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23 terms

psyc ch 10

STUDY
PLAY
attachment
a strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time
imprinting
The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
contact comfort
the satisfaction obtained from pleasant, soft physical stimulation
strange situation procedure
procedure used to assess infant attachment style used to provide an environment that would arouse in the infant both the motivation to explore and the urge to seek security
perconventional level
kohlberg's first level of moral development, in which morality is based on rewards, punishment, and the exchange of favors
conventional level
kohlberg's second level of moral development, in which moral judgments are based on compliance with the rules and values of society
postconventional level
kohlberg's highest level of moral development, in which individuals develop personal standards for right and wrong, and they define morality in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies
psychosocial stage
the eight developmental stages, each involving a crisis that must be successfully resolved, that individuals pass through in Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
identity crisis
a period of inner conflict during which adolescents worry intensely about who they are
sex
biological maleness and femaleness, including chromosomal sex. Also, activities related to sexual behaviors, such as masturbation and intercourse
gender
psychological and sociocultural meanings added to biological maleness or femaleness
gender roles
societal expectations for normal and appropiate male and female behavior
gender schemas
organized networks of knowledge about what it means to be male or female
androgyny
type of gender-role identification that characterizes people who possess high levels of both masculine and feminine traits
self
a person considered as a unique individual
individualistic cultures
cultures in which the needs and goals of the individual are emphasized over the needs and goals of the group
collectivistic cultures
cultures in which the needs and goals of the group are emphasized over the needs and goals of the individual
personality-job fit theory
assumes that examining a person's personality will give insight into their adaptability in an organization
activity theory of aging
successful aging is fostered by a full and active commitment to life
disengagement theory
successful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawal between the elderly and society
socioemotional selectivity
a natural decline in social contact as older adults become more selective with their time
thanatology
the branch of science that studies death (especially its social and psychological aspects)
hospice
a program of medical and emotional care for the terminally ill