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Chapter 16 Review
Terms in this set (80)
How did Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus's actions in the Little Rock crisis provoke a political conflict between state and federal governments?
C. He resisted the Supreme Court's Brown decision to desegregate, which forced president Eisenhower to send federal troops
Why was the Civil Rights Act of 1957 significant?
B. it mandated the desegregation of all public schools
How did Rosa Parks's actions redirect the tactics of the civil rights movement?
B. they inspired a mass movement of direct actions to create political change
How did the Hernandez v. Texas case affect the civil rights of Mexican Americans?
C. it meant that they could participate more fully in the justice system
Thurgood Marshall changed the course of American history because he
A. showed that the "separate but equal" principle was unconstitutional
In what ways did the Black Panthers represent a shift in tone and tactics for the civil rights movement?
B. They represented a radicalization of urban youth and a new militancy
The civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s led to
A. an increase in African American voter participation
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was intended to
B. prevent states from restricting minority groups access to the political process
Why did Nixon administration establish affirmative action?
A. to promote equal opportunities for blacks and whites
How did the Twenty-fourth Amendment affect the voting rights of African Americans?
D. it prevented states from collecting a poll tax that discouraged poor African Americans from voting
The US landing on the moon in 1969 helped
C. demonstrate American technological superiority in the space race
How did American space exploration affect Americans standard of living?
A. it increased access to new technologies
How did President Kennedy respond to repeated outbreaks of racially motivated violence in the early 1960s?
D. He supported the use of the military in order to protect minority citizens civil rights
How did television shape public opinion in the 1960 presidential debate?
A. it allowed the public to evaluate candidates appearance and demeanor
Why did President Kennedy refer to his domestic proposals as the "New Frontier"?
C. he wanted to inspire hope and optimism about the tasks that lay ahead
President Johnson's Medicaid program is a good example of Great Society legislation because it
C. provides basic medical services to the poor
Which statement summarizes how Supreme Court justices applied the principle of judicial interpretation in the Tinker v. Des Moines case?
A. they expanded the definition of the right to free speech beyond the spoken word
Why do you think that Barry Goldwater won the support of so many southern states during the 1964 presidential election?
D. because Goldwater believed that social issues should not be addressed by the government
Why has Medicare become more expensive in recent years?
B. the percent of retirees relative to workers has increased
How did the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 affect united states demographics?
D. The nation's urban populations grew more diverse
De Jure Segregation
segregation imposed by law
De Facto Segregation
Segregation by custom and tradition
First African American Supreme Court Justice; won landmark desegregation case Brown v. Board of education in 1954
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court 1953-1968; investigated Kennedy's assassination; led in decisions protecting civil rights, rights of accused, and right to privacy
Civil Rights Act of 1957
law that established a federal Civil Rights Commission
Martin Luther King Jr.
African American civil rights leader from mid-1950s to his assassination in 1968; used nonviolent means such as marches, boycotts, and legal challenges to win civil rights
civil rights worker whose arrest in 1955 touched off Montgomery bus boycott
Arkansas governor who blatantly defied integration order; called out the Arkansas national guard to block the Little Rock nine
form of protest where participants sit and refuse to move
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
grass-roots movement founded in 1960 by young civil rights activists
protest by activists who rode buses through southern states to test their compliance with the ban on segregation in interstate buses
The first African American student at the University of Mississippi.
civil rights activist instrumental in the effort to desegregate the University of Mississippi
third party candidate in 1968 who believes in segregation and states' fights; focused his campaign on issues of blue collar anger in the north and racial tensions
March on Washington
1963 demonstration in which more than 200,000 people rallied for economic equality and civil rights
a tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination in public places and employment based on race, religion, or national origin
1964 effort to register African American voters in Mississippi
Voting Rights Act
law that banned literacy tests and empowered the federal government to oversee voter registration
constitutional amendment that banned the poll tax as a voting requirement
group set up to investigate the causes of race riots in American cities in the 1960s
African American Muslim minister and human rights activist; spokesperson for African American self sufficiency; assassinated in 1965
Nation of Islam
African American religious organization founded in 1930 that advocated separation of the races
movement in the 1960s that urged African Americans to use their collective political and economic power to gain equality
organization of militant African Americans founded in 1966
restaurant owner who sold his restaurant instead of allowing African-Americans to eat there
policy that gives special consideration to women and minorities to make up for past discrimination
President Kennedy's plan aimed at improving the economy, fighting racial discrimination, and exploring space
Equal Pay Act
1963 law that required both men and women to receive equal pay for equal work
practice of a nation paying out more money than it is receiving in revenues
the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union to develop the technology to successfully land on the moon
committee that investigated the assassination of President Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Thirty-fifth President of the U.S. 1961-1963; seen as youthful and inspiring; known for his firm handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis; Assassinated in 1963
Richard M. Nixon
thirty- seventh president of the U.S. 1969-1974; known for his foreign policy toward the Soviet Union and China and for illegal acts he committed in the Watergate affair that forced his resignation
War on Poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly through education, job training, proper health care, and nutrition
Economic Opportunity Act
law passed in 1964 creating antipoverty programs
Johnson's goals in the areas of health care, education, the environment, discrimination, and poverty
federal program created in 1965 to provide basic hospital insurance to most Americans over the age of sixty-five
federal program created in 1965 to provide low-cost health insurance to poor Americans of any age
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
Law that changed the national quota system of limits for Eastern and Western immigrants per year
Supreme Court of the 1960s under Chief Justice Earl Warren, whose decisions supported civil rights
Republican candidate for President in 1964; strongly opposed the use of federal resources to address social issues
Tinker v. Des Moines
court ruled that wearing black armbands in school to protest the Vietnam war was protected as symbolic speech. made it clear students dont give up right to free speech while in school
The Supreme Court can determine if laws are unconstitutional or not
Which practice was judged unconstitutional by the Brown v. Board of Education ruling?
A. creating separate but equal schools
Why did President Eisenhower send federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas?
B. to enforce state compliance with federal laws
Civil Rights activists organized the 1963 March on Washington in order to increase
D. pressure on Congress to pass a proposed civil rights bill
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 allowed
A. the Justice Department to persecute anyone who violated other people's civil rights
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 authorized the federal government to
C. oversee voting registration and elections in certain states
According to Stokely Carmichael, black power meant that African Americans should
B. use their economic and political strength to gain equality
How did President Kennedy apply John Maynard Keynes's new economics?
A. by increasing the federal deficit to pay for tax cuts, while also increasing federal expenditures
The Warren commission was established to
B. determine who assassinated President John F. Kennedy
How was Lyndon B. Johnson's War on poverty supposed to assist the poor?
A. by providing training, education, and healthcare to those in need
What impact did the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 have on American society?
C. it allowed more immigrants from Asia and the Americas
Miranda v. Arizona
The accused must be notified of their rights before being questioned by the police
Mapp v Ohio
Evidence illegally gathered by the police may not be used in a criminal trial
Gideon v. Wainwright
A person who cannot afford an attorney may have one appointed by the government
Escobedo v. Illinois
defendent must be allowed access to a lawyer before questioning by police
Engel v. Vitale
banned formal prayer in schools, goverment whould not make any religion the 'official' religion.
Abington v. Schempp
bible reading in public schools violated first amendment
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