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What are the 5 major perspectives of child development

Psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, ecological/contextual, evolutionary

What is teh psychodynamic perspective

Focusing on internal forces - behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts stemming from childhood of which a person has little awareness or control (FREUD & ERICKSON)

Freud - psychoanalytical Theory

suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior, the unconscious contains infantile wishes, desires, demands and needs that are hidden, because of their disturbing nature. The unconscious is responsible for a good deal of everyday behavior

What are Freud's 3 aspects of personality

Id, Ego, Superego


pleasure principle


reality principal


seeks to be seen as "good"

What are Freud's stages of psychosexual development

Oral (birth to 18 months), Anal (18 months to 3 years), Phallic (3 years to 6 years), Latency (6 years to adolescence)

Physical Focus of Freud's stages psychosexual development

where the child's energy is concentrated and gratification is obtained

Psychological theme of Freud's stages psychosexual development

the issue associated with too much or too little of what is ideal fo the child

Adult character type of Freud's stages psychosexual development

adult behavior related to unresolved psychological issues in childhood

Freud's psychosexual development - Oral

birth to 18 months
physical focus - mouth/lips/the act of sucking
psychological focus - dependency
adult character type - lasting concerns with dependence and independence. Pleasure from eating, drinking or other oral activities

Freud's psychosexual development - anal

18 months to 3 years
physical focus - anus/controlling bowels
psychological focus - self control/obedience
adult character type - annaly retentive (ridgid, overly organized, subservient to authority) vs annally expulsive (little self-control, disorganized, defiant, hostile)

Freud's psychosexual development - phallic

3 years to 6 years
physical focus - the penis (for both boys and girls)
psychological focus - oedipus/electra complex
adult character type - overly developed Id vs overly developed superego

Freud's psychosexual development - latency

6 years to adolescence
sexual and aggressive drives are less active

Psychodynamic perspective


What is Erikson's psychosocial theory

encompasses change in our interactions with and understandings of one another, as well as in our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society

What are Erikson's stages of psychosocial development

turst vs mistrust (birth to 18 months), autonomy vs shame and doubt (18 months to 3 years), initiative vs guilt (3 years to 6 years), industry vs inferiroity (6 years to adolescence)

Erikson's Trust vs Mistrust

Children are completly dependent during this stage the development of trust is based on the dependency of the child's care giver. If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistence nad unpredictable

Erikson's Autonomy vs Shame

Children develop feelings of independence by learning to control their bodily functions. If a child successfully develops automomy he or she will feel a sense of control over their environment. Failure to develop autonomy will result in feelings of inadequacy and shame

Erikson's Initiative vs Guilt

Children begin to assert their power over the world through directing play and other social interactions. If a child successfully develops initiative he or she will feel socially competent and capable of leading others. Failure to develop initiative will result in a sense of guilt and self doubt

Erikson's Industry vs Inferiority

Children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities. Children who are encouraged by important figures (parents/teachers) develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Children who recieve little or no encouragement will doubt their ability to be successful

What does the behavioral perspective focus on

it suggests the key to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment

Watson's Behavioral Perspective

Tabula Rasa - no set stages of development

Pavlov's Behavioral Perspective

Classical conditioning - an organism learns to respond in a particular way to neutral stimulus that normally doesn't invoke that type of response

Skinner's Behavioral Perspective

Operant Conditioning - voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences

Positive vs Negative Reinforcement

Positive reinforcement - introduces a rewarding stimulus to increase behavior! Negative reinforcement - removes an aversive stimulus to increase behavior

Bandura's Social-Cognitive Learning Theory

An approach that emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model. Children do not need to experience the consequences (good or bad) of a behavior to learn it.

What is the cognitive perspective

emphasis is on how changes or growth in the ways people know, understand, and think about the world affect behavior

Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory

Proposed cognitive development happens in distinct stages based on maturation. Therefore, knowledge is the product of direct motor behavior

What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational


Birth - 2 years - develop motor skills, action = knowledge, develop object permanence, no capacity for symbolic representation


2-7 years - develop language, develop symbolic representation (pretending), egocentric thinking begins strong and weakens over time

Concrete operational

7-11 years - children begin to think logically but are very concrete in their thinking, develop conservation, children can now take the perspective of others

Formal operational

adolescence to adulthood

What is the contextual perspective

taking the broad approach - behavior is determined by the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, social and physical worlds

Brofenbrenner's bioecological approach

suggests taht there are 4 levels of the environment that simultaneously influence individuals

What are Brofenbrenners 4 levels of the environment

Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem

What is included in a macrosystem

attitudes and ideologies of the culture

what is included in the exosystem

neighbors, social services, mass media, local politics, industry

what is included in a mesosystem

this is where things from a microsystem are linked together example home and school (parent teacher conference)

what is included in a microsystem

family, church, health services, peers, school

Vygotsky's sociocultural theory

cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture

What is the evolutionary perspective

behavior is the result of genetic inheritance from our ancestors; traits and behavior taht are adaptive for promoting the survial of our species have been inherited through natural selection

Darwin's Evoltionary Theory

Through the process of natural selection a species develops physical and personality traits that are adaptive to their environment

Lorenz's Ethology

Examines how our biological makeup affects behavior

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