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Theoretical Perspectives of Child Development

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What are the 5 major perspectives of child development
Psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, ecological/contextual, evolutionary
What is teh psychodynamic perspective
Focusing on internal forces - behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts stemming from childhood of which a person has little awareness or control (FREUD & ERICKSON)
Freud - psychoanalytical Theory
suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior, the unconscious contains infantile wishes, desires, demands and needs that are hidden, because of their disturbing nature. The unconscious is responsible for a good deal of everyday behavior
What are Freud's 3 aspects of personality
Id, Ego, Superego
Id
pleasure principle
Ego
reality principal
Superego
seeks to be seen as "good"
What are Freud's stages of psychosexual development
Oral (birth to 18 months), Anal (18 months to 3 years), Phallic (3 years to 6 years), Latency (6 years to adolescence)
Physical Focus of Freud's stages psychosexual development
where the child's energy is concentrated and gratification is obtained
Psychological theme of Freud's stages psychosexual development
the issue associated with too much or too little of what is ideal fo the child
Adult character type of Freud's stages psychosexual development
adult behavior related to unresolved psychological issues in childhood
Freud's psychosexual development - Oral
birth to 18 months
physical focus - mouth/lips/the act of sucking
psychological focus - dependency
adult character type - lasting concerns with dependence and independence. Pleasure from eating, drinking or other oral activities
Freud's psychosexual development - anal
18 months to 3 years
physical focus - anus/controlling bowels
psychological focus - self control/obedience
adult character type - annaly retentive (ridgid, overly organized, subservient to authority) vs annally expulsive (little self-control, disorganized, defiant, hostile)
Freud's psychosexual development - phallic
3 years to 6 years
physical focus - the penis (for both boys and girls)
psychological focus - oedipus/electra complex
adult character type - overly developed Id vs overly developed superego
Freud's psychosexual development - latency
6 years to adolescence
sexual and aggressive drives are less active
Psychodynamic perspective
Erikson
What is Erikson's psychosocial theory
encompasses change in our interactions with and understandings of one another, as well as in our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society
What are Erikson's stages of psychosocial development
turst vs mistrust (birth to 18 months), autonomy vs shame and doubt (18 months to 3 years), initiative vs guilt (3 years to 6 years), industry vs inferiroity (6 years to adolescence)
Erikson's Trust vs Mistrust
Children are completly dependent during this stage the development of trust is based on the dependency of the child's care giver. If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistence nad unpredictable
Erikson's Autonomy vs Shame
Children develop feelings of independence by learning to control their bodily functions. If a child successfully develops automomy he or she will feel a sense of control over their environment. Failure to develop autonomy will result in feelings of inadequacy and shame
Erikson's Initiative vs Guilt
Children begin to assert their power over the world through directing play and other social interactions. If a child successfully develops initiative he or she will feel socially competent and capable of leading others. Failure to develop initiative will result in a sense of guilt and self doubt
Erikson's Industry vs Inferiority
Children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities. Children who are encouraged by important figures (parents/teachers) develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Children who recieve little or no encouragement will doubt their ability to be successful
What does the behavioral perspective focus on
it suggests the key to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment
Watson's Behavioral Perspective
Tabula Rasa - no set stages of development
Pavlov's Behavioral Perspective
Classical conditioning - an organism learns to respond in a particular way to neutral stimulus that normally doesn't invoke that type of response
Skinner's Behavioral Perspective
Operant Conditioning - voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences
Positive vs Negative Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement - introduces a rewarding stimulus to increase behavior! Negative reinforcement - removes an aversive stimulus to increase behavior
Bandura's Social-Cognitive Learning Theory
An approach that emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model. Children do not need to experience the consequences (good or bad) of a behavior to learn it.
What is the cognitive perspective
emphasis is on how changes or growth in the ways people know, understand, and think about the world affect behavior
Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory
Proposed cognitive development happens in distinct stages based on maturation. Therefore, knowledge is the product of direct motor behavior
What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Sensorimotor
Birth - 2 years - develop motor skills, action = knowledge, develop object permanence, no capacity for symbolic representation
Preoperational
2-7 years - develop language, develop symbolic representation (pretending), egocentric thinking begins strong and weakens over time
Concrete operational
7-11 years - children begin to think logically but are very concrete in their thinking, develop conservation, children can now take the perspective of others
Formal operational
adolescence to adulthood
What is the contextual perspective
taking the broad approach - behavior is determined by the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, social and physical worlds
Brofenbrenner's bioecological approach
suggests taht there are 4 levels of the environment that simultaneously influence individuals
What are Brofenbrenners 4 levels of the environment
Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem
What is included in a macrosystem
attitudes and ideologies of the culture
what is included in the exosystem
neighbors, social services, mass media, local politics, industry
what is included in a mesosystem
this is where things from a microsystem are linked together example home and school (parent teacher conference)
what is included in a microsystem
family, church, health services, peers, school
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture
What is the evolutionary perspective
behavior is the result of genetic inheritance from our ancestors; traits and behavior taht are adaptive for promoting the survial of our species have been inherited through natural selection
Darwin's Evoltionary Theory
Through the process of natural selection a species develops physical and personality traits that are adaptive to their environment
Lorenz's Ethology
Examines how our biological makeup affects behavior