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____ is the physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside to the inside of the body?


The serous membranes that suspend the stomach and intestines from the abdominal wall are called:
-muscularis mucosae
-muscularis externa


These nutrients are all absorbed without being digested except?


These are all accessory organs of the digestive system except:
-salivary glands


Each of the following lists some of the tissue layers of the digestive tract. Which one has them in the correct order from lumen to external surface?
-lamina propia, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
-serosa, lamina propia, submucosa, muscularis mucosae, muscularis externa
-mucosa, submucosa, muscularis mucosae,muscularis externa, lamina propia
-mucosa, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, lamina propria
-mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, lamina propria, serosa

lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

The small intestine is suspended from the abdominal wall by?
-the falciform ligament
-the mesentery
-the great omentum
-the lesser omentum
-the esophageal hiatus

the mesentery

Chemical digestion breaks down ___ into ____?
-proteins; nucleotides
-amino acids; proteins
-polysaccharides; amino acids
-nucleic acids; nucelotides
-fatty acids; cholesterol

nucleic acids; nucleotides

The surface of the tongue is covered with ____ stratified squamous epithelium and has bumps called ______ site of taste buds?
-keratinized; lingual papillae
-keratinized; lingual frenulum
-nonkeratinized; lingual papillae
-nonkeratinized; tonsils
-nonkeratinized; vallate papillae

nonkeratinized; lingual papillae

Infants have _____ deciduous teeth, whereas adults have _______ permanent teeth?


From superficial to deep, these are the structures found in a typical tooth:
-cementum, root canal, enamel
-enamel, root canal, dentin
-dentin, enamel, cementum
-enamel, dentin, pulp
-crown, enamel, dentin


These are normally found in saliva except?


The ______ gland is an extrinsic salivary gland, whereas the ______ gland is an intrinsic salivary gland?
-lingual; labial
-submandibular; ligual
-submandibular; sublingual
-sublingual; parotid
-lingual; sublingual

submandibular; lingual

The swallowing center is located in?
-the mouth
-the oropharynx
-the esophagus
-the medulla oblongata
-the enteric nervous system

the medulla oblongata

The buccal phase of swallowing is under ______ control and the pharyngo-esophageal phase is _______.
-CNS, also controlled by the CNS
-CNS, controlled by AN reflexes
-ANS, controlled by AN reflexes
-voluntary; also voluntary
-involuntary; also involuntary

CNS; controlled by AN reflexes

Acid reflux into the esophagus(heartburn) is normally prevented by?
-pharyngeal constrictors
-the upper esophageal sphincter
-the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
-esophageal galnds
-pharyngeal and buccal sphincters

the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

Hydrochloric acid (HCI) is secreted by _____ cells?
-regenerative (stem)


______, which is secreted by ______ cells, is necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption?
-intrinsic factors, parietal
-bile salts, chief
-lecithin; hepatic
-hydrochloric acid; parietal
-enterokinase, mucose

intrinsic factor, parietal

Pepsinogen is produced by ______ and is activated by ______?
-chief cells; carbonic anhydrase (CAH) secreted by parietal cells
-chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCI) secreted by parietal cells
-parietal cells, hydrochloric acid (HCL) secreted by chief cells
-parietal cells, carbonic anhydrase (CAH) secreted by chief cells
-enteroendocrine cells, carbonic anhydrase (CAH) secreted by parietal cells

chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCL) secreted by parietal cells

Why are several digestive enzymes secreted as zymogens?
-b/c this saves one step in their synthesis
-b/c gastric cells don't have the necessary enzymes for their synthesis
-so they can start digestive intracellular proteins of the gastric cells more quickly
-so they act only in the stomach lumen and do not digest intracellular proteins
-so they can start digesting dietary proteins more quickly

so they act only in the stomach lumen and do not digest intracellular proteins

The enterogastric reflex serves to?
-relax the stomach in preparation for swallowed food
-stimulate acid and enzyme secretion when food enters the stomach
-stimulate intestinal motility when there is food in the stomach
-inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine
-relax the ileocecal valve when chyme is on its way to the colon

inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine

_____ is a hormone, whereas _______ is an enzyme?
-enterokinase. pepsin
-gastrin, secretin
-gastrin, CCK
-gastric lipase, pepsin
-secretin, pepsin

secretin, pepsin

_____ is associated with food stretching the stomach and activating myenteric and vagovagal reflexes, which in turn stimulate gastric secretions?
-the cephalic phase
the gastric phase
-the intestinal phase
-the gastrointestinal phase
-the mesenteric phase

the gastric phase

The organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the blood is?
-the pancreas
-the stomach
-the liver
-the spleen
-the small intestine

the liver

A hepatic (portal) triad consists of?
-right, left, and common hepatic ducts
-common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and bile duct
-the hepatic portal vein and two hepatic ducts
-bile ductule, branch of the hepatic artery and branch of hepatic portal vein
-a central vein, hepatic lobule, and hepatic sinusoid

bile ductule, branch of the hepatic artery and branch of hepatic portal vein

Of the following components of bile, only _____ has/have a digestive function?
-bile salts
-neutral fats

bile salts

The ____ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing _____?
-duodenum; neutral fats
-ileum, bilirubin
-gallbladder; cholesterol
-pancreas; bile salts
-liver; cholesterol

liver, cholesterol

Pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to the hormone?
-cholecystokinin (CKK)

cholecystokinin (CCK)

Which of these is not a component of the pancreatic juice?
-sodium bicarbonate


Which of these nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine?
-amino acids
-water-soluble vitamins


Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH?
-salivary amylase
-pancreatic amylase


Which of these is the site of contact digestion?
-gastric pits
-surface of the gastric mucosa
-intestinal crypts
-brush border of the small intestine
-cytoplasm in the cells of the small intestine

brush border of the small intestine

The small intestine has a very large absorptive surface associated with all these structures except?
-circular folds (plicase circulares)
-intestinal length


The migrating motor complex?
-milks the chyme toward the colon
-allows a bolus to move down the esophagus
-churns and mixes residue in the descending colon
-churns and mixes a bolus with gastric juices
-propels pancreatic juice down the pancreatic duct

milks the chyme toward the colon

The _____ of the small intestine is/are similar to the ______ of the stomach
-villi, pyloric glands
-ruguae, peyer patches
-intestinal crypts, gastric pits
-goblet cells; parietal cells
-pyloric sphincter, ileocecal valve

intestinal crypts, gastric pits

Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ____, whereas protein digestion begins in the?
-liver, small intestine
-small intestine; stomach
-mouth; stomach
-mouth; small intestine
-stomach; small intestine

mouth; stomach

The sodium-glucose transport protein(SGLP)?
-is a uniport carrier
-is an antiport carrier
-uses solvent drag to transport glucose and sodium
-transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells
-transports glucose from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells and sodium in the opposite direction

transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells

Amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed in the _____ and fatty acids are absorbed in the ______?
-small intestine; large intestine
-small intestine, liver
-stomach, small intestine
-stomach, large intestine
-small intestine, small intestine too

small intestine, small intestine too

Lecithin prepares fats for hydrolysis by forming?
-triglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol
-low density lipoprotein (LDL)
-emulsification droplets

emulsification droplets

Proteins are digested by different enzymes acting in the following sequence?
-pepsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase
-pepsin, trypsin, dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase
-trypsin, pepsin, dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase
-trypsin, pepsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase
-dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase, pepsin, trypsin

pepsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase

_____ transport lipids to the surface of the intestinal absorptive cells, which process them into ______?
-fat droplets, micelles
-fat droplets, chylomicrons
-micelles, fat globules
-micelles, chylomicrons
-fat goblets, micelles

micelles, chylomicrons

The three most abundant classes of nutrients are?
-carbs, proteins, minerals
-fats, proteins, carbs
-proteins, nucleic acids, cabs
-triglycerides, starches, proteins
-proteins, fats, minerals

fats, proteins, carbs

The muscle tone of the _____ along the colon contracts it lengthwise, causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called ______.
-circular folds, ceca
-taeniae coli, haustra
-haustral taeniae coli
-internal sphincters, omental (epiploic) appendages
-internal sphincters, ceca

taeniae coli; haustra

Bacterial flora carry out all of the following except?
-digest most of the proteins we get in the diet
-synthesize vitamin K
-produce some of the gases found in the flatus
-digest cellulose
-form part of the feces

digest most of the proteins we get in the diet

Bacteria constitute about _____ % of the dry weight of feces?


Defecation is stimulated by?
-the chemical composition of the feces
-bacterial flora in the feces
-water content of the feces
-lipid content in the feces
-stretching of the rectum

stretching of the rectum

The____regulates digestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow, an its neurons are found in the_____?
-automonic nervous system; serosa
-central nervous system; muscularis externa and muscularis mucosae
-enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa
-visceral sensory division; muscularis externa and submucosa
-visceral motor division; mucosa and submucosa

enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa

________ break(s) down_______?
-lactase, glucose
-peptidases, proteins
-lipases, micelles
-lactose; lactase
-nucleases; nuceotides

peptidases, proteins

The digestive system processes food, extracts nutrients, and eliminates the residue


the enteric nervous system regulates much of the digestive activity but its action depends on the CNS


odor, sight, and taste stimulate salivatory nuclei in the cerebral cortex


Enamel is found in the crown of a tooth, whereas dentin is part of both crown and root.


Both chemical and mechanical digestion start in the mouth and continue in the stomach


Gastric juice consists entirely of water and hydrochloric acid.


Absorption of many nutrients starts in the stomach


The liver is the body's largest gland


Both pacreatic juice and bile are secreted into the duodenum


The small intestine begins with the duodenum, which is the longest segment


The brush borders of intestinal absorptive cells contain numerous goblet cells


Most fat is digested by pancreatic lipase


Chylomicrons are secreted from the basal surface of the absorptive cells and taken into the lacteal in the villus


The large intestine absorbs water, fats, and salts


The large intestine is longer than the small intestine


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