APES Chapter 8 Vocab

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Terms in this set (...)

mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
magma
molten rock
asthenosphere
located in the outer part of the mantle and is composed of semi-molten, ductile rock
lithosphere
a 60 mile think layer that includes the solid upper mantle as well as the crust
crust
the outermost layer of the lithosphere
hot spots
places where molten material from the mantle reaches the lithosphere
plate tectonics
Earth's lithosphere is divided into plates, most of which are in constant motion
tectonic cycle
the sum of the processes that build up and break down the lithosphere
subduction
the process of one plate passing under another
volcano
a vent in Earth's surface that emits ash, gases, and molten lava
divergent plate boundaries
when oceanic plates move apart as if on a giant conveyor belt
seafloor spreading
when the magma rises up and outward, forming new rock. This process brings important elements such as copper & lead to the surface of the Earth
convergent plate boundaries
when plates move toward one another and collide, and the lighter layer goes on top of the heavier, subducted layer
transform boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move/slide past each other in opposite directions
fault
a fracture in rock across which there is movement
fault zones
large expanses of rock where movement has occurred
earthquakes
sudden movements of Earth's crust followed by a series of shocks
epicenter
the exact point on the surface of Earth directly above the location where the rock ruptures
richter scale
a measure of the largest ground movement that occurs during an earthquake
minerals
solid chemical substances with uniform structures that form under specific temperatures and pressures They are usually compounds
igneous rocks
rocks that form directly from magma. They are classified as basaltic or granitic [i.e granite, basalt]
sedimentary rocks
rocks that form when sediments like mud, sand, or gravel are compressed by overlying sediments. It forms over long periods of time. This layer often holds fossils [i.e. sandstone, limestone]
metamorphic rocks
rocks that form when sedimentary rocks, igneous rocks, or other metamorphic rocks are subjected to high temperatures and pressures [i.e. marble, quartzite]
physical weathering
Weathering in which solid rock is fragmented by mechanical processes that do not change its chemical composition.
chemical weathering
The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
acid rain
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
erosion
the physical removal of rock fragments from a landscape or ecosystem
deposition
the accumulation or depositing if eroded material such as sediment, rock fragments, or soil
soil
a mix of geologic and organic compounds. Often called "Earth's dynamic membrane"
parent material
the rock material underlying soil from which its inorganic components are derived
horizons
soil layers, a specific layer or stratum of soil or subsoil in a vertical cross section of land
O horizon
the top-most soil layer that has organic matter in various stages of decomposition
A horizon
the topsoil layer that is a zone of overlying organic material and underlying mineral material
B Horizon
a zone of accumulation of metals and nutrients, commonly known as subsoil
C horizon
the least weathered soil horizon that is similar to the parent material
cation exchange capacity
the ability of a particular soil to absorb and release cations. This is sometimes referred to as the nutrient holding capacity
base saturation
a measure of the proportion of soil bases to soil acids, expressed as a percentage
soil degradation
the loss of some or all of the ability of soils to support plant growth
ores
concentrated accumulations of minerals from which economically valuable materials can be extracted
metals
elements with properties that allow them to conduct electricity and heat energy and perform other important functions
reserve
the known quantity of a resource that can be economically recovered
strip mining
the removal of "strips" of soil and rock to expose ore and is used when the desired ore is relatively close to Earth's surface and runs parallel to it
tailings
mining spoils
open pit mining
the creation of a large pit or hole in the ground that is visible from Earth's surface, and is used when the resource is close to the surface but extends beneath the surface both horizontally and vertically
mountaintop removal
when miners remove the entire top of a mountain with explosives, this is really bad for the Earth
placer mining
the process of looking for metals and precious stones in river sediments
subsurface mining
begins with a horizontal tunnel dug into the side of a mountain or other feature containing the resource. From here, vertical shafts are drilled and elevators are used to bring miners down to the resource and back to the surface