Ballooning of an artery as a result of weakening of the arterial wall. It may be caused by atherosclerosis, infection, or a hereditary defect in the vascular system.
Dilation of an artery using endovascular techniques - - an arterial catheter --- may include insertion of a supportive stent inside the artery to maintain blood flow.
A disease characterized by thickening hardening, and loss of elasticity of the arterial wall.
An incision made in an artery, usually to perform an anastomosis with a graft or another artery or to remove plaque or a thrombus.
The most common form of arteriosclerosis, which causes plaque to form on the inner surface of an artery.
Doppler duplex ultrasonography
A type of ultrasonography that amplifies sounds that pass through tissue and produces a visual image of blood flow.
A moving substance in the vascular system. An embolus may consist of air, a blood clot, atherosclerotic plaque, or fat.
A process in which blood is shunted out of the body ad passed through a complex of set of filters for treatment of end stage renal disease---sometimes poisoning --- also called renal replacement therapy.
A term meaning "in the natural position or normal place, without disturbing or invading surrounding tissues".
A diagnostic tool in which a transducer is introduced into an artery and ultrasound is used to translate the physical characteristics of the lumen into a visible image.
The decrease in or absence of blood supply to a localized area, usually related to vascular obstruction.
A term that literally means "through the skin." In a percutaneous approach in surgery, an incision is not made,; rather, a catheter or other device is introduced through a puncture site.
Any organic or non-organic material blocking an artery; generally refers to a blood clot or atherosclerotic plaque but also includes fat or air.
Lengths of cotton mesh tape used to loop around a blood vessel for retraction. See vessel loop
Pooling of blood in the veins caused by inactivity or disease. Stasis can cause distention of the veins.
A device used to retract a vessel during surgery. A length of thin Silastic tubing or cottom tape --- umbilical ape -- is passed around the vessel. The ends can be threaded through a bolster 1/8 to 1/4 inch or 0.3 to 0.6 cm length of rubber Silastic tubing - - - - to secure the loop against the blood vessel.
also called adventitia is composed of connective tissue and protects the vessel and provides structural strength.
is composed of inner layers of smooth muscle that is bounded by connective tissue. Autonomic
secretes substances that cause vasodilation or constriction and prevents platelet aggregation .
The capillaries are microscopic vessels
that as function as the transition and exchange mechanism for oxygen and other substances between the vessel walls and the tissue cells. No muscle fibers. One cell thick.
Oxygenated blood in the LEFT VENTRICLE is pumped through the ascending aorta to the rest of the body. Blood returning from the body passes from the capillaries into the venous system and returns to the LEFT ATRIUM through the vena cava.
Deoxygenated blood in the right ventricle is pumped through the pulmonary arteries -- THE ONLY ARTERIES THAT CARRY DEOXYGENATED BLOOD --- to the lungs. Blood is oxygenated in the capillaries of the alveoli -- lungs --- and returns to the left ventricle through the pulmonary veins -- THE ONLY VEINS THAT CARRY OXYGENATED BLOOD.
is the hormonal regulation of arterial pressure that is influenced by fluid fluid volume and other facts.
is high blood pressure that is typically caused by cardiovascular disease such as arteriosclerosis. also occurs with chronic renal failure.
Elasticity of the arterial walls
The ability of the artery to expand and relax. Arteries stiffen with with atherosclerosis resulting in hypertension.
Peripheral vascular resistance
Vascular resistance occurs when the muscular layer of the artery is unable to relax or arteries are stiff with a reduced diameter.
Blood viscosity is measured by
the amount of fluid in the blood. Lower viscosity means thicker blood means increased blood pressure.
is the largest artery. Starts at the left ventricle. Descends through thoracic cavity. Passes behind the heart but in front of the spinal column. Enters abdomen passes through diaphragm behind the retroperitoneum space. Aorta bifurcates in the pelvic. Turns into the iliac arteries.
Thoracic cavity. Starts from the left ventricle to form an arch - the aortic arch. Three major arteries come from this arch - - brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery. Still called the descending aorta at this point. Only when it crosses into the abdomen is called an abdominal aorta.
Head artery information is
when the brachiocephalic artery becomes the right carotid artery then branches into the external carotid artery.
Iliac arteries divide into
the internal and external iliac arteries in the pelvis with the external iliac artery converging into the femoral artery in the groin.
The following anatomical structures make up the
peripheral vascular system. Arteries, veins, and capillary networks. Tunica externa, tunica media, and tunica ibntima.
The tunica externa is also called adventitia. It is is
composed of connective tissue. Protects the vessel from injury and provides structural strength.
The elastic nature of the arteries allows them
to contract during systole and relax during diastole to maintain vascular pressure.
The greater saphenous vein
is surgically removed to provide an autograft for peripheral or coronary artery bypass.
The greater saphenous vein is used for arterial bypass
surgery. The greater saphenous vie is readily accessible, and its connective tissue layer thickens with increased pressure. This makes it strong and able to withstand higher arterial pressure and has adequate length.
Pulse volume recording is
arterial plethysmography that requires three blood pressure cuff readings.
The tuberculin shrine would be
appropriate for testing a Fogarty type embolectomy catheter with a balloon volume of 1 mL or less.
Arterial plaque is identified as a thick
yellow rubbery material that adheres to the lumen --- intimal layer --- of the artery.
The injection of contrast media into a selected
artery and its branches to determine the exact location of strictures occlusion, or malformation is called angiography.
Trans-luminal angioplasty is the insertion
is the insertion of an arterial catheter or stent into an artery to establish patency and normal blood flow.
A metal umbrella shaped filter is inserted into
the Vena cava to prevent emboli from entering the pulmonary system.
Endarterectomy is the
removal of fatty fibrotic plaque that develops in thge intima layer of the arteries.
After a carotid endarterectomy
the arteriotomy is closed. The clamps are taken off the internal, external and common carotid arteries in that order.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a condition in which a section of the abdominal aorta becomes thing and
Abdominal aortic aneurysms typically occur
just below the renal arteries and extend to the bifurcation of the common iliac arteries or just above it.