a little. A few moments later, Sharpless and Kate arrive; they announce that Pinkerton wants to take the boy back to America. Butterfly enters and guesses the tragic circumstances; she agrees to give up her son only if Pinkerton comes for the boy himself. Butterfly cannot face a life of shame and humiliation; taking the dagger once used by her father to commit suicide, she is about to stab herself when Suzuki pushes the boy into the room in order to distract his mother. Butterfly bids a tearful farewell to her son then sends him off to play. Just as she stabs herself, Pinkerton's voice is heard from off in the distance calling out her name.
Madama Butterfly, Puccini
-PRELUDE TO ACT I-
---Opening Theme---
Tempo: "Allegro"
Time Signature: 2/4
Key: C minor
Texture: contrapuntal (fugal)

The opening segment to the opera is short in length - approximately 67 measures, and leads directly into the action. It features strings with quavering sixteenth-note rhythms in the middle voice, "fortissimo", with embellishments such as grace-notes and chromaticisms. This part is also marked "vigoroso". An agitated quality is achieved through aggresive articulation, strong accents, incisive rhythms, and the accumulation of fugal voices. This polyphonic section (a European element) stands in marked contrast to the many monophonic passages heard later in the score (Japanese element).
Madama Butterfly, Puccini
---Act II, Scene 1, Butterfly's Aria: "Un bel dì vedremo"---
Sung by: Cio-Cio-San (Butterfly) to Suzuki, in response to Suzuki's doubts that Pinkerton will ever return to Japan.
Summary of Text:
"One fine day his ship will appear on the horizon. Upon landing, he will ascend to this hilltop house in search of me. I shall hide, out of playfulness, but also so as not to die in his embrace. He will call me by his pet names for me. That is how it will be."
Formal Structure: ABAC
Tempo: "Andante molto calmo"
Key: G flat Major
Time Signature: 3/4

This beautiful aria employs homophonic texture, and the opening melody displays characteristic features of this composer's style: It begins high, slowly works its way down, contains frequent leaps of 3rds and 4ths, and employs "violinata". A "rubato"-like effect is also present through continual changes of tempo ("rit.", "rall.", etc.).
Madama Butterfly, Puccini
The second section of Butterfly's aria "Un bel dì vedremo" begins with "Mi metto là sul ciglio del colle..." ("I wander to the crest of the hill..."), and the time signature changes from 3/4 to 2/4. Use of pentatonic minor melody implying F minor is present, and marked by "con semplicità" (with simplicity). A recitative-like "parlando" style achieved through fast-repeated notes, often on the same pitch, supported by sustained orchestral chords.

Section A is then repeated again, with changed lyrics; beginning with "per non morire al primo incontro..." ("so I don't die at the first encounter..."). It is marked by "con forza" (with force), recommencing on high G flat on the word "die" (tragic foreshadowing). The melodic contour is the same as before, but delivered now with the "quasi-parlando" effect of the previous passage.

Section C begins with "Tutto questo averrà..." ("All this will happen..."), sung in a recitative-like style. The melody rises broadly, building in pitch and volume, to the climactic high B flat on the words "await him". The orchestral postlude presents the principal theme one last time.
Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune, Debussy
Genre: Symphonic Poem (tone poem)
Date of Composition: 1894
Formal structure: loose ternary structure (ABA1)
English translation of title: Prelude to "The Afternoon of a Faun"
Source of inspiration: a Symbolist poem (pastoral) by Stéphane Mallarmé
Performing Forces: strings - violins, violas, cellos, double basses, harps
woodwinds - flutes, oboes, English horn, clarinets
brass - French horns
percussion - antique cymbals
Key signature: begins and ends with four sharps
Time signature: begins with 9/8
Tempo: "Très modéré"
Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune, Debussy
Despite the key signature (four sharps) the tonality of the A section of this piece is deliberately ambiguous, giving the song a reverent, euphoric undertone. The opening melody, played by the flute, descends chromatically from C sharp to G, outlining a tritone; which, accompanied with the fact that the flute is meant to play this part alone, creates a mysterious atmosphere depicting the opening of Mallarmé's poem: nymphs in their "gossamer embodiment, floating on the air...". The fluid, rhythmic approach is achieved by figures that often flow across bar lines and obscure metric accents. Innovative orchestration is also present, featuring harp "glissandi", muted horns, and muted strings.
Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune, Debussy
Section B of this piece, beginning on mm. 37, opens up to a more classical musical approach. It still maintains modernisms and Impressionistic elements, the piece is marked "En animant" with the music itself marked to be played "doux et expressif", however the rhythm is more active, less ambiguous in meter and syncopation, and slightly less chromatic. A second theme of the B section enters in the woodwinds in mm. 55, creating an exotic atmosphere, evoked most prominently by clarinets tracing rapid whole-tone scales while the strings often move in parallel motion creating a gentle, floating sound. Modulations (including D flat major) and pressing syncopations build to an effective climax.

Section A returns later on, completing the ternary form, but with major modifications including usages of longer note values (augmentation). The solo flute now outlines a perfect fourth that clarifies E major tonality, and antique cymbals are gently struck in the final section.
Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune, Debussy
The overall structure of this piece creates a "statement-departure-return" sequence familiar from earlier eras (in sonata form). Flexibility of form contributes to the spontaneous, rhapsodic character.
Petrushka, Stravinsky
This ballet tells the story of a puppet who comes to life and has the capacity to love but whose "life" ends in tragedy. It was one in a long line of groundbreaking works created by Diaghilev and "Les Ballets Russes". Audiences responded to the work's poignant story, its vibrant color and pageantry, and its Russian folk elements. It was highly original not only in terms of its music but also its approach to choreography. While the Ballerina character exhibited traditional 19th-century dance movements and gestures, its choreography featured leaping and flailing motions. Even though it's character originated in the comic tradition of "commedia dell'arte", in the end he lingers in our memory as a tragic figure.
Petrushka, Stravinsky
Plot Summary:
The events unfold during the Shrovetide festival ("Maslenitsa"), held during the three days before Lent. As with similar Christian celebrations such as Mardi Gras or Carnival, Shrovetide includes public merry-making, carnival booths, food vendors, and entertainment.

First Tableau (the Shrovetide fair)
Crowds celebrate at the local fairground. The main attraction is a large puppet theater in which the Showman dazzles the onlookers by bringing three large puppets to life. The puppets dance for the audience.

Second Tableau (Petrushka's room)
Locked away in his cell-like room, Petrushka reveals human emotions: frustration with the Showman and love for the Ballerina. He tries unsuccessfully to escape. When the Ballerina enters, she dances stiffly around the room without returning his affection.

Third Tableau (the Moor's room)
The Moor occupies himself with silly amusements; when the Ballerina enters, he is attracted to her and tries to show off to impress her. Petrushka enters, but is chased by the jealous Moor.

Fourth Tableau (the Shrovetide fair)
At the fairground the crowds continue their revelry. Suddenly, the three puppets appear, with the Moor in hot pursuit of Petrushka. The Moor kills Petrushka with one quick stroke of his saber. The Showman is called to the scene by an officer, who demands an explanation. To the astonishment of the onlookers, the Showman demonstrates that the lifeless form on the ground is merely a puppet. The crowd disperses. While the Showman drags Petrushka's body away, he is startled by the puppet's ghost, which taunts him from the rooftop of the puppet theater, suggesting that perhaps Petrushka was a real person after all.
Petrushka, Stravinsky
-First Tableau-
Part One: "The Crowd Revels at the Shrovetide Fair"
Tempo: "Vivace"
Form: Rondo (ABACABA)

The crowd scene of Section A is presented in pentatonic melody announced by flute. The atmosphere is jocular, unrestrained, as is demonstrated by changing meters, syncopation, and marked accents. Colorful orchestration conveys festive carnival atmosphere. The rhythms are mainly slurred and accented dotted eighth-note rhythms as well as a segment of eighth-note triplets.
Petrushka, Stravinsky
The B section of the First Tableau of this work is the Song of the Drunken Beggars. The composer of this piece quotes the Russian folksong of the same name ("Volochebniki" in Russian). Homorhythmic texture and narrower range creates contrast with Section A, while a repetition of five-note descending figure is played.

Section A then returns slightly modified to accompany brass interruptions.
Petrushka, Stravinsky
Section C of the First Tableau of this work is the Hurdy-Gurdy Player, the hurdy-gurdy being a portable string instrument. This is the second dance tune, which begins in duple meter, played by the flutes. It is based off a pre-existing tune the composer of this piece had heard played by a street musician.

Section A returns.
Section B returns.
Section A returns.
Petrushka, Stravinsky
Part Two: "The Arrival of the Showman"
Tempo: "Lento"
Form: Through-composed (free form)

On stage, the Showman "plays" an extended flute cadenza to bring the puppets to life. Rhapsodic character is achieved through wide melodic span and fermatas that interrupt melodic flow, and the atmosphere of mystery is further enhanced by the soft chromatic accompaniment played by winds, strings, and harp.
Petrushka, Stravinsky
Part Three: "The Puppets Come to Life"
Tempo: "Allegro"
Form: rondo (ABABA)

During the A section of this segment the piano and xylophone play brisk percussive chords moving in parallel motion, giving joyful, dance-like character and possibly implying the bounciness and playfulness of the puppets coming to life. This segment opens in "forte".
Petrushka, Stravinsky
The B section of this segment is a Russian folk song, in which oboe and strings quote the Russian folk song St. John's Eve; echoed by the piano. Rhythms are aggressively accented, and short "ostinato"-like fragments accompany the animated choreography of the puppets.

Section A returns.
Section B returns.
Section A returns with a sudden ending; a long trumpet note.
West Side Story, Bernstein
Genre: musical theater
Date: 1957
Source of Plot: Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet"
Librettist: Arthur Laurents (playwright) and Stephen Sondheim (lyricist)
Choreographer: Jerome Robbins
Film: directed by Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins (1961)
West Side Story, Bernstein
Principal Characters:
Maria, soprano, Puerto Rican girl, sister of Bernardo

Tony, tenor, member of Jets

Bernardo, baritone, leader of Sharks

Riff, baritone, leader of Jets

Anita, mezzo soprano, girlfriend of Bernardo
West Side Story, Bernstein
Plot Summary:
The plot parallels the love affair and final tragedy of "Romeo and Juliet". The audience is initially introduced to the two rival gangs and observes the hostility between them. Later, Maria and Tony meet at a dance and fall in love. Tension builds between the two gangs and leads to a fight in which Bernardo stabs Riff. Tony in turn stabs and kills Bernardo, Maria's brother. In the final scene, Tony is stabbed by another member of the Sharks. Maria arrives but Tony is already dead.
West Side Story, "Maria", Bernstein
Character singing: Tony (tenor)
Setting: outside the gymnasium, where Tony has just met and fallen in love with Maria
Sentiments expressed: he reflects rapturously on her name
Key: B major - E flat major
Time signature: 4/4 (C)

The melody opens with chant-like intonation suggesting Tony's worshipful adoration of Maria. Repeated D sharps are sung supported by modal harmony and free rhythm. The rhythm is composed of groups of syncopated eighth-note triplets.
West Side Story, "America", Bernstein
Characters singing: Anita (mezzo soprano), Rosalia (soprano), and other Puerto Rican girls
Setting: an alley behind Bernardo and Maria's house
Sentiments expressed: While Rosalia expresses her homesickness for her native Puerto Rico, Anita defiantly declares her love for her newfound home, Manhattan. Sondheim's clever lyrics extol both virtues and false promises of "The American Dream".
Formal structure: Verse-Chorus structure, preceded by introduction

This dance is dominated by ambiguous tonality and modal inflections in melodic lines. Claves (wood blocks) and "guiro" (ribbed gourd) establish Latin ambience with cross-rhythms and rhythmic "ostinato". Spanish guitar and celesta provide undulating lines in parallel thirds in rising and falling triplets.
West Side Story, "America", Bernstein
The second segment of the song, sung by Rosalia in a lyrical, declamatory style, has a sense of yearning and nostalgia in it, conveyed through long phrases and free rhythm. Anita's acerbic response conveys her loathing of Puerto Rico and her love of Manhattan.
West Side Story, "America", Bernstein
Word painting on "breezes" is achieved in this dance through an arched motive based on the whole-tone scale. "Glissandi" on string harmonics also contribute to the effect. The rest of the song unfolds in a series of choruses and verses played at a faster tempo.
West Side Story, "America", Bernstein
The chorus of this dance, "I like to be in America" is home to many jazzy modulations from the main key of C major. It consists of short syncopated phrases, repeating the word "America". Verses use call and response patterns to convey argumentative exchanges between Rosalia and Anita. The chorus and verses alternate a 6/8 and 3/4 pattern, establishing the "hemiola" effect central to this song. Snappy syncopations provide rhythmic energy, and Latin flavor is achieved through the use of guitar, claves, and maracas. Additional percussion instruments (pitched and non-pitched) add texture; trumpets and drums give intensity to the overall sound. Colorful orchestrations help paint vivid portraits. For example, in the opening, Rosalias voice is doubled sweetly by a flute, while Anita is accompanied by a mournful oboe.
Distant Memories, Louie
This is a set of four pieces entitled "Music for Piano". This work was commissioned by the Alliance for Canadian New Music Projects in 1982, and is very popular with piano teachers and students. The pieces are as follows:
"The Enchanted Bells"
"Changes"
"Distant Memories"
"Once upon a time"
Distant Memories, Louie
The Formal structure of this piece is arch form (ABCB1A1), the first A part being "senza misura", the first B part being "quasi berceuse", part C "più mosso", B1 being "a tempo", and finally A1 being "senza misura" once again.
Distant Memories, Louie
Section A from this piece is completely "senza misura", notated in real time on the score, the approximate duration of each line is indicated in minutes and seconds. An unusual flared beaming in the opening flourish is present in which the notes are played "from as slow to as fast as possible". Additional contemporary notation features are note heads without stems and a grace note effect on longer groups of notes (indicated with smaller font and slash across beam). Subtle details create improvised effect: fermatas arrest the forward drive; use of irregular note groupings; directions such as "poco rit." add to the sense of spontaneity.
Distant Memories, Louie
Section B, beign "quasi berceuse" uses metered notation: time signature and metronome markings are provided (in stark contrast to the "senza misura" section A). The time signature changes incredibly frequently in this part, shifting from unusual compound meters such as 4/8 to 6/8 in a mere 2 bars. It is harmonically static; the left-hand interval never changes. The pianist is directed to play "with a gently rocking motion", and a simple, innocent effect which results conjures up nostalgic memories of childhood.
Distant Memories, Louie
Section C: "Più Mosso"
Triple meter is maintained throughout and a new tempo indication calls for more forward motion. The first appearance of homophonic texture: melodic line presented over an arpeggiated accompaniment, and more harmonic interest in bass line changes to support melodic motion.

Section B returns.
Section A returns expanded.

The arched formal structure of this piece reinforces the idea of distant memories, the introduction of the A and B themes first, followed by a C theme, only to reintroduce the B and A themes in reverse order, as if recalling a distant memory. The farther away the memory is placed, the more distorted it becomes (section B1 is only one section away from Section B [partitioned by Section C], while Section A1 is three sections away from Section A [partitioned by B, C, and B1], implying that the more distant the memory the more obfuscated it becomes.).