____ is the physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside to the inside of the body?
The serous membranes that suspend the stomach and intestines from the abdominal wall are called:
These nutrients are all absorbed without being digested except?
These are all accessory organs of the digestive system except:
Each of the following lists some of the tissue layers of the digestive tract. Which one has them in the correct order from lumen to external surface?
-lamina propia, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
-serosa, lamina propia, submucosa, muscularis mucosae, muscularis externa
-mucosa, submucosa, muscularis mucosae,muscularis externa, lamina propia
-mucosa, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, lamina propria
-mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, lamina propria, serosa
lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
The small intestine is suspended from the abdominal wall by?
-the falciform ligament
-the great omentum
-the lesser omentum
-the esophageal hiatus
Chemical digestion breaks down ___ into ____?
-amino acids; proteins
-polysaccharides; amino acids
-nucleic acids; nucelotides
-fatty acids; cholesterol
nucleic acids; nucleotides
The surface of the tongue is covered with ____ stratified squamous epithelium and has bumps called ______ site of taste buds?
-keratinized; lingual papillae
-keratinized; lingual frenulum
-nonkeratinized; lingual papillae
-nonkeratinized; vallate papillae
nonkeratinized; lingual papillae
Infants have _____ deciduous teeth, whereas adults have _______ permanent teeth?
From superficial to deep, these are the structures found in a typical tooth:
-cementum, root canal, enamel
-enamel, root canal, dentin
-dentin, enamel, cementum
-enamel, dentin, pulp
-crown, enamel, dentin
The ______ gland is an extrinsic salivary gland, whereas the ______ gland is an intrinsic salivary gland?
The swallowing center is located in?
-the medulla oblongata
-the enteric nervous system
the medulla oblongata
The buccal phase of swallowing is under ______ control and the pharyngo-esophageal phase is _______.
-CNS, also controlled by the CNS
-CNS, controlled by AN reflexes
-ANS, controlled by AN reflexes
-voluntary; also voluntary
-involuntary; also involuntary
CNS; controlled by AN reflexes
Acid reflux into the esophagus(heartburn) is normally prevented by?
-the upper esophageal sphincter
-the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
-pharyngeal and buccal sphincters
the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
Hydrochloric acid (HCI) is secreted by _____ cells?
______, which is secreted by ______ cells, is necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption?
-intrinsic factors, parietal
-bile salts, chief
-hydrochloric acid; parietal
intrinsic factor, parietal
Pepsinogen is produced by ______ and is activated by ______?
-chief cells; carbonic anhydrase (CAH) secreted by parietal cells
-chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCI) secreted by parietal cells
-parietal cells, hydrochloric acid (HCL) secreted by chief cells
-parietal cells, carbonic anhydrase (CAH) secreted by chief cells
-enteroendocrine cells, carbonic anhydrase (CAH) secreted by parietal cells
chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCL) secreted by parietal cells
Why are several digestive enzymes secreted as zymogens?
-b/c this saves one step in their synthesis
-b/c gastric cells don't have the necessary enzymes for their synthesis
-so they can start digestive intracellular proteins of the gastric cells more quickly
-so they act only in the stomach lumen and do not digest intracellular proteins
-so they can start digesting dietary proteins more quickly
so they act only in the stomach lumen and do not digest intracellular proteins
The enterogastric reflex serves to?
-relax the stomach in preparation for swallowed food
-stimulate acid and enzyme secretion when food enters the stomach
-stimulate intestinal motility when there is food in the stomach
-inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine
-relax the ileocecal valve when chyme is on its way to the colon
inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine
_____ is a hormone, whereas _______ is an enzyme?
-gastric lipase, pepsin
_____ is associated with food stretching the stomach and activating myenteric and vagovagal reflexes, which in turn stimulate gastric secretions?
-the cephalic phase
the gastric phase
-the intestinal phase
-the gastrointestinal phase
-the mesenteric phase
the gastric phase
The organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the blood is?
-the small intestine
A hepatic (portal) triad consists of?
-right, left, and common hepatic ducts
-common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and bile duct
-the hepatic portal vein and two hepatic ducts
-bile ductule, branch of the hepatic artery and branch of hepatic portal vein
-a central vein, hepatic lobule, and hepatic sinusoid
bile ductule, branch of the hepatic artery and branch of hepatic portal vein
Of the following components of bile, only _____ has/have a digestive function?
The ____ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing _____?
-duodenum; neutral fats
-pancreas; bile salts
Pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to the hormone?
Which of these is not a component of the pancreatic juice?
Which of these nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine?
Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH?
Which of these is the site of contact digestion?
-surface of the gastric mucosa
-brush border of the small intestine
-cytoplasm in the cells of the small intestine
brush border of the small intestine
The small intestine has a very large absorptive surface associated with all these structures except?
-circular folds (plicase circulares)
The migrating motor complex?
-milks the chyme toward the colon
-allows a bolus to move down the esophagus
-churns and mixes residue in the descending colon
-churns and mixes a bolus with gastric juices
-propels pancreatic juice down the pancreatic duct
milks the chyme toward the colon
The _____ of the small intestine is/are similar to the ______ of the stomach
-villi, pyloric glands
-ruguae, peyer patches
-intestinal crypts, gastric pits
-goblet cells; parietal cells
-pyloric sphincter, ileocecal valve
intestinal crypts, gastric pits
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ____, whereas protein digestion begins in the?
-liver, small intestine
-small intestine; stomach
-mouth; small intestine
-stomach; small intestine
The sodium-glucose transport protein(SGLP)?
-is a uniport carrier
-is an antiport carrier
-uses solvent drag to transport glucose and sodium
-transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells
-transports glucose from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells and sodium in the opposite direction
transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells
Amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed in the _____ and fatty acids are absorbed in the ______?
-small intestine; large intestine
-small intestine, liver
-stomach, small intestine
-stomach, large intestine
-small intestine, small intestine too
small intestine, small intestine too
Lecithin prepares fats for hydrolysis by forming?
-triglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol
-low density lipoprotein (LDL)
Proteins are digested by different enzymes acting in the following sequence?
-pepsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase
-pepsin, trypsin, dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase
-trypsin, pepsin, dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase
-trypsin, pepsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase
-dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase, pepsin, trypsin
pepsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase
_____ transport lipids to the surface of the intestinal absorptive cells, which process them into ______?
-fat droplets, micelles
-fat droplets, chylomicrons
-micelles, fat globules
-fat goblets, micelles
The three most abundant classes of nutrients are?
-carbs, proteins, minerals
-fats, proteins, carbs
-proteins, nucleic acids, cabs
-triglycerides, starches, proteins
-proteins, fats, minerals
fats, proteins, carbs
The muscle tone of the _____ along the colon contracts it lengthwise, causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called ______.
-circular folds, ceca
-taeniae coli, haustra
-haustral taeniae coli
-internal sphincters, omental (epiploic) appendages
-internal sphincters, ceca
taeniae coli; haustra
Bacterial flora carry out all of the following except?
-digest most of the proteins we get in the diet
-synthesize vitamin K
-produce some of the gases found in the flatus
-form part of the feces
digest most of the proteins we get in the diet
Defecation is stimulated by?
-the chemical composition of the feces
-bacterial flora in the feces
-water content of the feces
-lipid content in the feces
-stretching of the rectum
stretching of the rectum
The____regulates digestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow, an its neurons are found in the_____?
-automonic nervous system; serosa
-central nervous system; muscularis externa and muscularis mucosae
-enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa
-visceral sensory division; muscularis externa and submucosa
-visceral motor division; mucosa and submucosa
enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa
________ break(s) down_______?
the enteric nervous system regulates much of the digestive activity but its action depends on the CNS
Chylomicrons are secreted from the basal surface of the absorptive cells and taken into the lacteal in the villus