The Best AFAA Primary Group Exercise Study Guide
Featuring the actual questions from study guide 10v 01.12 and answers that are actually correct and easy to understand
Terms in this set (240)
List 8 health benefits associated with regular participation in physical activity.
decrease in: Resting heart rate, blood pressure, depression
increase in: stroke volume, respiratory capacity, metabolic rate
weight loss/maintenance, improved posture
How can interval training improve athletic performance?
increase stroke volume= increased cardiac output
increased tidal volume and breathing ratio= efficient use of O2 in blood
increase CO2 removal due to high pulmonary ventilation= appropriate acid balance
List 3 physiological adaptations that occur to improve exercise performance and state how or why improvement occurs.
increase of capillaries per muscle fiber= rich supply of O2 and nutrients
rapid removal of CO2 and waste allows maximum energy production
increase in glycogen & triglycoride storage in skeletal muscle
increase in mitochondrial volume and activity= increase in enzymes
Define ENERGY and it's food source.
Energy= the ability to do work.
Food source is carbohydrates, protein, and fats.
High energy phosphate molecule required to provide energy for cellular function. Produced both anaerobically and aerobically and stored in the body.
ATP-CP/ phosphagen system
Simplest of 3 systems- short bursts of energy
fuel source= creatine phosphate
intensity= very high 95% of max intensity
duration= 15-20 seconds
Uses of this system= sprinting, jumping, lifting heavy things quickly, throwing a ball, kicking
Lactic acid system
anaerobic glycolytic, sustained high intensity effort lasting 1-2 minutes
fuel source= glucose- carbs breaking down into sugars
intensity= short rallies, bursts, high-moderate 85-94% of max intensity
duration= 1-2 minutes
Uses of this system= prolonged sprints, rallies in soccer, floor routine in gymnastics,
fuel source= glucose, fat, or protein
intensity= moderate 75-85% of max intensity
duration= 3-5 minutes or more
Uses of this system= resting activities, walking, jogging, swimming,
with oxygen; requiring oxygen to be sustained
without oxygen; short bursts w/o oxygen, explosive movements
constant submaximal exercise below lactate level so that energy production and oxygen absorption meets requirements of imposed exercise
EXCESS POST-OXYGEN CONSUMPTION (EPOC)
O2 remaining elevated above resting levels for several minutes during recovery
O2 consumption is lower than necessary to supply appropriate ATP production required of any exercise
The point at which the body can no longer meet its demand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism is accelerated
Ability of the body to remove O2 from the air and transfer it thru lung and blood to working muscles
By-product of anaerobic metabolism of glucose.
-complete breakdown of glucose
-can utilize carbs, fats, or proteins as fuel
-long duration activity
-submaximal work (moderate intensity)
-CO2 and H2) are end products
-uses oxygen in chemical breakdown
-partial breakdown of glucose
-can only use carbs as fuel
-short duration activity
-maximal output (high intensity)
-by-product is lactic acid
-doesn't need O2 in chemical breakdown
amount of blood pumped from each ventricle with each beat
volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in ONE MINUTE
the pumping action of the muscles in the extremities and respiratory system along with venoconstriction to move oxygen poor blood to the heart
a condition caused by ceasing vigorous exercise too abruptly so that blood remains in the extremities and may not be delivered quickly enough to the heart and brain
the greatest volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after the deepest inhalation
Forceful attempted exhalation thru a closed or tightened airway. Causes unequal pressure in the chest cavity, lower blood flow to heart, insufficient oxygen supply, dizziness, loss of consciousness.
BLOOD PRESSURE NORMS
Resting HR= 120/80mmHG
elevated BP resting= 140/90
Primary Muscles Anterior
location on body in Anatomical Position
Top of shoulder
Inside of arm
Front of abdomen
Side of abdomen, underneath external oblique
Side of abdomen
Tensor Fasciae Latae
Outside of thigh under hip
Inside of thigh
Quadriceps Group: Rectus femoris
center of leg above knee and up
outside of rectus femoris
inside of rectus femoris
under rectus femoris
Outside of shin bone
Hip Flexor and Lateral spinal Flexor:
on back from spine to hip- lateral flexion
wraps from spine around hip- hip flexor
Primary Muscles Posterior
location on body in Anatomical Position
back of neck across top of shoulders
inside of shoulder blade between shoulder blade and spine
back of arm
back of rib cage and underneath arm to spine
vertical muscles on sides of spine lower back
top of pelvis below quadratus lumborum
Hamstrings Group: Semitendinosus and Semimembranosus
back of adductors- inside thigh
back of thigh middle
outside rear of lower leg above ankle bone
back of lower leg
point at which 2 or more bones meet- where movement occurs
Three types of joints
Synovial- freely moveable
fibrous- fixed- connected by dense collagen tissue- how bones in the skull are arranged
Cartilagenous- connected by cartilage, moveable, but not freely- sternum and manubrium
bands or sheet-like fibrous tissue connection one bone to another. reinforce joints from dislocation. non elastic, limited ROM
band of dense fibrous tissue attaching muscle to bone w/ minimal elasticity
front/back of body
toward/away from midline of body
laying on back/stomach
upper/lower half of body
HORIZONTAL/ TRANSVERSE PLANE
cuts the body
cuts the body
LEFT | RIGHT
cuts the body
decrease the angle between two bones
increase the angle between two bones
to move away from the midline
to move toward the midline
turning around an axis of bone
movement that the extremity can complete a 360 degree circle
muscle performing the prime movement
muscle acting in opposition to prime mover
muscle responsible for a particular movement- agonist
help perform a task
prevent undesirable/ unnecessary movement
contractions where the muscle is stimulated but doesn't move i.e. planks
muscles shortens as positive work. done against gravity i.e. bicep curl
muscle lengthens developing tension when muscles oppose gravity i.e. bottom of a crunch
Tension remains constant as the muscle shortens or lengthens
tension developed by the muscle while shortening at constant speed. used over the full ROM i.e. arm stroke while swimming
Which 3 muscle contractions listed above are used in a group exercise setting?
Isometric (no joint action)
Concentric (positive work)
Eccentric (negative work)
Describe fast twitch muscle fibers and slow twitch muscle fibers.
Type 1- slow twitch= contain more mitochondria and myoglobin and are surrounded with more capillaries. They are slow to fatigue= prolonged activity.
Type 2- fast twitch= quick, high intensity actions, fatigue easily, lots of power for a few seconds
What are the musculoskeletal benefits of weight-bearing activities?
increase bone density (prevent osteoporosis), improve posture, muscular strength and endurance
What are the musculoskeletal benefits of increased muscular strength?
increased physical performance
What are the musculoskeletal benefits of increased muscular flexibility?
improves tissue elasticity and facilitates movement.
List 3 postural deviations of the back.
Kyphosis- exaggerated curve in the thoracic area (top)
Lordosis- increased concave in lumber part of back (lower)
Scoliosis- lateral bending of spine
Define the stretch reflex, its purpose, and when it occurs.
A spinal reflex that is involuntary and occurs when the muscle spindle sends a message to the spinal cord to cause a contraction in that muscle. Contributes to postural control and regulates muscle stiffness.
Explain why ballistic movements can be dangerous.
they cause muscular contractions that are involuntary and can strain tendons and ligaments or cause muscle soreness.
Draw a diagram of a simple lever with a fulcrum.
first class- seesaw
second class- wheelbarrow
third class- hammering a nail
List the 6 classes of nutrients.
carbs, fats, minerals, proteins, water, vitamins
List the different types of carbohydrates and give examples of each.
simple: glucose, fructose, galactose (simple sugars)
complex: long chains of sugar i.e. grains, vegetables, legumes, starch, glycogen
What are VITAMINS?
Non-caloric, organic compounds needed in small quantities to assist in growth function and repair.
Describe the difference between fat soluble vitamins and water soluble vitamins.
Fat soluble (A,D,E,K) can be stored in the liver for long periods of time and are excreted in feces.
Water soluble cannot be stored in the body and are excreted thru urine.
What are MINERALS?
Inorganic compounds that regulate enzymes and maintain acid-base balance.
List a minimum of 8 dietary guidelines for Americans outlined by the US Dept of Health and Human Services and USDA.
2 cups of fruit and 2 cups of vegetables, 3 diary servings, 3 whole grain servings, balance calories to achieve healthy weight, reduce sodium and saturated fat, increase potassium, avoid oversized portions, drink more water, limit alcohol consumption, exercise more often
Describe MyPyramid and how participants may benefit from this resource.
MyPyramid offers guidelines for healthy eating. It shows graphically the amount of each food group to be consumed.
Body Composition refers to
the absolute and relative amounts of the structural components of the body- fat, fluid, muscle/tissue, and bone.
Body Composition is best improved by a combination of
30-60 minutes low to moderate intensity exercise daily, mild caloric restriction (300-500 fewer kcal per day), resistance exercise 2 or 3 times a week, and slow weight loss (1-2 lb a week).
To lose one pound of fat one must expend _________ kcals more than consumed.
Explain the difference between an acute injury and a chronic injury.
Acute- specific, sudden onset, can be from a trauma
chronic- nonspecific, breakdown of tissue over time, or due to a syndrome.
List the part of the body where the following chronic injuries occur: Plantar fasciitis
foot- bottom and arch
tendon of the gastrocnemius is swollen- back of calf
What is the difference between a muscle strain and a muscle sprain?
Strain- injury to a muscle or tendon
Sprain- injury to a ligament
List 3 ways to avoid vocal nodules
avoid yelling/screaming, drink lots of water, use a microphone when teaching, warm up your voice
List 3 ways to avoid low back pain
wear proper footwear, correct postural alignment, warm up and stretch the muscles
List 3 ways to avoid shin splints
wear proper footwear, avoid high impact activities on improper surfaces such as carpet or cement, warm up and stretch your legs
List 4 things that may contribute to heat injuries, cardiovascular conditions, or exercise-induced conditions as they related to participation in physical activity.
Humidity/ high environment temperature, abruptly stopping exercise, ballistic movements, overexertion, overhydration, asthma, improper clothing= overheating
What does RICE stand for?
Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
List the 4 steps in recognizing an emergency.
determine consciousness, assess airways and respiration, head to toe inspection for visible injuries, check vital signs
AFAA developed the first nationally standardized basic exercise guidelines in what year?
Who do the guidelines represent?
Adult individulas and groups without known physiological, biomechanical, or medical conditions that would in any way restrict their exercise activities.
What does FITT stand for?
Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type
Will one variable effect another? How?
Strength will improve if you increase the weight level (intensity) and reps (time)
Describe Overlaod Principle
for adaptaion to take place, a greater than normal stress level or load must be placed on the body.
Describe Progression Principle
optimal overload should be achieved over an optimal time frame
What is Specificity of Training Principle (SAID)- Describe it
Specific Adaptations to Increased Demand- body will adapt to specific challenges imposed upon it as long as the program progressively overloads the system.
Describe Reversibility Principle
Body will lose the effects of training when you stop working out.
Describe Overtraining Principle
performing more training than the body can recover from and the performance declines
List the health related components of physical fitness.
Increased: stroke volume, respiratory activity, max oxygen capacity, muscle mass
Decreased: blood pressure in hypertensive patients, and RHR.
List the skill related components of physical fitness.
Increased flexibility, stability, ROM, strength, better posture, daily activites can be performed easier.
Outline the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans
All adults should avoid inactivity. Should get 2.5 hours a week of moderate or 1 hour 15 min a week of vigorous exercise minimum. 300 min of moderate, 150 min of vigorous a week for extensive benefits, moderate or high intensity weight bearing exercise 2 or more days a week.
What does BMI stand for and what measurement constitues an indiviual to be obese?
Body Mass Index. Obese is at or greater than 33.
Professional responsibilities inclue what 7 items?
health screening, fitness testing and exercise programming, instruction, supervision, facilities, equipment, risk management.
Physical Readiness Activity Questionairre
Medical clearance recommendations (risk level and requirements) for high risk participants
symptomatic or known cardiac, pulmonary, or metabolic disease. Exam and supervision required at all times.
Medical clearance recommendations (risk level and requirements) for moderate-risk participants
Asypmtomatic, but show 2 or more risk factors. Exam and supervision not necessary for moderate exercise, but recommended for vigorous.
Medical clearance recommendations (risk level and requirements) for low-risk participants
Asypmtomatic, show less than 1 risk factor. Exam and supervision not necessary.
List the 10 exercise danger signs (STOP exercise and assess the need to emergency procedures)
dizziness, choking, vomiting, fainting, seizures, tightness in the chest, fractures, gasping, blurred vision, shock, hives, rash, confusion.
List 5 signs or participant complaints that would require exercise modifications or cessation of exercise (not emergency response)
labored breathing, excessive HR elevation, evidence of strain, holding breath, redness, musculoskeletal pain, lack of proper body control
What should an instructor know about the effects of drugs and/or medication on exercise response?
Need to know if it is a diuretic that removes liquid from the body (hydrate more) or if it effects HR or respiratory system.
List 6 symptoms of overtraining.
fatigue, increased RHR, anemia, slower HR recovery, overuse/stress injuries, constant soreness in joint or muscle
List 6 AFAA recommendations to avoid overtraining.
vary classes you take/teach, limit high impact classes, nutritious diet, correct muscle imbalances, warmup and cool down properly, limit active demonstrations
In terms of hydration and rehydration, AFAA recommends
montior levels, 8-12 oz before exercise, hydrate before, during, and after activity.
Describe the appropriate exercise attire that AFAA recommends.
fabrics that breathe, comfortable, non restricitve, shoes with proper design support and cushioning.
According to AFAA a group exercise instructor should generally teach at what class level?
moderate difficulty with explanation and demonstration
Insturctors should evaluate an exercise from which two view points?
Effectiveness and potential risk
Write the exact wording of each of the AFAA 5 questions
What is the purpose of the exercise?
Are you doing that effectively?
Does the exercise create any safety concerns?
Can you maintain proper alignment and form for the duration of the exercise?
For whom is the exercise appropriate or inappropriate?
List 14 exercises that AFAA does not recommend for a group exercise class (high risk potential)
and the appropriate modification.
Sustained unsupported forward spinal flexion
support hands on knees
sustained unsupported lateral spinal flexion
hand on hip to support
repetitive or weighted deep knee bends
support hands on hips
boucey toe touches standing
toe up to stretch back of leg
rapid head circles
full cobra on hands
go only to elbows
hurdlers stretch (jazz split)
bring foot to knee instead of behind you
bring hand to knee instead of foot
supine double straight leg lifts
support by bending one knee
prine double arm and leg lift
one at a time
painful forced splits
go to comfortable stretch
weight bearing pivots
pick up your feet
plyometric moves elevated (jump lunges and squats)
stayon the floor
10 important postures used in group exercise
one important alignment cue for the postion
neutral pelvis, feet shoulder width
squats and lunges
knees behind toes
flex at the hips
engage core, perlvis neutral
stack hips and shoulders
shoulders down, neck neutral
on all fours
hands/elbows under shoulders. knees under hips
maintain posture, control ROM
AFAA recommends that every group exercise class include:
announcements, warm up, body of the workout, cool down
List the definition, purpose, and duration of a proper warmup
beginning portion of the class, guide participants thru exercises to warm up muscles, increase HR and temperature gradually, introduce them to moves to be used later. 8-10 min
List and describe the two common warm up methods and discuss when the addition of preperatory stretching may be appropriate.
movement rehearsal- light/less intense versions of movements to follow. Limbering movements- smooth, non weighted movements thru ROM. Gentle stretches can be used to ease muscles thru ROM.
List several special considerations for a warm up
internsity and impact- staying below target hr
speed and control- avoid rapid/ ballistic movements
ROM moderate, build to full, prepare the spine by light bending
sequence- include all muscle groups
List the definition, purpose and duration of proper cardiorespiratory training
activities that target large areas of the body to incread demand for oxygen. improves heart, circulatory, and pulmonary systems. 20-45 min
List and describe 4 common cardiorespiratory training methods.
continuous/steady state- gradually increase intensity, hold, decrease.
interval- timed high => low intensity
intermittent- various high and low but not timed
circuit- timed station to station sequence.
List several special considerations for cardiorespiratory training
monitor intensity, cross training, intensity issues, music speed, ROM, repetitive stress issues, cooldown.
List the definition, purpose and duration of proper muscular strenth and endurance training
working individual groups of muscles with resistance to fatigue. purpose is to performa daily activites, increase muscle mass, bonde density, mentabolism, improve posture, balance, and athletic performance. 45-60 min.
List and describe 4 common muscular strength training methods
muscle isolations- specific muscle group
multi joint/ multi muscle- all muscles involved in movement (like a squat)
torso stabilization- enhance ability to maintain posture and resist gravity
functional- replicates daily movements
List several special considerations for muscular strenth and endurance training.
intensity, number of reps, amount of weight, bone conditions, ROM
List the definition, purpose, and duration of proper flexibility training
focuses on joint mobility and suppleness, reduction of muscle tension. improves joint mobility decreased risk of injury and enhanced physical performance 5-10 min
List and describe the 3 common flexibility training methods
static- elongate muscle and hold
dynamic- go thru full ROM multiple reps controlled
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation- contract release
List several special consideration for flexibility training
stretch to tension, not discomfort, stretch slow, warm up the muscles first, stretch thru ROM
List the definition, purpose, and duration of a proper final class segment
promote mind and body awereness and facilitate relazation 5-10 min deep breathing, lower HR
List and describe 3 common relaxation methods
physical focus- focus body systems for relaxation
mental/abstract focus- imagination creates relazation
combination focus- uses both
List several Special considerations for a final class segment
monitoring HR. saunas, hot tubs can be bad if the body hasn't cooled down. consider spiritual affirmations may make people uncomfortable.
Explain Resting Heart Rate
RHR is # of heartbeats per minute at complete rest
How does increased cardiorespiratory fitness affect RHR
calulate your own age-predicted max HR
200-age=BPM for HR max
Target Heart Rate Range (THRR)
HRmax x 64% } THRR
HRmax x 94% }
THRR using hear rate reserve (HRR) and Karvonen formula
HRmax - RHR = HRreserve
How do THRR and HRR differ?
THRR is the RANGE that you should stay in during exercise. HRR factors RHR in the equation.
Explain recovery heart rate
speed at which HR returns to pre exercise level. indicates effective cooldown.
The prefered anatomical sit for pulse checking is ________ the secondary site is ________.
The AFAA recommended counting time for HR is ________. Start with the number _.
Rating of perceived exertion (RPE)
scale of 1-10 of exertion
if they can answer you, they're breatihing
How does abruptly stopping cardiorespiratory exercise affect exercise response
can create blood pooling in the extremities
effect of working above target heart trate range?
begin working anaerobically, fatigue quicker
effects of stimulants
effects HR and respiratory response
effects of cardiac medications (beta-blockers)
cardiac output VO2 max is lower RPE is not accurate
effects of pressor response (can result from arm movements above the head)
increased blood pressure
List 4 ways choreography can increase the intensity of a cardio workout
arms overhead increases HR, speed, impact level of moves, increased plyometrics
beat of the music
explain what is meant by a musical phrase
4 bars or 8 beats each = 32 counts...
what are the legal considerations when purchasing or creating music for group exercise
Music license and coverage
List aerobic examples for Low-Impact Aerobics (LIA)
March, step touch, squat/plie, step touch releve
List aerobic examples for Medium-Impact Aerobics (MIA)
skip, twist, knee lifts w/ heel lifts
List aerobic examples for High-Impact Aerobics (HIA)
jog, jump, jack, splits/scissors
Define LIA, MIA, and HIA
LIA- keeps one foot on the ground or close to the floor
MIA- both feet on the floor, but thru ball-heel action
HIA- both feel leaving the floor alternately or at the same time
To lessen injury risk and maintain motivation in Type A participants, list three types of workouts that provide different mechanical stresses to the body while allowing high-intensity options for advanced training.
alternating LIA and HIA reduces trauma and overuse.
variety of workouts provides mechanical stresses
strength training lowers injury risk
List 4 motivational techniques to sustain a Type B participant for lifelong exercise adherence
feedback, support, recognition, encouragement
List a minimum of 8 action steps an instructor should take to enhance exercise adherence for a novice participant.
footwork, directions, rhythmic, numerical, functionality, step, alignment, verbal/nonverbal
Discuss how exercises performed in water can help improve body weight, enhance the cardiovascular system, and prevent injuries.
Aquatic exercise uses a higher amount of energy which increases HR and improves weight loss without the high impact of being on the ground
What is the difference between land and water when it comes to exercise design?
Movements should be designed with regard to buoyancy and resistance.
State the difference between circuit and interval training methods.
Circuit uses different stations to work different parts of the body
Interval requires set times of intense exercise followed by lower intensity or rest.
List and summarize the 2 circuit training formats.
Super circuit- quick intense cardio/ weights set up to flow
Peripheral heart action- divided into sequences each targeting different muscle groups
When instructing interval training, what does it mean by work/active recovery ratio?
time spent pushing hard : time spent recovering
When instructing interval training, what does it mean by work-to-recovery ratio?
Same amount of time spend pushing hard as recovering
List a minimum of 4 things one should do to ensure they are riding properly.
Hands light on handlebars, don't grip too tight or use too much body weight, control speed, control resistance.
List a minimum of 3 things an instructor should consider when designing an indoor cycling class.
Setting goals, teaching off bike, counting, positive affirmations
For group exercise, AFAA recommends a range between ___ to ___ repetitions depending on whether the focus is muscular strength or endurance.
8 to 12
List 4 muscles that tend to be weaker than their opposing group.
External shoulder rotators, real deltoid, mid traps and rhomboids, lower traps, abs, spinal erectors, vastus medialis (inner quads), Tibialis anterior
List 4 muscles that tend to be tight.
Internal shoulder, front delt, pectorals, upper trap, spinal erectors, iliopsoas, hamstrings, gastrocnemius
Discuss constant vs variable resistance and what form of equipment, used in a group exercise class, would resemble variable resistance.
Constant- dynamic resistance, targeted against specific muscle, free weights.
Variable- max muscular involvement, uses elastic tubing- resistance bands
List 7 "action stops for designing a resistance tubing class"
check bands for holes, avoid pulling toward face, select appropriate resistance, don't grip too tight, maintain wrist alignment, maintain tension, smooth controlled pace.
List 3 strength training sequences appropriate within the group exercise setting.
arm combos, leg combos, arm and leg combos
List the 7 principles of Mat Science.
Balance, extension, alignment, ROM, progression, flow, breath
List 4 class format guidelines
begin with warmup, use progression, vary intensity, end with cool down
What are the guidelines for various participant step levels?
1) non participant - 4 inches
2) new - 4-6 inches, 10-20 minutes
3) regular - 4-8 inches, 20-30 minutes
4) highly skilled- 4-10 inches, 20-60 minutes
List the appropriate BPM for
Muscular strength and endurance
List 3 proper body alignment techniques and 3 stepping techniques
Shoulders back and relaxed, contract ab muscles, neutral spine.
feet first, then arms, step in the center, and step lightly
How can one prevent injury while stepping?
Keep ROM no more than 90 degrees. Limit weight bearing pivots.
What does EIA stand for and how can it be prevented?
Exercise induced asthma. Symptoms can be reduced by a proper warmup and cool down, breathing thru the nose or pursed lips. Avoid rapid cessation, monitor intensity, use talk test, lower temp.
List 6 exercise guidelines for participants with heart disease.
screening, comply with THRR and RPE, alert instructor w/ signs or symptoms, don't exceed exercise difficulty level, low to moderate exercise, follow physician guidelines
List 4 exercise guidelines for participants with arthritis.
low impact, frequency encouraged, stretch daily, longer warmup/ cooldown
List 4 precautions that should be taken for diabetic participants who are attending a group exercise class
blood glucose should be monitored frequently
for those who need insulin, inject in an active muscle
carry a carbohydrate snack for hypoglycemia
keep workouts scheduled for the same hour everyday
List 8 exercise guidelines for a participant with hypertension.
Emphasize cardio exercise to reduce high blood pressure, exercise most days of the week 30-60 minutes, avoid high intensity and isometric activities, high reps, low weight, avoid failure, avoid valsalva maneuver- it increases vascular pressue, utilize RPE as hypertension meds alter HR, avoid positions that the feet go above the head, teach relaxation/ stress management techniques.
No one rule necessarily applies to all large- sized adults in terms of exercise precautions because ______
every person is different.
It is _________ to require a medical clearance for participation based solely on the size of the exerciser.
Instructors should be alert to signs of __________ and _________.
Cardiorespiratory disease and diabetes.
What is the preferred method of monitoring exercise intensity in the older adult population and what is the appropriate range?
RPE scale- between 5 and 6.
What method of resistance training would be appropriate for older adults with arthritis and osteoperosis?
Slow stretching and isometric activities
List the 2 methods of stretching that are recommended for older adults.
Static and slow dynamic
List 4 program design guidelines for the older adult
goal is renewed energy
be alert to overexertion
monitor exercise intensity
slow controlled movement thru full ROM
List 3 exercise considerations during pregnancy.
cardio changes due to blood volume, hormonal changes, maintain pelvic floor muscles
List 5 things a fitness professional should consider prior to working with pregnant women.
Goal is renewed energy
signs of overexertion
modifications, slow down
if any adverse reactions, refer to physician
Discuss 3 exercise modalities that pregnant women can perform along with any risks and modifications that should be taken.
aqua- no hoping or jumping, twisting motions- instead control ROM, use short levers, low impact.
dance exercise- avoid propulsions, fast footwork- instead basic steps, v step, step touch.
weight bearing- no supine weight work after 20 weeks, free weights deep squats- instead incline leg press
List 4 exercise recommendations outlined by the USDHHS and ACSM
60 minutes of exercise 3-4 days a week, use large muscle groups, make it fun, monitor HR
List 3 general guidelines to resistance training in children and adolescents.
Resistance training movements- encouraged in children who participate in regular activity, use tubes and med balls, slow and controlled.
free weight training- 10-12 years and 1-2 lb at the onset of training. machines are made for the adult body, so not recommended.
Manual resistance training- if mature enough to seriously work with a partner- i.e. hip abduction exercises
Isometric training- if they can adhere to proper breathing techniques
List 3 special considerations regarding resistance training in children and adolescents
Equipment and activity should be varied and age and size appropriate, as well as maturity level
Training should increase motor skills
only when good form is achieved can you increase weight
focus is on participation and proper technique not amount of resistance.
Discuss 4 ways to ensure a successful substitute teach experience.
Know the regular instructor, be aware of abilities of class members, develop self confidence, keep class policies consistent.
List 7 services group exercise instructors should deliver in order to adhere to the "standard of care" outlined by the fitness industry.
screening clients, recommending activities, recording activities, record keeping, leadership, proper supervision, emergency response.