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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (120)
Who among the following invented a calculating machine?
E. Leonardo da Vinci
(A) Pascal invented a calculating machine thirty years before Leibniz. Pascal was a mathematician, theologian, and philosopher. Descartes was another mathematician and philosopher who, like Pascal, believed there were good philosophical reasons to believe in God. Descartes invented analytical geometry and promoted deductive reasoning in his Discourse on Method (1637). In addition to inventing a calculator after Pascal, Leibniz was a mathematician who appears to have discovered calculus (as did Isaac Newton, independent of Leibniz). Zwingli (D) was a Protestant reformer of the sixteenth century, and Leonardo da Vinci (E) was a Renaissance painter.
Which of the following monarchs did not gain the approval of prominent French philosophes?
A. Louis XIV
B. Joseph II
C. Frederick the Great
D. Catherine the Great
E. William III of Orange
(A) The repressiveness of Louis XIV's reign in France spurred some philosophes to advocate reform. The power of William III of Orange in England was checked by Parliament (E), and Joseph II (B), Frederick the Great (C), and Catherine the Great (D) were "enlightened despots" who put some reforms into effect with varying success.
Who among the following is most associated with early modern dissection of human cadavers?
(B) Vesalius was an anatomist of the early Scientific Revolution. Paracelsus is remembered for his observation that illness often comes from chemical imbalances in the body. Like Vesalius, Harvey (E) studied cadavers, but he is best remembered for his studies of the heart and blood circulation. Brahe (C) and Kepler (D) were astronomers.
Each of the following terms is directly related to Napoleon Bonaparte's biography EXCEPT
B. King of Italy
C. Continental System
D. "First among equals"
E. Berlin Decrees
(D) Napoleon was not called the "first among equals," partly because he did not believe he had any equals. In Latin primus inter pares ("first among equals") refers to the pope. Napoleon was exiled to Elba (A) and later to St. Helena; he was declared King of Italy (B) as a result of conquests; his Continental System (C) was devised to choke England economically, as were his earlier Berlin Decrees (E), which prohibited his allies from importing British goods.
The belief that monarchs rule as agents of God is referred to as the concept of
A. Constitutional monarchy
E. Divine right
(E) Several seventeenth-century monarchs claimed to rule by "divine right," that is, as a result of their selection by God. Even if a student does not immediately know the answer to this, the connection between the concepts of God and divinity provides a good clue. In a constitutional monarchy (A), the monarch's power is checked by another political body, usually a Parliament. Anarchists (B) advocate the complete elimination of formal government. The terms laissez-faire (C) and mercantilism (D) refer to systems of economic thought.
After the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell
A. Was elected president
B. Was declared England's new monarch
C. Rejected politics and returned to his farm
D. Invaded France
E. Presided over a military dictatorship in England
(E) Cromwell acted essentially as a dictator. Following the English Civil War Cromwell tried to work with Parliament, but this did not prove to be workable. He dissolved Parliament and appointed eleven military governors to rule local regions of the country. He presided over these governors.
Nobles of the robe were
A. Wealthy Frenchmen who had purchased their nobility
B. Wealthy Frenchmen who were nobles because of their family trees
C. Mostly poor Frenchmen who remained nobles because they kept the king's favor
D. Englishmen who held seats in the House of Lords
E. Englishmen who served as the monarch's ministers
(A) Nobles in France's ancien regime (old regime) who gained their status by purchasing offices were called nobles of the robe. Those who had their status as a result of family heritage were called nobles of the sword (B). Some nobles of the sword were not really wealthy, but none could be called poor (C). Nobles of the robe and of the sword were French, not English (D and E).
"We [are] determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to man kind..."
This statement comes from which of the following texts?
A. Charter of the United Nations
B. National Assembly's "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen"
C. U.S. Constitution
D. Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France
E. Bishop Bossuet's Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture
(A) The United Nations was formed at the end of the Second World War and was designed to accomplish what the earlier League of Nations had failed to accomplish: to prevent another world war. The "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen" (B) was the founding document of the French Revolution, and Burke's work (D) was a critique of that revolution. Bossuet's book (E) promoted the theory of "divine right." The U.S. Constitution is not explicitly interested in preventing future wars (C).
"To emancipate woman is to refuse to confine her to the relations she bears to man, not to deny them to her; let her have her independent existence and she will continue none the less to exist for him also." Who wrote these lines?
A. Catherine Booth
B. Florence Nightingale
C. Simone de Beauvoir
D. Mary of Guise
E. Hannah Arendt
(C) Simone de Beauvoir was a post-Second World War feminist who wrote The Second Sex. Florence Nightingale (B) organized medical care for soldiers during the Crimean War. Catherine Booth (A), with her husband William, founded the Salvation Army in the mid-nineteenth century. Mary of Guise (D) was the mother of Mary Stuart, a sixteenth century queen of Scotland. Hannah Arendt (E) is a twentieth-century writer best known for her book Eichmann in Jerusalem, in which she recounts the trial in the early 1960s of a notorious Nazi criminal who had been living in Argentina.
"A dream, then, is a psychosis, with all the absurdities, delusions, and illusions of a psychosis." Who wrote these words?
A. Henry Mayhew
B. Sigmund Freud
C. Percy Bysshe Shelley
D. John Stuart Mill
E. Rudyard Kipling
(B) One of Freud's best-known books is The Interpretation of Dreams. Henry Mayhew (A) was a writer who described the lives of England's lower classes. Percy Bysshe Shelley (C) was a Romantic poet, John Stuart Mill (D) a political theorist who published On Liberty, and Rudyard Kipling (E) was a British writer in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century most remembered for his poem "The White Man's Burden."
"After [March 31,1920] the total number of effectives in the Army of the States constituting Germany must not exceed one hundred thousand men, including officers and establishment of depots." These words appeared in what document?
A. Maastricht Treaty
B. Treaty of Rome
C. Paris Peace Treaty
D. Treaty of Ryswick
E. Versailles Treaty
(E) The Versailles Treaty limited post-First World War Germany in many ways. The Treaty of Ryswick (1697; D) concluded the War of the League of Augsburg between France on one side and Great Britain, the Netherlands, and Spain on the other. The Paris Peace Treaty of 1783 (C) ended the American Revolution. The Treaty of Rome (B) established the European Economic Community in 1957, and the Treaty of Maastricht (A) led to the creation of the European Union in 1992.
The French writer who criticized the French king for waging wars against its neighbors was
(B) Fenelon was an admiring yet fierce critic of the king's warmongering. Bossuet (A) advocated "divine right," Chateaubriand (C) was a Romantic writer who opposed the anti-clericalism of the radical French Revolution, and Sartre (D) and Camus (E) were twentieth-century existentialist writers.
ll the following are causes of the Crimean War EXCEPT
A. U.S. interests in the Black Sea
B. French oversight of Christian shrines in the Middle East
C. Russian occupation of parts of Romania
D. The growing weakness of the Ottoman Empire
E. British and French interests in the eastern Mediterranean
(A) In the 1840s the United States was busy settling its own West. It had no compelling interests in the Black Sea region. Supervision of Christian shrines (B), the Russian presence in Romania (C), the weakness of the Ottoman Empire (D), and British and French interests in the Mediterranean (E) were all causes of the Crimean War.
The philosopher John Locke is best known for writing that all people possess rights to
A. "liberty, equality, fraternity"
B. "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness"
C. "life, liberty, and property"
D. "peace, order, and good government"
E. "a free public education"
(C) Locke may have been in favor of all the choices given, but the phrase most associated with him is "life, liberty, and property." The phrase "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" (B) appears in the U.S. Declaration of Independence; "liberty, equality, fraternity" (A) is a French slogan; and "peace, order, and good government" is Canadian (D). Public education (E) did not exist in the seventeenth century.
The period following the republic in England is known as the
B. Reign of Terror
C. Age of Anxiety
(D) Following the republican period associated with Cromwell's rule, the monarchy was restored in England. The Troubles (A) refer to violence between Irish nationalists and pro-British Irish in Ireland. The Renaissance (E) occurred in western Europe in the sixteenth century. The Age of Anxiety (C) is the term sometimes given to the twentieth century. The Reign of Terror (B) was experienced during the French Revolution.
Which of the following statements is most true of Louis XIV?
A. He moved France toward constitutional monarchy.
B. He substantially increased French territory.
C. He increased the hunting rights of peasants.
D. He lost control of the reforms that led to revolution.
E. He brought peace between Catholics and Huguenots.
(B) To answer this question correctly, students have to be careful. Answer (D) may be attractive, but it was Louis XVI, not Louis XIV who lost control of reforms. Through various wars, Louis XIV acquired imperial holdings in the Americas and in Asia. He did not increase the rights of the peasants (C); he actually revoked reforms that made life easier for Huguenots (French Protestants; E); and he was an absolute, not a constitutional, monarch (A).
Which of the following countries least benefited economically from the persecution of the Huguenots?
(D) The Huguenots tended to be in the upper-middle class, and France's driving them away only hurt the country economically. Huguenots fled France and went to Prussia (C), the American colonies (E), England (A), and Holland (B).
The American founders who argued for a system of checks and balances in government, as illustrated above, were most indebted to whom among the following?
(E) Montesquieu is best remembered for his writings on checks and balances and separation of political powers. Machiavelli (A) was a political theorist of the Renaissance, Monteverdi (B) was a Baroque composer, Jules Michelet (C) was a nineteenth-century French historian, and Gregor Mendel (E) was a nineteenth-century theorist of heredity.
When Catherine the Great of Russia heard that Diderot faced trouble because of his writings, she
A. Invited him to Russia
B. employed Russia's police to help track him down
C. Made his writings illegal in Russia
D. Banned his writings from Russia's public schools
E. Compared him unfavorably to Russia's best philosophers
(A) Catherine the Great invited Diderot to Russia, partly to boost her own prestige, partly to benefit from Enlightenment learning. There were no public schools in Russia in the eighteenth century (D). Catherine was an "enlightened despot" and thus was generally in favor of some Enlightenment thought (C). No Russian philosophers of this period are considered prominent (E).
Which of the following cities was called the "Athens of the North"?
(E) Edinburgh, Scotland, was the center of the Scottish Enlightenment of the eighteenth century. Adam Smith and David Hume are associated with the movement.
Generally speaking, leaders of France's Enlightenment most admired the political system of which of the following?
(A) Of Europe's major powers, eighteenth-century England had the most liberal political system. The power of its monarch was checked by Parliament, and citizens had basic rights, such as trial by jury. The political system of the young United States was also admired by many philosophies.
The "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen" stemmed from what movement?
A. English Revolution
B. American Revolution
C. Russian Revolution
D. Greek Revolution
E. French Revolution
(E) The "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen" was a major early document of the French Revolution. The only other answer that might be tempting is (B), the American Revolution, which led to the Declaration of Independence.
The map of Africa below illustrates the consequences of which of the following?
(D) Between 1870 and 1914, European nations took imperial possession of all but a couple African nations. Indeed, most of the African nations we know today were created by Europeans. Nigeria, for example was given its name by an English journalist. Europeans did bring some industrialization to Africa (C), and there were some socialists (A) and liberals (E) among the colonizers, but (D) is by far the best answer.
Guerrilla warfare, as modern people think of it, first emerged in what country?
(C) Napoleon sent forces into Portugal to prevent that country from trading with Britain. Going into and out of Portugal required movement through Spain. Spanish guerrillas cut Napoleon's communications and supply lines and launched hit-and-run raids on French troops.
The British writer of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, Thomas Malthus,
A. Theorized that Europe was heading toward overpopulation
B. Wrote that, eventually, all Europe would become one nation
C. was a prominent member of the Fabian Society
D. urged Britain to fight on the side of the Confederacy during the American Civil War
E. was one of Britain's first prominent factory owners
(A) In his Essay on the Principle of Population (1798), Malthus argued that human population growth would outstrip growth in food production, thus leading to starvation and a reduced population. This was an early instance of an ongoing concern in the Western world—population growth and the ability of nature to meet the population's needs.
The author of The Interpretation of Dreams was
A. Friedrich Nietzsche
B. Sigmund Freud
C. Carl Jung
D. Abraham Maslow
E. Carl Rogers
(B) Each of the five names listed is attached to a prominent psychologist, and Carl Jung was very interested in dreams, but The Interpretation of Dreams is one of Freud's best-known books. Carl Jung (C) looked to dreams for information about what he called "collective memory." He maintained that societies have memories just as individuals do.
The year 1848 is remembered as
A. a year of unusual peace
B. the year of Britain's first major industrial reforms
C. a year of revolutionary fervor
D. the year Germany defeated France in a brief war
E. the year Napoleon was finally defeated and sent into exile
(C) In that year there were revolutions and revolutionary movements in Austria, France, northern Italy, Prussia, and elsewhere. It was also the year of the publication of Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto. Germany defeated France in war in 1871 (D), and Britian's first major industrial reform came in 1833 (B). Napoleon was exiled for the second and last time in 1815 (E).
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, heads of state in the United States, Italy, France, and Austria were assassinated by
D. Social Darwinists
E. liberal reformers
(A) Communists (B), liberals (E), monarchists (C), and Social Darwinists (D) all agitated for change in different places, but anarchists, though not widely influential, did assassinate a number of political leaders—among them, President McKinley in the United States.
In 1914 Austria-Hungary
A. was at war with the Ottoman Empire
B. annexed northern Italy
C. agreed to allow its population of Serbs and their land to become part of Serbia
D. was absorbed by Nazi forces
E. was Germany's one strong ally
(E) Austria-Hungary was Germany's one strong ally in the First World War. Austria and the Ottomans were allied with Germany (A). The Ottoman Empire was a weak power that went out of existence after the First World War. No parts of Italy were annexed by Austria in the early twentieth century (B), and one cause of the war was Austria's refusal to allow Serbs in its empire to join their land with Serbia's (C). The First World War preceded the rise of the Nazi Party by several years (D). In 1938 Austria was annexed by Germany. This was called the Anschluss ("joining").
The map above depicts a strategy put into effect at the beginning of which war?
A. War of 1812
B. First World War
C. Franco-Prussian War
D. Seven Years'War
E. Crimean War
(B) The goal of the Germany military in 1914 was to defeat France quickly and then to send its victorious troops to fight Russia in the east. The Schlieffen Plan, as this scheme was called, did not work, and the war in Western Europe was characterized by trench warfare.
Wilfred Owen's poem Dulce et Decorum Est
A. describes some of the horrors of the First World War
B. is one of Britain's best-known nationalist works
C. was used by the British government to encourage enlistment into the military
D. suggested that British women should be given the vote
E. played a major role in encouraging British economic reform
(A) Owen's bleak, realistic poem describes some of the horrors of trench combat during the First World War. The poem is not nationalistic (B) because it does not promote or romanticize Britain's effort in the war. Nor could it have encouraged young men to volunteer to serve (C). Women's right to vote (D) and economic reform (E) are not mentioned in the poem.
The agreement that ended conflict between Germany and Russia in 1918 was the
A. Paris Peace Treaty
B. Versailles Treaty
C. Brest-Litovsk Treaty
D. Berlin Conference
E. Munich Conference
(C) The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ended conflict between Germany and Russia. The Paris Peace Treaty (A) ended the American Revolution, the Versailles Treaty (B) concerned agreements between the Allies and the Germans following the First World War, the Berlin Conference (D) involved European powers dividing Africa into colonies, and the Munich Conference (E) preceded the Second World War.
The idea of the "survival of the fittest" is most associated with which of the following?
D. social Darwinism
(D) The Social Darwinist Herbert Spencer is credited with coining this term. Some people might argue that laissez-faire economics has a "survival of the fittest" outlook (B), but the term does not originate with laissez-faire. Ideally, communism (A) and anarchism (E) lead to peace and community spirit. Mercantilism (C) refers to the economic systems of early modern France and Britain.
Vladimir Lenin was able to spur revolution in Russia in 1917 partly because
A. he had been in hiding in St. Petersburg for several years
B. British forces brought him to Russia via the Arctic
C. he was Tsar Nicholas II's close associate
D. the Austrians helped him to escape to Russia from France
E. the Germans sent him to Russia on a train from Switzerland
(E) Hoping to promote instability in Russia, the Germans paid for Lenin's train ticket from exile outside Russia. The rest of the answers have no validity.
The theory of the "divine right" of kings is elaborated in which of the following?
A. Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Scripture
C. Essay Concerning Human Understanding
D. Wealth of Nations
E. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
(A) This book by Bossuet argued that the monarch was God's chosen person and, thus, his power was unquestionable. Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding (C) is concerned with psychology (though he did not use that term), and Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan (B) argues for a powerful ruler but, despite its frequent citations from the Bible, is a secular work, as is Gibbon's The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (E). Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations (D) is a discussion of laissez-faire economic theory.
Which of the following peoples lived in a republic in the seventeenth century?
(A) The Dutch established a republic in seventeenth-century Europe. Although England flirted with a republican form of government—that is, a government without a monarch—only briefly in the seventeenth century, the Dutch Republic prospered through the century. The French (B), Spaniards (C), Portuguese (D), and Prussians (E) all had monarchs.
In this depiction of the universe, the sun is placed at the center of the universe. Which of the following was the first to discover this fact about the universe?
(D) Copernicus was the first person associated with the Scientific Revolution to question Ptolemy's astronomy. Galileo, Newton, Brahe, and Kepler were important astronomers/scientists of the Scientific Revolution, but Copernicus was the first to question the ancient astronomy of the Greeks.
The inductive method of scientific reasoning is most associated with which of the following?
(C) Bacon called for the problem-solving method, which involved gathering information and deriving theories from the details of that information. In other words, the inductive method calls for movement from particular facts to general ideas. Descartes (A), on the other hand, said "I think, therefore I am" ("Cogito ergo sum"). He started with a general idea and derived particular facts from it, which is called the deductive method.
Which of the following ended the Thirty Years' War?
A. Treaty of Versailles
B. Warsaw Pact
C. Paris Peace Treaty
D. Edict of Nantes
E. Treaty of Westphalia
(E) The Treaty of Westphalia is significant not only because it ended the Thirty Years' War but also because it signaled the secularization of European political life. The pope was not involved in the discussions leading to the treaty, though he wanted to be.
"During the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war, as is of every man, against every man." This quote comes from which of the following?
(A) Those are one of two best-known lines in Hobbes's Leviathan. The other well-known phrase refers to the lives of people in their natural state (that is, without government) as "nasty, brutish, and short." Like Hobbes, John Locke (B) was a seventeenth-century political theorist, but he was much less pessimistic than Hobbes, and unlike Hobbes, he called for representative government as opposed to a single strong ruler.
The Edict of Nantes gave limited freedoms to which of the following?
(C) The Edict of Nantes (1598) gave the Huguenots (French Protestants) limited freedoms, but Louis XIV revoked the edict in 1685. This led to a wave of Huguenot emigration which harmed France's economy, for many Huguenots were talented laborers, merchants, and nobles.
The view that each human being has an inherent right to life, liberty, and property is associated with which of the following?
C. James I
D. William III of Orange
(B) Locke was an early advocate of individual political liberty. Richelieu (E) benefited from France's absolute monarchy, so he would not be interested in promoting the idea of personal rights. Neither would England's James I (C), who believed in his divine right to rule, nor Cromwell (A), who was essentially England's dictator following that country's civil war.
"Cogito ergo sum." That famous statement is associated with what kind of thought processes?
A. deductive reasoning
B. dialectical reasoning
D. theory of gravity
E. inductive reasoning
(A) Descartes' famous phrase in Latin means "I think, therefore I am." He started with a general idea—"I can think"—and derived particular facts from it ("I exist"), a process known as deductive reasoning. For information on inductive reasoning, see the answer to question 38.
Galileo wrote, "Philosophy is written in this grand book." To which of the following was he referring?
A. Copernicus's Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
B. the New World
C. the universe
D. his own book The Starry Messenger
E. Pascal's Pensées
(C) For most of the figures associated with the Scientific Revolution, there were two "books" one could read to learn about the world and God. One was the Bible, and the other was the natural world.
Who among the following revoked the Edict of Nantes?
A. James I
B. Henry of Navarre
C. Charles II
D. Louis XIV
E. William III
(D) If you know that the Edict of Nantes had to do with France, then you should be able to eliminate James I (A), Charles II (C), and William III (E), who were all English monarchs. Henry of Navarre (B), also known as Henry IV, published the Edict of Nantes. He himself had been a Protestant before converting to Catholicism before he took the throne, supposedly saying "Paris is worth a Mass."
The year 1688 is notable for which of the following events?
A. England's Glorious Revolution
B. execution of Charles I
C. establishment of colonies in North America by Puritans
D. Ireland's independence from England
E. Publication of Thomas Hobbes' political work Leviathan
(A) England's Glorious Revolution took place in 1688. With the exception of answer (D), all the possible answers took place in the seventeenth century. The year 1688 is a key date, however, because it marks the beginning of power sharing in England between the monarch and Parliament.
England's civil war pitted
A. Calvinists against Lutherans
B. Cavaliers against Roundheads
C. Huguenots against politiques
D. English against French
E. American colonists against the British monarchy
(B) Cavaliers fought for the king, Roundheads against the king. There were very few Lutherans (A) in England; Huguenots and politiques (C) were in France; England's American colonists (E) were essentially on their own during England's civil war; and while the English and French (D) fought constantly, that was not a factor in the English Civil War.
Which of the following nations was the first to have a bill of rights?
A. United States
(E) In many ways, the American Bill of Rights copies the English Bill of Rights, the first such document in the modern world. The "Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen" also echoes some ideas in the English and American documents—not surprisingly, since French philosophes and reformers admired the system of rights that came out of the Glorious Revolution in England and the American Revolution.
This image symbolizes which of the following monarchs?
A. Charles I
C. Frederick the Great
D. Louis XIV
(D) Louis XIV was the powerful Sun King who built an elaborate palace at Versailles and ruled by "divine right." Bossuet was Louis's tutor, and Cromwell was not a monarch.
Who among the following is recognized as an important mathematician, philosopher, and theologian?
D. Oliver Cromwell
E. Marie Curie
(A) Pascal appears in histories of mathematics, philosophy, and theology. Marie Curie (E) was a late-nineteenth-century chemist. Galileo (B) engaged in philosophy and theology, but he is most remembered for his work with astronomy during the Scientific Revolution. Locke (C) was a political theorist, and Cromwell (D) was England's ruler in its years as a republic.
Political revolution was experienced in each of the following countries during the nineteenth century EXCEPT
(E) Britain experienced political unrest and the possibility of revolution as a result of the Industrial Revolution and the Chartist movement, and the percentage of the British population that could vote expanded significantly in the nineteenth century. However, Britain's form of government did not fundamentally change in the nineteenth century. On the other hand, Belgium gained its independence from the Netherlands (D), and Spain (A), Greece (C), and Italy (B) all experienced revolutions.
"The source of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation." This quote comes from which of the following texts?
A. "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen"
B. English Bill of Rights
C. The Social Contract
D. U.S. Constitution
E. The Prince
"The source of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation." This quote comes from which of the following texts?
A. "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen"
B. English Bill of Rights
C. The Social Contract
D. U.S. Constitution
E. The Prince
Olympia de Gouges was
A. Louis XIV's key supervisor at Versailles
B. the first woman accepted into the First Estate
C. a French revolutionary and early feminist
D. an antirevolutionary defender of the church
E. a prominent Huguenot refugee to England
(C) De Gouges wrote the "Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Female Citizen" because women were excluded from the vote by the National Assembly following the outbreak of the French Revolution. De Gouges was later executed for speaking out against the excesses of the revolution.
Who argued that space and time are not absolute but relative to the position of the observer?
(C) Einstein's theory of relativity overthrew the assumptions people had about the universe as a result of Isaac Newton's theories. Freud (A) was the founder of psychoanalysis. Pasteur (B) discovered that illness is often caused by bacteria (thus, bacteria in pasteurized milk has been killed). Robert Koch (D) found the bacteria that caused cholera and isolated the tuberculosis bacillus. Marie Curie (E) was a chemist.
Who among the following is remembered as an "enlightened despot"?
A. William III of Orange
B. Peter the Great
C. Joseph II
D. Louis XVI
E. George III
(C) Joseph II, along with Frederick the Great of Prussia and Catherine the Great of Russia, was an "enlightened despot." William III of Orange governed according to enlightened principles, but he is not included in the list of enlightened despots, mainly because, unlike Joseph II, he was not a despot, because his power was checked by Parliament. Louis XVI (D) instituted reforms only under pressure. Peter the Great of Russia (B) was an autocrat who brought French cultural practices to Russia but not western political reforms associated with the Enlightenment. George III (E) was the king the American colonies rebelled against in 1775-1776.
All the countries below experienced blitzkrieg EXCEPT
(A) Blitzkrieg ("lightning war") was Hitler's mode of attack early in the Second World War. Sweden remained neutral during the war. Poland, Belgium, France and the Netherlands (B-E) were attacked in 1939-1940.
Question 57 of 120
The Enlightenment belief that after God created the world and natural laws he stepped back and let the universe run on its own is called
(A) Many philosophes such as Voltaire were deists, believing that a supreme being created the world and now, like a watchmaker, let it run on its own according to natural laws. Arminianism (B) is a theological system that emphasizes human free will. Anabaptists (C) were opposed to the baptism of infants. Quakers (D) were Protestants who emphasized simple, heart-felt religion. Positivism (E) was a philosophy developed by August Comte that emphasized the capacity to find scientific solutions to human problems.
The editor of the first modern encyclopedia was
(D) Rousseau (A), Descartes (B), Voltaire (C) and Condorcet (E) were all prominent figures in the Enlightenment, but the editorship of the first encyclopedia was Diderot's.
Cesare Beccaria's best-known work advocates which of the following?
A. Governments should not control economies.
B. The universe is like a grand watch created by a "Great Watchmaker."
C. English Catholics should be able to hold seats in parliament.
D. Prisons should be places of reform as well as of correction.
E. Monarchs should share power with elected officials.
(D) Beccaria's Essay on Crimes and Punishments is an early example of reform-minded people calling for rehabilitation of criminals instead of strict punishment.
The publication What is the Third Estate? appealed most to France's
B. middle classes
D. high-ranking military officers
E. impoverished peasants
(B) The French Revolution was primarily a middle-class movement. King Louis XVI (C) was opposed to most of the Third Estate's program. Bishops and high-ranking officers (D) were among the nobility and thus were not likely to favor reform. Most impoverished peasants (E) were illiterate and not as well informed as the literate middle classes.
In Bolshevik terms, the "vanguard" referred to
A. machine gunners in the Russian civil war
B. small farms
C. communist leaders
(C) Soon after the Russian Revolution (1917) it became clear that not many Russians would naturally embrace communism. Vladimir Lenin and other communist leaders became the "vanguard"—those who would lead the way to communist utopia.
Which of the following institutions is most closely related to the Reign of Terror?
A. National Assembly
B. National Convention
E. Committee of Public Safety
(E) The Committee of Public Safety was a danger—and was frequently deadly—to all who disagreed with its radical policies. The National Assembly soon lost control of the French Revolution and in time seemed quite conservative. The National Convention (B) was more radical than the National Assembly; it declared France a republic, for example. But few were more radical than the agents of the Committee of Public Safety, directed by Robespierre. The committee's goal was to purge France of people who did not share its radical goals, such as the near-complete secularization of the country. Girondins (C) were conservatives within the National Convention, and the Directory (D) came out in reaction (in the revolutionary month of Thermidor) to the Reign of Terror.
French clergy, nobles, and others opposed to the French Revolution who fled France were called which of the following?
(A) Those who were opposed to the French Revolution and fled France were called émigrés. The émigrés were refugees (B), but they are remembered by their French name. The term bourgeois (C) was not an important term in the late eighteenth century, and the sans-culottes (D) and especially the Jacobins (E) were revolutionaries who favored radical reform.
Napoleon's army faced devastation from military action and winter cold in which of the following countries?
(D) Following Napoleon's entry into Moscow in 1812, winter descended on the French army, whose supply and communication lines were very strung out. As the French retreated, the Russians attacked. Hitler's forces would experience a similar fate during the Second World War.
Napoleon's economic warfare led to an undeclared war at sea between France and which of the following nations?
B. United States
(B) The United States wished to trade with France and Britain, but neither France nor Britain wished the other to gain economically from trade with the United States. Consequently, both countries harassed American shipping. The United States fought an undeclared sea war with France in the 1790s and went to war with Britain in 1812.
Political revolution broke out in each of the cities on the map above in which of the following years?
(C) Political revolutions broke out through much of Europe in 1848, the same year Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto was published. 1688 (A) is the year of England's Glorious Revolution, the French Revolution began in 1789 (B), the Bolshevik Revolution took place in 1917 (D), and in 1989 (E) the Soviet Union lost control of the East Bloc countries such as Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.
Which of the following countries twice defeated invading armies partly by retreating and burning its own country's farmland?
(E) The Russians defeated Napoleon and Hitler, both of whom suffered from Russia's winter and the ability of the Russians to withdraw deep into their vast country. Russian troops also used slash-and-burn tactics and forced the enemy to string out long supply and communication lines.
During the First World War, which of the major countries among the Allies was unable to provide its troops with adequate food and weaponry?
(D) Despite its vast size and rich farmland, Russia was unable to feed its troops sufficiently. One reason was that many farmers were at the war front. Another reason was that Russia's transportation infrastructure was not elaborate, and it was difficult to get food to the troops. Finally, because of political instability, the country's economy was troubled.
The provisional government of early 1917
A. United Britain's political factions
B. Sought to establish a nonradical reformist government in Russia
C. Was based in Rome and called for Italy's occupation of Vienna
D. Was favored by the young Adolf Hitler
E. Brought independence to Ireland
(B) There were two revolutions in Russia in 1917. The provisional government came from the first revolution and comprised Socialists, liberals, and non-Bolshevik Communists. The Bolshevik movement, led by Lenin, launched another revolution in October and began to implement radical reform.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
A. Led to significant losses of Russian territory
B. Led to significant gains of Russian territory
C. Led to the independence of Norway from Sweden
D. Led to U.S. involvement in the First World War
E. Was the result of Russia's defeat by Japan in 1905?
(A) The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk near the end of the First World War ended combat between Germany and Russia at the cost of the western portion of Russia's empire, including present-day Lithuania and Estonia. Norway gained its independence from Sweden in 1905 (C), Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare was the main cause of America's entry into the war (D), and the Treaty of Portsmouth ended the war between Japan and Russia (E).
The New Economic Policy
A. was accepted by all radical communists
B. was championed by Leon Trotsky
C. allowed Russian farmers to sell their produce at the market for a profit
D. took all land out of the hands of individuals
E. caused famine in the Ukraine
(C) The New Economic Policy was a concession to small-scale private enterprise soon after the Russian Revolution. Farmers were allowed to sell some of their produce for a profit. It was designed to alleviate famine that developed during the First World War and was exacerbated by the revolution and ensuing civil war. Some Bolsheviks, such as Leon Trotsky, were opposed to this concession to capitalism.
Who among the following had significant influence over the household of Tsar Nicholas II?
A. Joseph Stalin
B. Kaiser Wilhehm II
(E) Rasputin was an unwashed mystic who appeared to have the power to help the Tsar's hemophiliac son. The only other Russian given as an option, Stalin (A), was no friend of the Tsar and had no influence on the Tsar's immediate household.
The dominant first leader of the Bolsheviks was which of the following?
A. Karl Marx
B. Vladimir Lenin
D. Joseph Stalin
E. Nicholas II
(B) Russia's communist revolution was led by Vladimir Lenin. Stalin (D) followed Lenin in power after a power struggle. Rasputin (C) and Nicholas (E) were not Bolsheviks, and Karl Marx (A) was a German Jew living in England, not a Russian.
On the left is Adolf Hitler, on the right is Joseph Stalin. This cartoon was published in what year?
(D) The cartoon depicts the Russo-German Non-Aggression Pact, also called the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, of 1939. This pact took much of the world aback, for the Soviets and the Nazis had openly hated and denounced one another for years. This was a pact of convenience and it led to Poland being occupied by both Germany and Russia. In less than two years Hitler would violate this pact and invade Russia in what he called Operation Barbarossa.
Aside from the German and Austrian empires, what other large empire among the Central Powers ceased to exist after the First World War?
A. British Empire
B. Empire of Scandinavia
C. Ottoman Empire
D. U.S. empire in the Pacific
E. Belgium's African empire
(C) After the First World War, the Ottoman Empire went out of existence. From it emerged Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Turkey, and other Islamic nations. There was no such thing as an Empire of Scandinavia (B), and the British (A), Belgian (E), and American (D) empires continued to exist after the war.
The two key Western powers in the Middle East following the First World War were
A. Britain and Germany
B. Britain and France
C. France and Italy
D. United States and France
E. United States and Israel
(B) Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Britain and France were given "mandates" over Middle Eastern lands by the new League of Nations. Germany (A) lost all its colonies after the war, the United States (D) held colonies in East Asia but not the Middle East, Italy (C) did not govern in the Middle East, and the nation of Israel (E) did not exist until 1948.
Middle Eastern lands placed under the authority of Western countries were called
(A) Palestine, for example, became a British mandate. Dominions (E), such as Canada and Australia, had significant internal independence. Colonies (B) and dependencies (D) had significantly less independence. The term associates (C) was not formally applied to territories.
Which of the following was an important trade and communication link in the Middle East throughout the twentieth century?
A. Berlin to Baghdad Railway
B. Cape to Cairo Railway
C. Panama Canal
D. Suez Canal
E. Siberian Railroad
(D) The French and British went to war briefly in the late 1950s to prevent Egypt from taking national control of the Suez Canal, for it was a vital transportation link between Europe and Asia. The Berlin to Baghdad Railway (A), like the Cape to Cairo Railway (B), was never completed. The Siberian Railroad (E) is in far eastern Russia, and the Panama Canal (C) is in Central America.
Sixteenth century "privateers" were
A. advocates of free trade between nations
B. pirates who plundered with their government's implicit or explicit approval
C. laborers employed with the British East India Company
D. free-lance contributors to daily newspapers
E. Intellectuals who advocated separation of church and state
(B) Sir Francis Drake, for example, attacked Spanish ships for plunder with the implicit approval of the English monarch. In the sixteenth century, neither free trade (as we think of it today), nor daily newspapers, nor the British East India Company, nor the concept of the separation of church and state existed.
Joseph Stalin's five-year plans
A. Eliminated the monarchy in Russia
B. Allowed farmers to sell their produce for a profit
C. Led to the rapid industrialization of Russia
D. Sparked the Russian Civil War
E. Were a complete failure
(C) Although the five-year plans of the interwar years caused great dislocations— for example, people were forced to move from the country into cities—they were quite successful in making Russia a serious industrial power. The New Economic Policy, which allowed farmers to sell some of their produce for a profit (B), was abolished by Stalin. The civil war (D) had been over for several years by the time the five-year plans were put into effect, and the monarchy had ended with the revolution of 1917 (A).
The main result of the United States, Britain, Japan, Czechoslovakia, and other countries sending troops into Russia during its civil war was
A. The defeat of communist revolution in Russia
B. The end of the First World War
C. The beginning of the Second World War
D. A propaganda victory for the communist "Red" Russians
E. The formation of the League of Nations
(D) The Red Russians, or Bolsheviks, were able to rally Russians to the defense of Mother Russia. People may not like their governments, but they tend to like invaders less. The Soviets were able to capitalize on this fact.
As a result of the "Beer Hall Putsch," Adolf Hitler
A. Was named leader of the Nazi Party
B. Sent troops into the Rhineland
C. Was imprisoned for several months
D. Formed an alliance with Italy
E. Was named chancellor of Germany
(C) Hitler had tried to stir up a coup to overthrow the state government of Bavaria. It was during his consequent time in prison the early 1920s that Hitler dictated his memoir and political testament, Mein Kampf. He had become the leader of the Nazis before this, and he was named chancellor, formed an alliance with Mussolini, and militarized the Rhineland in the next decade.
This photograph illustrates Anschluss, which refers to
A. Germany's occupation of Austria in 1938
B. A nonaggression agreement between Russia and Germany
C. Italy's invasion of Ethiopia in 1935
D. The German conscription laws instituted in 1933
E. A conversation between Hitler and the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in Munich in 1938
(A) In German the word Anschluss means "joining." It refers to Germany's annexation of Austria in 1938. A central part of Hitler's political program was to unite all Germans in a single nation. There was little resistance in Austria to its annexation to Germany.
The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact concerned
A. Germany's occupation of Austria in 1938
B. A nonaggression agreement between Russia and Germany
C. Italy's invasion of Ethiopia in 1935
D. The German conscription laws instituted in 1933
E. A conversation between Hitler and the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in Munich in 1938
(B) The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was a nonaggression agreement between Nazi Germany and the Soviets. Hitler never intended to keep his promise not to attack Russia, but he did not want to worry about Russia while he was busy conquering and dominating most of western Europe. His decision to invade Russia in 1941 was fatal, for Russia's vast size and population, combined with its fierce winter and the determination of the Russians to repel an invader, played key roles in his defeat.
Near the end of the First World War, who called for "peace without victory"?
A. Woodrow Wilson
B. Georges Clemenceau
C. David Lloyd George
D. Kaiser Wilhehm II
E. Vladimir Lenin
(A) President Wilson was the idealist who wanted to see the world made safe for democracy. He also proposed the idea of the League of Nations, which, ironically, the United States did not join. Clemenceau (B) and Lloyd George (C) were eager to punish Germany, Lenin (E) was too concerned with the Russian Revolution, and the kaiser (D) might have liked Wilson's idea but had no say in peacemaking.
Which powerful country did not join the League of Nations?
E. United States
(E) The United States did not join the League of Nations. All foreign treaties must be ratified by the U.S. Senate. Republicans in the Senate refused to approve the United States joining the league, largely because after the war many Americans wanted to pursue isolationist policies. Japan and Germany left the league in the early 1930s, indicating that they had no interest in abiding by its counsel.
As a result of the Lateran Pact
A. Mussolini gained the formal recognition of the Catholic Church
B. The Fascists closed most of Italy's schools
C. Italy formed an alliance with Germany and Japan
D. Germany agreed to limit its army to 100,000 men
E. France promised to defend Poland if Germany attacked it
(A) In exchange for the Catholic Church's recognition of his government, Mussolini recognized Catholicism as the official religion of Italy and gave the church jurisdiction over marriage matters. The Fascists did not close Italy's schools (B). All the other possible answers did take place but not as part of the Lateran Pact. The size of Germany's army was limited by the Treaty of Versailles (D); France guaranteed Poland's neutrality against Nazi threats in March of 1939 (E); and Germany, Italy and Japan formed the Axis in 1940 (C).
After his conference with Hitler at Munich in 1938, the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
A. Called on Parliament to prepare for war
B. Agreed to allow Hitler to militarize the Rhineland
C. promised war if Hitler's troops occupied Austria
D. Said that he believed war was not on the horizon
E. Agreed to allow Hitler's troops to occupy Poland
(D) Chamberlain said he believed he had achieved "peace in our time" and encouraged the people of Britain to go home and have a good night's rest. Hitler had already militarized the Rhineland (B) and occupied Austria (C). Hitler's invasion of Poland (E) in 1939 led to Britain's declaration of war against Hitler.
The concept of separation of church and state was at the heart of which of the following?
A. Treaty of Versailles
B. Treaty of Westphalia
C. Proclamation of 1763
E. Council of Trent
(B) The Treaty of Westphalia was the document that in 1648 ended the Thirty Years' War. It is considered a major step on the road to separation of church and state because the pope was not a participant in the discussions, though he wanted to be.
The philosophes were
A. Members of the anti-Nazi French resistance
B. Members of the English Parliament opposed to James I
C. French writers and intellectuals who promoted political reforms
D. Influential French university professors
E. Huguenots exiled in England
(C) Among the prominent philosophes are Voltaire, Diderot, Montesquieu, and Condorcet. Anti-Nazi resisters were the maquis.
John Locke is to the idea of individual rights what Bossuet is to the idea of
A. Divine right
B. Dream analysis
(A) Bossuet's Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Scripture is a classic statement of divine right theory.
The most opulent monarch's household in seventeenth-century Europe was at
C. St. Petersburg
(B) While seventeenth-century monarchs generally lived in luxury, no households compared to Louis XIV's Versailles, where all events were wrapped in elaborate ritual, and where the king was able to keep potential troublemakers contented by making them feel close to power.
Charles Darwin benefited from the earlier work on geology of
A. Herbert Spencer
B. Friedrich Nietzsche
C. Albert Camus
D. Charles Lyell
E. Gottlieb Daimler
(D) Lyell's Principles of Geology (1830) was an important work to Darwin. Spencer (A) later applied some of Darwin's ideas to societies and thus promoted the idea of social Darwinism. Nietzsche (B) was a late-nineteenth century philosopher whose thought many Nazis later claimed to admire. Camus (C) was a post-Second World War existentialist philosopher and writer, and Daimler (E) was one of the early inventors of the automobile.
The Vichy Regime refers to
A. The rule of Louis XIV
B. The Nazi puppet state in southern France
C. France's rule in Vietnam
D. An international organization formed after the First World War
E. An international organization formed after the Second World War
(B) Following France's rapid defeat at the hands of the Nazis in the summer of 1940, Germany occupied western and northern France, while a collaborationist government was established in southern France, at Vichy. Germany would later invade southern France as well, taking control of the whole country until its liberation by the Allies in 1944.
The Glorious Revolution was glorious partly because it
A. was bloodless
B. Eliminated Catholic political power in Germany
C. Led to a republic in England
D. Placed Britain in control of India
E. Led to the defeat of Napoleon
(A) The Glorious Revolution was bloodless. For fear that James II wished to return England to Catholicism, Parliament invited William III of Orange and his wife, Mary, to take England's throne. James II fled to France and his forces put up no resistance. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 came four decades after the English civil war. England began to take control of India in the eighteenth century (D), particularly as a result of the battle of Plassey (1757); and Napoleon was not a factor until the end of the eighteenth century (E).
Postmodernism emphasizes all the following EXCEPT
A. The belief that Western civilization is not superior to other cultures
B. Ultimate truths cannot be known by human beings
C. Historical education should emphasize the works of key leaders
D. There is no real way to judge between "good" and "bad" art
E. Most perceived differences between men and women are the result of social forces
(C) Postmodernists tend to be less interested in admiring the work of the powerful leaders than they are in pointing to leaders' foibles. Postmodernism is difficult to define but, in general, as an intellectual movement it rejects tradition and traditional ways of thinking about history, cultures, genders, and truth. One effect of postmodernist thought is that history lessons often emphasize acts of hypocrisy and sheer power more than worthwhile achievements.
The undeclared war between the United States and France, 1798-1800, was fought mostly in
D. The West Indies
E. The North Pacific
(D) This undeclared war involved French sailors seizing American ships and vice versa, though the French took many more American ships than the Americans took French ships. The French held colonies in the West Indies and the Americans conducted trade there.
The economic outlook that emphasized a nation hoarding gold and promoting exports was
(B) Mercantilists believed that the amount of wealth in the world is limited, whereas capitalists believe that wealth can be created. For mercantilists, wealth was most represented by gold and silver. Thus mercantilists focused on selling exports which brought gold and silver into the home economy while discouraging imports, which sent wealth out of the country. Mercantilism spurred early colonialism as European nations competed for territories and their wealth.
This anti-Semitic photograph, which depicts a protest against the Versailles Treaty, was taken in which of the following periods?
(C) The photograph, taken in Austria, illustrates the resentment Germans and Austrians felt about the Versailles Treaty, which was signed after the First World War ended in 1918. Capitalizing on this resentment, Hitler came to power in 1933 and sparked the Second World War in 1939.
Until the 1990s Sarajevo was best known as
A. The birthplace of Hitler
B. The site of Franz Ferdinand's assassination
C. The site of the Battle of Waterloo
D. The place of German surrender in 1918
E. A holiday resort for monarchs
(B) The Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo in 1914. In the summer of that year, Serb nationalists who wished to leave the Austro- Hungarian Empire and join the nation of Serbia assassinated the archduke. This triggered a series of events that led to the First World War.
The region coveted by France and Germany in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was
C. English Channel
(A) Alsace-Lorraine was coveted by both Germany and France. Following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871), Alsace and Lorraine were annexed by Germany. Following Germany's defeat in the First World War (1914-1918), Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France. During Germany's control of France during the Second World War, through the years 1940-1944, the regions were once again controlled by Germans. Since the end of that war, Alsace and Lorraine have remained in French control.
In the late nineteenth century, what replaced the pulpit as the primary source of information about the world?
D. Public speeches
(C) In the late nineteenth century inexpensive newspapers became widely available throughout the Western world. Public speeches (D) had always been available, but fewer people had regular access to them than to newspapers. Telephones (E) were not in wide use until the twentieth century, and radio (B) and television (A) were twentieth-century inventions.
Suffragettes of the nineteenth and early twentieth century primarily wanted
A. An end to the consumption of alcohol
B. All shops closed on Sundays
C. The elimination of political parties
D. An end to war
E. The right to vote for women
(E) Suffragettes took their name from suffrage, a synonym for the vote. Many suffragettes wanted laws against alcohol consumption (A), wanted shops closed on Sundays (B), worked within the dominant parties (C), and were pacifists (D). But their main goal, as their name suggests, was women's right to vote.
In the late twentieth century,
A. Europeans migrated in large numbers to the United States
B. Europeans migrated in large numbers to former colonies
C. Residents in former colonies migrated in large numbers to Europe
D. Population stability led to little overall migration
E. The earlier trend of urbanization began to reverse
(C) In the late twentieth century, Western civilization experienced mass migration from former colonies. In the early twenty-first century, more Muslims from France's former African colonies attended mosques each week than French men and women attended Catholic churches. Britain hosted a large Pakistani population, and many Filipinos lived in the United States and served in its military, especially the navy.
At some point in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Germany was allied with all the following EXCEPT
A. The Ottoman Empire
(C) Though Germans fought Italians (D) and Russians (B) in the twentieth century, they also had alliances with them at other times. At no point in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was an alliance formed between France and Germany, which shared lengthy borders.
The first European nation to be defeated by an African nation in modern times was which of the following?
(C) Italy was defeated by Ethiopia. This is one reason why Mussolini's forces invaded Ethiopia in 1935: to make up for the humiliation of losing a war to that African country in 1896 at the Battle of Adowa.
Which nation most assisted the American colonies in their war of independence against Britain?
(A) France's navy, gunpowder, and soldiers were crucial to the Americans' victory. Without France, it is unlikely the Americans would have succeeded. The Dutch of the Netherlands (E) and the Spanish (B) also assisted the Americans against the common enemy (the British), but not nearly to the same extent. Mexico (D) did not exist as a nation (independent from Spain) until 1822. Some American loyalists who opposed the American Revolution went to present-day Canada (C) and thus helped to create there an English culture next to the French culture of Quebec.
Christina of Sweden
A. Was an absolute monarch opposed to reform
B. Was a patron of intellectuals, artists, and scientists
C. Took the throne of England in 1688
D. Paid mercenary armies to defeat Napoleon
E. Attacked Catholicism more ferociously than any other European monarch
(B) Christina of Sweden's eagerness to learn, along with the early hours she kept and Sweden's challenging climate, apparently contributed to the death of the philosopher Descartes.
The first European to write out a theory of gravity was
(A) Newton was the first to write out a theory of gravity. Galileo (astronomy; B), Kepler (astronomy; C), Vesalius (anatomist; D), and Pascal (mathematician and theological writer; E) are all, like Newton, connected to the Scientific Revolution. But to Newton goes the credit for announcing a theory of gravity in his Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, often referred to simply by part of its Latin title, Principia.
Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
A. Was the first work of history published since ancient times
B. Explained history without reference to the will of God
C. combined historical study and theological reflection
D. Was not published until long after the author's death
E. Was a forgery of a document written in the eighth century
(B) Gibbon's multivolume and still much-read work, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, is a classic of the Enlightenment, which emphasized human reason and secular explanations for events.
Which of the following is most associated with the first Industrial Revolution?
(E) Of the possibilities given, cotton is the commodity most associated with the first Industrial Revolution. Oil (B) would be correct if the question were about the Industrial Revolution. The first Industrial Revolution revolved in large measure around textile mills, which produced inexpensive clothing and cloth (textiles). This led to a demand for more cotton which, in return, led to a further entrenchment of slavery in the United States. Sugar (C) and tea (D) had been commodities important to the British economy since the seventeenth century. And a series of large gold (A) strikes began in the mid-nineteenth century in California, Australia, Canada, Alaska, and South Africa.
France's National Assembly originated in a declaration
A. From Louis XVI
B. From the Third Estate
C. From the Paris Commune
D. In the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
E. Of the National Convention
(B) After being locked out of deliberations at Versailles in 1789, the Third Estate met on an indoor tennis court and declared itself the National Assembly. Before long, King Louis XVI acknowledged that act but only with great reluctance.
In the early twentieth century, high school education in the industrialized countries of the Western world emphasized
A. Subjects related to farming
B. Latin, mathematics, history, and science
C. Business and economics
D. The Bible and public speaking
E. Socialism and current events
(B) All the topics listed were taught at various places, but the general course of study was fairly uniform throughout the West. Latin continued to be emphasized in public education well into the twentieth century and was again growing in popularity in American high schools in the early twenty-first century.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was founded after the Second World War to
A. End famine in Africa
B. Rebuild Europe
C. Promote decolonization
D. Provide a common defense against the Soviets
E. Defeat North Korean communists
(D) NATO was a strictly military organization interested in defense against the Soviets, so it left humanitarian work to other organizations. Many nations in NATO were involved in the fight against the communist North Koreans (E), but the Korean War was a U.S.-led United Nations conflict. In response, the Soviets formed their own military alliance system, the Warsaw Pact. The central premise of NATO was that if one member nation was attacked, all would consider themselves to have been attacked. This premise went into effect for the first time in September 2001, when radical Muslim terrorists flew commercial planes into buildings in New York City and Washington, D.C.
The modern belief that there is nothing inherently right or wrong is referred to as
(C) A relativist maintains that there is no such thing as fixed right and wrong and that what is considered right and wrong depends on culture and viewpoint. With so many competing worldviews and philosophies at work in Western civilization by the late twentieth century, some had come to believe that the truth about life and its meaning and purpose could not be known for certain. The art form cubism (D), which emphasizes the fragmentation of modern life, can be seen as promoting relativistic thought, as can existentialism (B), which promoted the idea that each person needs to create his or her own meaning in life. Deism (A) argues that God is not involved in people's day-to-day affairs, and absolutism (E) refers to the theoretically complete power some monarchs—such as France's Louis XIV—held in the seventeenth century.
In 1968, what almost toppled the government of France?
A. War in Algeria
B. War in Vietnam
C. War in the Ivory Coast
D. Student demonstrations
E. Riot following a Jimi Hendrix concert
(D) Student demonstrations in France in 1968 almost toppled the government of Charles de Gaulle. By 1968 the civil war in Algeria had ended (A), and France had pulled its troops out of Vietnam in the mid-1950s (B). As in the United States, students in France demonstrated against police brutality and on behalf of reforms they wished to see put into effect in universities.
In the late twentieth century, what did Basques, Quebecers, and Chechnyans have in common?
A. Their countries hosted the Olympics.
B. They were at war with more powerful states.
C. They desired to create independent nations.
D. They wished to join more powerful nations.
E. Their governments joined NATO.
(C) Following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, nationalists in Chechnya began to fight for independence from Russia, while Basques, who had agitated from a homeland independent from Spain and France, continued to use terrorism into the early twenty-first century. In 1995 a majority of Quebec's French speakers voted in a referendum to begin a process that would lead to independence from Canada, but a French minority combined with other minorities very narrowly defeated the nationalists' project.
Following the First World War, dress among Westerners became increasingly
(A) The late-twentieth-century phenomenon of people traveling, attending church, or even going shopping in casual clothing was unique. Into the 1950s it was unusual for a man to be seen in public in anything other than a coat and tie. The teen cultures of the 1920s and 1950s, which emphasized distinct dress for youth, promoted an increasingly casual approach to dress.
Which response BEST describes the great dictatorships of the twentieth century?
A. Despite themselves, they always had to accommodate a free press.
B. They never officially outlawed religion.
C. They were never as repressive as Louis XIV's France.
D. They were the most repressive regimes in history.
E. They eliminated radio and television.
(D) The twentieth century hosted the most repressive regimes in history. Louis XIV's France (C) never experienced the sort of intense control exercised by the Nazis and Soviets, the latter of which made traditional religion illegal (B). Twentieth-century dictators used radio and television (E) to further their own interests.
Which of the terms below best describes Oliver Cromwell?
(E) Cromwell, like the Puritans who settled present-day New England in the seventeenth century, wished to purify churches of all that seemed Catholic, hence the name Puritan. Cromwell led the antimonarchical forces in England's civil war and later presided over the country during its republican period.
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