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all neural structures outside the brain and spinal cord are known as...
The Peripheral Nervous System
The Peripheral Nervous System provides what?
They provide links to and from the external environment
Peripheral Nervous System includes what 4 things?
Includes sensory receptors, peripheral nerves, associated ganglia, and motor endings
Activation of sensory receptors results in _____________ that trigger impulses to the CNS
This receptor class is sensitive to chemical changes, stretch, and temperature changes
This receptor class is found in skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, ligaments, and connective tissue coverings of bones and muscles
4 Classification of nerves include:
• Sensory and motor divisions
• Sensory (afferent)
• Motor (efferent)
The four types of mixed nerves are:
- Somatic afferent and somatic efferent - Visceral afferent and visceral efferent
Regeneration involves coordinated activity among:
- Macrophages - remove debris
- Schwann cells - form regeneration tube and secrete growth factors
- Axons - regenerate damaged part
______ cranial nerves carry parasympathetic fibers that serve muscles and glands. They are:
(3) Oculomotor, (7) Facial, (9) Glossopharyngeal, (10) Vagus
Which cranial nerve functions solely by carrying afferent impulses for the sense of smell
Which cranial nerve functions in raising the eyelid, directing the eyeball, constricting the iris, and controlling lens shape
Which cranial nerve arises from the retina of the eye and passes through the optic canals and converge at the optic chiasm
Which cranial nerve have fibers extend from the ventral midbrain, pass through the superior orbital fissure, and go to the extrinsic eye muscles
The fibers of this cranial nerve emerge from the dorsal midbrain and enter the orbits via the superior orbital fissures; innervate the superior oblique muscle
What are the 3 divisions of the Trigeminal Nerve?
The fibers of this cranial nerve leave the inferior pons and enter the orbit via the superior orbital fissure
The fibers of this cranial nerve leave the pons, travel through the internal acoustic meatus, and emerge through the stylomastoid foramen to the lateral aspect of the face
This cranial nerve conveys sensory impulses from various areas of the face (V1) and (V2), and supplies motor fibers (V3) for mastication
Mixed cranial nerve with five major branches
• Motor functions include facial expression, and the transmittal of autonomic impulses to lacrimal and salivary glands
• Sensory function is taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue
Fibers of this cranial nerve arise from the hearing and equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear, pass through the internal acoustic meatus, and enter the brainstem at the pons-medulla border
Fibers from this cranial nerve emerge from the medulla, leave the skull via the jugular foramen, and run to the throat
• Motor - innervates part of the tongue and pharynx, and provides motor fibers to the parotid salivary gland
• Sensory - fibers conduct taste and general sensory impulses from the tongue and pharynx
Which cranial nerve is it?
• Most motor fibers are parasympathetic fibers to the heart, lungs, and visceral organs
• Its sensory function is in taste
Which cranial nerve is it?
This cranial nerve is formed from a cranial root emerging from the medulla and a spinal root arising from the superior region of the spinal cord
This cranial nerve innervates both extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, which contribute to swallowing and speech
This cranial nerve is primarily a motor nerve
- Supplies fibers to the larynx, pharynx, and soft palate
- Innervates the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid, which move the head and neck
______________ pairs of mixed nerves arise from the spinal cord and supply all parts of the body except the head
Name the 31 pairs of mixed nerves:
- 8 cervical (C1-C8)
- 12 thoracic (T1-T12)
- 5 Lumbar (L1-L5)
- 5 Sacral (S1-S5)
- 1 Coccygeal (C0)
_________ _____ arise from sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and contain sensory (afferent) fibers
Arises from L4-S4 and serves the buttock, lower limb, pelvic structures, and the perineum
A __________ is the area of skin innervated by the cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve
any nerve serving a muscle that produces movement at a joint also innervates the joint itself and the skin over the joint is known as
- Be inborn (intrinsic) or learned (acquired)
- Involve only peripheral nerves and the spinal cord
- Involve higher brain centers as well
What are the five components of a reflex arc?
- Receptor - site of stimulus
- Sensory neuron - transmits the afferent impulse to the CNS
- Integration center - either monosynaptic or polysynaptic region within the CNS
- Motor neuron - conducts efferent impulses from the integration center to an effector
- Effector - muscle fiber or gland that responds to the efferent impulse
For skeletal muscles to perform normally:
- The Golgi tendon organs (proprioceptors) must constantly inform the brain as to the state of the muscle
- Stretch reflexes initiated by muscle spindles must maintain healthy muscle tone
__________ is initiated by stimulating the lateral aspect of the sole of the foot
- The response is downward flexion of the toes
- Indirectly tests for proper corticospinal tract functioning
___________ is the abnormal plantar reflex indicating corticospinal damage where the great toe dorsiflexes and the smaller toes fan laterally
Spinal nerves branch from the developing _______ ______ and ______ ________
- Supply motor and sensory function to developing muscles
spinal cord and neural crest cells
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