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a strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time


The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.

contact comfort

the satisfaction obtained from pleasant, soft physical stimulation

strange situation procedure

procedure used to assess infant attachment style used to provide an environment that would arouse in the infant both the motivation to explore and the urge to seek security

perconventional level

kohlberg's first level of moral development, in which morality is based on rewards, punishment, and the exchange of favors

conventional level

kohlberg's second level of moral development, in which moral judgments are based on compliance with the rules and values of society

postconventional level

kohlberg's highest level of moral development, in which individuals develop personal standards for right and wrong, and they define morality in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies

psychosocial stage

the eight developmental stages, each involving a crisis that must be successfully resolved, that individuals pass through in Erikson's theory of psychosocial development

identity crisis

a period of inner conflict during which adolescents worry intensely about who they are


biological maleness and femaleness, including chromosomal sex. Also, activities related to sexual behaviors, such as masturbation and intercourse


psychological and sociocultural meanings added to biological maleness or femaleness

gender roles

societal expectations for normal and appropiate male and female behavior

gender schemas

organized networks of knowledge about what it means to be male or female


type of gender-role identification that characterizes people who possess high levels of both masculine and feminine traits


a person considered as a unique individual

individualistic cultures

cultures in which the needs and goals of the individual are emphasized over the needs and goals of the group

collectivistic cultures

cultures in which the needs and goals of the group are emphasized over the needs and goals of the individual

personality-job fit theory

assumes that examining a person's personality will give insight into their adaptability in an organization

activity theory of aging

successful aging is fostered by a full and active commitment to life

disengagement theory

successful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawal between the elderly and society

socioemotional selectivity

a natural decline in social contact as older adults become more selective with their time


the branch of science that studies death (especially its social and psychological aspects)


a program of medical and emotional care for the terminally ill

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