Henretta Chapter 13
Terms in this set (42)
Belief that it is a God-given right to expand from coast to coast; Coined by John O' Sullivan
What were the qualities that drove Americans into pursuing Manifest Destiny?
They had the best...
political system: democratic republicanism
economic system: capitalism
religion: Protestant Christianity
The colonists though it was their DUTY TO SHARE THESE BELIEFS AND PRACTICES
The US Joint Occupation with Britain
In 1842, The US stated a "54 40' or Fight" against Britain on Oregon Country but the US and Britain settle on the 49th parallel
elite Mexican ranchers who owned tens of thousands of acres for raising cattle in California
Inactive; The NA on the Great Plains were sedentary
The Election of 1844
Henry Clay v. James K Polk; Polk SUPPORT ANNEXATION OF TEXAS, but Henry Clay is undecided. Texas is annexed and becomes a part of the US
Why was Henry Clay against expansion in Texas?
They feared tensions over slavery; AS THE US EXPANDED, PEOPLE WILL ASK "WILL THE LAND BE FREE OR SLAVE?"
Caused by a boundary area issue between the Nueces River (claimed by the Mexicos) and the Rio Grande (claimed by TX)
Polk sent John Slidell to buy CA and NM for $30 million, Mexico REFUSED TO MEET WITH HIM since Texas was just annexed
Those that opposed the Mexican-American war on moral grounds
1846; Introduced an amendment to a bill stating that slavery would not exist in any land gained from Mexico; Coined by David Wilmot; THE HOUSE PASSES IT BUT NOT THE SENATE.
Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
1848; Polk agreed to pay Mexico $15 million in return for more than one-third of its Territory.
Against the extension of slavery into territories; Anti-slavery expansion because it took away jobs from WHITE LABORERS.
Election of 1848
General Zachary Taylor (from the Mexican-American war) won! He's a WHIG. He dies in 1850
Congress would allow settlers in each territory to determine its status as a free or slave state; Failed to persuade Northern Democrats who opposed expansion of slavery.
tens of thousands of gold prospectors that headed for CA in 1849 in search of their share of gold.
What were the impacts of the Gold Rush?
A build up of population in CA and many Mexicans and Californios were forced off their lands
What were arguments made on slavery by John C. Calhoun during the debates in the North and South
"SLAVERY FOLLOWS THE FLAG"; Slaves were property, Calhoun insisted, and the Constitution restricted Congress's power to abrogate or limit property rights.
What were the 5 parts of the Compromise of 1850
1) Popular sovereignty (STATES DECIDE WHETHER THE STATE IS FREE OR SLAVE) in the Mexican Cession
2) CA is admitted as a free state
3) A more strict fugitive slave law
4) Slave trade is outlawed in DC
5) TX paid money to relinquish (give up) some lands in dispute
Fugitive Slave Act
Gave federal support to slave owners who's slaves had ran away.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
1852; Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel that boosted opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act. Conveying the moral principles of abolitionism
Personal Liberty Laws
Laws passed by Northern States that barred involvement in returning runaway slaves after debates from Uncle Tom's Cabin
Ableman v. Booth
Wisconsin Supreme Court went further ruling that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional because it violated the rights of Wisconsin's citizens.
What increased tensions between the north and south on the Fugitive Slave Act?
The Wisconsin State Supreme Court (NOT THE SUPREME COURT) declared the Fugitive Slave Act unconstitutional.
What causes the end of the Whigs?
1852; The death of Henry Clay and Daniel Webster
Elected in 1852 as president; Favors expansion, especially overseas
Plan to BUY CUBA from Spain, and if they refused, the US would TAKE IT BY FORCE; Fear of making Cuba a slave state.
1853; Signed by Franklin Pierce; Granted the US sovereignty over the Southern tips of Arizona and New Mexico
Why did the US want to buy land from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase?
The build the Transcontinental Railroad
Response to the Gadsden purchase; North wanted RR; It PROPOSED POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY TO KA (presumably slave) AND NB (presumably free) TERRITORY
What was the controversy over the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
It overturned the Missouri Compromise; the Idea of the plan would that KS=slave and NB=free; Leads to the emergence of the Republican party
1854-56; Nickname for the Kansas territory because of the violence there between proslavery and antislavery
Northern senator that gets caned/attacked by a South Carolina representative
Dred Scott v. Sandford
1857; A slave sued for his freedom but the SC decided he couldn't sue in federal court bc he was property, not a citizen.
Impact of the Dred Scott v. Sanford
Overturned the Missouri Compromise after the Kansas-Nebraska Act (final nail in the coffin)
Led to Lincoln-Douglas debates
7 debates were focused on the legality and morality of slavery and were published all over the country and brought Lincoln to national attention as an impressive spokesman for the new Republican Party
Lincoln asks of a territory should vote down slavery in spite of the Dred Scott Decision
Douglas goes against the Constitution and says yes
He says if a territory wanted to, it could keep slavery out by passing anti slavery laws
Impacts of the Freeport Doctrine
Lincoln loses but he becomes nationally recognized
SPLITS THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY
The South didn't like Douglas for this, ruining his chances of becoming president in 1860.
John Brown, a radical abolitionist, staged an attack on the federal armory in Harper's Ferry VA, intending to capture its weapons and spark a slave rebellion throughout the south. He was foiled and captured by General Robert E. Lee, tried, convicted of treason, and executed in 1859. Abolitionists in the north praised Brown and his defiant courage
Impact of Harper's Ferry
The South though many in the North were like John Brown so they strengthened slavery
Led to the Civil War because it established tensions in the North and South
Election of 1860
Lincoln wins without receiving a single electoral vote from the south, HAH!! Leads to secession in the South; Led to the Civil War
John Brown, an extreme white abolitionist, and his followers killed 5 proslavery men in response to burning of Lawrence Kansas and caning of Sumner
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