The fibers of this cranial nerve leave the inferior pons and enter the orbit via the superior orbital fissure
The fibers of this cranial nerve leave the pons, travel through the internal acoustic meatus, and emerge through the stylomastoid foramen to the lateral aspect of the face
This cranial nerve conveys sensory impulses from various areas of the face (V1) and (V2), and supplies motor fibers (V3) for mastication
This cranial nerve is primarily a motor nerve innervating the lateral rectus muscle
Mixed cranial nerve with five major branches • Motor functions include facial expression, and the transmittal of autonomic impulses to lacrimal and salivary glands • Sensory function is taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue
Fibers of this cranial nerve arise from the hearing and equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear, pass through the internal acoustic meatus, and enter the brainstem at the pons-medulla border
Two divisions of vestibulocochlear are:
-Cochlear (hearing) -Vestibular (balance)
Fibers from this cranial nerve emerge from the medulla, leave the skull via the jugular foramen, and run to the throat
The only cranial nerve that extends beyond the head and neck
Functions of this cranial nerve include equilibrium and hearing
• Motor - innervates part of the tongue and pharynx, and provides motor fibers to the parotid salivary gland • Sensory - fibers conduct taste and general sensory impulses from the tongue and pharynx Which cranial nerve is it?
• Most motor fibers are parasympathetic fibers to the heart, lungs, and visceral organs • Its sensory function is in taste Which cranial nerve is it?
The accessory nerve leaves the cranium via the ________ foramen
This cranial nerve is formed from a cranial root emerging from the medulla and a spinal root arising from the superior region of the spinal cord
This cranial nerve innervates both extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, which contribute to swallowing and speech
This cranial nerve is primarily a motor nerve - Supplies fibers to the larynx, pharynx, and soft palate - Innervates the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid, which move the head and neck
______________ pairs of mixed nerves arise from the spinal cord and supply all parts of the body except the head
Each spinal nerve connects to the spinal cord via ____ _________ ______
Two medial roots
Each root forms a series of ________ that attach to the spinal cord
_________ ______ arise from the anterior horn and contain motor (efferent) fibers
_________ _____ arise from sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and contain sensory (afferent) fibers
All ventral rami except T2-T12 form interlacing nerve networks called _______.
Fibers travel to the periphery via several different routes are called...
Plexuses are found where?
-Cervical -Brachial -Lumbar -Sacral regions
The major nerves of the lumbar plexus are the _______ and the _________.
Femoral and Obturator
Arises from L4-S4 and serves the buttock, lower limb, pelvic structures, and the perineum
The longest and thickest nerve of the body is the
The sciatic is composed of what two nerves?
Tibial and fibular (peroneal) nerves
A __________ is the area of skin innervated by the cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve
All spinal nerves except ____ participate in dermatomes
any nerve serving a muscle that produces movement at a joint also innervates the joint itself and the skin over the joint is known as
A _______ is a rapid, predictable motor response to a stimulus
- Be inborn (intrinsic) or learned (acquired) - Involve only peripheral nerves and the spinal cord - Involve higher brain centers as well
What are the five components of a reflex arc?
- Receptor - site of stimulus - Sensory neuron - transmits the afferent impulse to the CNS - Integration center - either monosynaptic or polysynaptic region within the CNS - Motor neuron - conducts efferent impulses from the integration center to an effector - Effector - muscle fiber or gland that responds to the efferent impulse
For skeletal muscles to perform normally:
- The Golgi tendon organs (proprioceptors) must constantly inform the brain as to the state of the muscle - Stretch reflexes initiated by muscle spindles must maintain healthy muscle tone
Stretching the muscle activates what?
The muscle spindles
Excited Y motor neurons of the spindle cause the stretched muscle to _____________
________ impulses from the spindle result in inhibition of the antagonist.
__________ is initiated by stimulating the lateral aspect of the sole of the foot - The response is downward flexion of the toes - Indirectly tests for proper corticospinal tract functioning
___________ is the abnormal plantar reflex indicating corticospinal damage where the great toe dorsiflexes and the smaller toes fan laterally
Spinal nerves branch from the developing _______ ______ and ______ ________ - Supply motor and sensory function to developing muscles
spinal cord and neural crest cells
________ _________ innervate muscles of the head
Sensory receptors _________ with age and muscle tone lessens