American Realities 8:II-12: The Civil Rights Movement: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Road to Birmingham
These questions are based on the book American Realities: Historical Episodes from Reconstruction to the Present by J. William T. Youngs
Terms in this set (25)
Who led the opposition to integration in Birmingham and directed the police attacks on civil rights demonstrators?
Eugene ("Bull") Connor
According to Martin Luther King Jr., the civil rights demonstrators symbolized the moral superiority of an oppressed people and thereby won worldwide support for their cause by...?
resisting injustice without being tainted by violence,
Give some examples of segregation in the United States?
Whites excluding blacks from a wide range of facilities, including the ballot box, schools, parks, public transportation, housing, restaurants, hotels, restrooms, and drinking fountains. Even in the North blacks were second-class citizens and had to ride on segregated jim crow railroad cars. In the antebellum period most northern states denied blacks the ballot, and some of the western territories passed laws declaring that nonwhites could not live within their borders. Black athletes played on segregated teams. In the army blacks were barred from white social facilities. As late as 1949 blacks were not admitted to theaters in downtown Washington, D.C.
The U.S. Supreme Court's Plessy v. Ferguson decision, reflected the ideas of which foremost black leader?
Booker T. Washington
What court case endorsed the segregationist concept of "separate but equal?"
Plessy v. Ferguson
W. E. B. Du Bois and a small group of black intellectuals and professional founded the ________, which demanded an end to discrimination in public accommodations, education, and politics.
The___________________________ sought "to advance the interests of colored citizens; to secure for them impartial suffrage; and to increase their opportunities for securing justice in the courts, education for their children, employment according to their ability, and complete equality before the law."
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association which desired a fraternity of blacks throughout the world and advocated the creation of an independent black nation in Africa?
Wallace Fard declared that the true African American religion was __________.
What did President Franklin D. Roosevelt Executive Order 8802 do?
Established the Fair Employment Practices Commission. Although the new agency did not completely end discrimination in defense production, it did force many employers to hire blacks.
In 1944 the Supreme Court declared in ____________ that states could not prevent blacks from voting in political primaries, thereby eliminating one of the most popular southern tactics for destroying the electoral influence of blacks.
Smith v. Albright
Briefly explain the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education?
A young girl in Topeka, Kansas, was denied admittance to an all-white school. The NAACP argued that the old separate-but-equal doctrine was specious: the mere fact of separation put the black in a demeaning and discouraging position. Thurgood Marshall proved "The policy of separating the races is usually interpreted as denoting the inferiority of the Negro group. A sense of inferiority affects the motivation of the child to learn." The Court decided separate educational facilities were inherently unequal and contrary to the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Who refused give up her seat on the Cleveland Street bus in Montgomery Alabama, thereby inaugurating a new era in the civil rights movement?
Martin Luther King Jr. believed that black Americans lived within what two concentric circles of segregation?
One imprisons blacks on the basis of color, while the other confines blacks within a separate culture of poverty. The struggle to escape the circumstances is hindered by color discrimination. Blacks are deprived of normal education and normal social and economic opportunities. "When he seeks opportunity, he is told, in effect, to lift himself by his own bootstraps, advice which does not take into account the fact that he is barefoot."
What two fundamental ideas, that he would repeat again and again throughout the civil rights movement, did King offer during the Montgomery Improvement Association's first public meeting?
First, men and women must not accept injustice. Second, they must resist nonviolently in order to win the contest with a display of loving forbearance.
What did the Montgomery bus boycott accomplish?
The Supreme Court finally decided that Alabama's state law requiring racial segregation on public buses was un-constitutional. The bus company agreed to integrate and hire black drivers. It enlivened the civil rights movement throughout the United States.
President Dwight Eisenhower sent a thousand paratroopers into _______________ to keep order and protect the students.
Little Rock High School
What were sit-ins?
Started with four black college students in Greensboro, North Carolina, who tried to buy food at a local Woolworth's lunch counter. They were denied service but refused to leave their seats. For three months they and their fellow students sat at the counter forcing Woolworth to integrate its lunch counter. The technique caught on. Groups of blacks and sympathetic whites, would take seats at lunch counters and demand to be served. Hostile whites abused the demonstrators and attacked them, but the demonstrators, trained in nonviolence, usually endured the taunts silently. Within two years, hundreds of restaurants, theaters, hotels, and other facilities had been integrated.
Under Martin Luther King Jr.'s direction the ___________ became the most powerful organization in the civil rights movement, raising funds, planning demonstrations, publicizing black grievances.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
During the Congress of Racial Equality's (CORE) _________, busloads of black and white volunteers set out from Washington, D.C., to drive through the South on interstate highways in order to challenge segregation of public facilities.
During the winter of 1962-1963, the SCLC established what three major goals for demonstrations in Birmingham?
removal of racial restrictions in stores, including segregated lunch counters, dressing rooms, drinking fountains, and restrooms; adoption of nondiscriminatory hiring practices; and creation of a biracial city commission to negotiate further desegregation.
While in jail, King decided to reply to his critics concerning his civil rights tactics. This proved to be the most important document of the civil rights movement.
"Letter from Birmingham Jail"
Along with his brother, who had initially been reluctant to offer King more than token support, but soon began to advocate strong civil rights legislation?
__________________, persuaded Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act in 1965, the most significant legislation for blacks since Reconstruction.
President Lyndon Johnson
Who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, becoming the youngest person to win the award?
Martin Luther King Jr.
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