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Psychology Ch 16
Terms in this set (116)
What is the goal of insight therapies?
they attempt to improve functioning by increasing clients' awareness of motives and defenses
2 Examples of insight therapies...
Psychoanalytic and Humanistic Therapies
(NOT behavior therapies)
What is the goal of behavior therapies?
to apply learning principles to modify problem behaviors
What is the approach of psychotherapy?
involves psychological techniques derived from psychological perspectives
-trained therapists use psychological techniques to assist someone seeking to overcome difficulties or achieve personal growth
What is the approach of biomedical therapy?
involves treatment with medical procedures
-trained therapist, most often a medical doctor, offers medications and other biological treatments
What is the eclectic approach?
approach to psychotherapy that uses techniques from various forms of therapy
What are the goals of psychoanalysis?
-to bring patients' repressed feelings into conscious awareness
-to help patients release energy devotes to id-ego-supergo conflicts so they may achieve healthier, less anxious lives
What are the psychoanalysis techniques?
historical reconstruction initially through hypnosis and later through free association;interpretation of resistance, transference
what does hypnosis do?
alleviates repression of unconscious thoughts
What is the purpose of free association?
identifying an abrupt shift (an unconscious conflict)
What do modern day psychodynamic analysts interpret?
the relationship between the therapist and the client
-interpretation of resistance
What are modern day psychodynamic analysts looking for in their interpretation between the therapist and client?
the transference relationship
-What is the client transferring onto the therapist?
What is the emphasis of the humanistic therapy perspective?
emphasis on people' potential for self-fulfillment
-to give people new insights
What are the goals of humanistic therapies?
to reduce inner conflicts that interfere with natural development and growth
-help clients grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance promoting personal growth
What are the techniques of humanistic therapies?
-focus on taking responsibility for feelings and actions, and on present and future rather than past
Definition of humanism...
helping a person be the best version of themselves that they can be
Describe the client therapist relationship in the humanistic approach.....
empathic, warm, genuine, client feels unconditional positive regard, feels that therapist appreciates them
What are the 2 kinds of learning theories?
1. Classical Conditioning
2. Operant Conditioning
What did behavior therapies do with these learning theories?
they used them to change peoples behaviors
Definition of operant conditioning....
reinforcement and punishment
-punishment doesn't work as well as negative reinforcement
Operant conditioning therapy.....
consequences drive behavior
-voluntary behaviors are strongly influences by their consequences
Definition of behavior modification.....
desired behavior reinforced; undesired behavior not reinforced, sometimes punished
-if you want someone to do something again, praise them for ti- positive reinforcement
Definition of token economy....
people earn a token for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for privileges or treats-if patients does good,they get something they can cash in at end of day or week
Classical conditioning Techniques used in behavior therapies...
2. Exposure therapies
3. Systematic desensitization
What is counterconditioning?
use classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors
What are exposure therapies?
treat anxieties by exposing people 9in imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid)
What is systematic desensitization?
associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing, anxiety triggering stimuli
What do behavior therapists say about behaviors?
that you don't have to dig deep into the unconscious to explain behaviors
Example of a humanistic therapy?
Roger's person-centered therapy
-focused on person's conscious self-perceptions -non-directive; active listening
-unconditional positive regard
How did Roger's try to change the way people think?
by challenging them
What is active listening?
repeat back and repackage what a person has said
-acknowledge that you understand
Definition of virtual reality exposure therapy...
treats anxiety by creative electronic simulations in which people can safely face their greatest fears, such as airplane flying ,spiders, or public speaking
-you can change the end of your memories
What does psychoanalytic therapy look like?
patient lying on couch so that there is not face to cafe interaction between therapist and client
What are the goals of psychodynamic therapy?
to help people understand current symptoms
-to explore and gain perspective on defended-against thoughts and feelings
Techniques used on psychodynamic theory....
client centered face-to-face meetings
-exploration of past relationship troubles to understand origins of current difficulties
What is a criticism of behavior therapies?
techniques such as those used in token economies may produce behavior changes that disappear when rewards end
-deciding which behaviors should change is authoritarian and unethical
What do supporters of behavior therapies argue?
treatment with positive rewards is more humane than punishing people or institutionalizing them for undesired behaviors
Definition of cognitive therapies...
teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinkings, based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and out emotional reactions
What is Beck's therapy for depression?
gentle questioning seeks to reveal irrational thinking and then to persuade people to change their perceptions of their own and others' actions as dark, negative, and pessimistic
What did Beck believe?
said that feelings of hopelessness and depression come from irrational thoughts
What is the cognitive perspective on psychological disorders?
the person's emotional reactions are produced not directly by the event but by the person's thoughts in response to the event
Definition of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).....
integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
What is the goal of cognitive-
aims to alter the way they act AND the way they think
-helps people learn to make more realistic appraisals
-cognitive theorists test people's realities
Is psychotherapy effective?
clients and therapists positive testimonials cannot prove that psychotherapy is actually effective
-research indicates that those not undergoing treatment often improve, but those undergoing psychotherapy are more likely to improve more quickly and with less chance of relapse
what makes it difficult to judge whether improvement occurred because of a treatment?
the placebo effect
Which particular problems are behavior therapies best for?
bed-wetting, phobias, compulsions, marital problems, and sexual dysfunctions
Which particular problems are psychodynamic therapies best for?
depression and anxiety
Which particular problems are cognitive therapies best for?
anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder
What is evidence-based practice?
integration of best available research clinicians expertise and patients characteristics, preferences, and circumstances
Evaluation of alternative therapies...
abnormal states often return to normal and the placebo effect can mislead effectiveness evaluation
What are the 3 basic benefits for all psychotherapies?
1. Hope for demoralized people
2. New perspective for oneself and the world
3. Empathic, trusting, caring relationship (therapeutic alliance)
A person seeking therapy is encouraged to ask about.....
-consider whether the potential client feels comfortable and able to establish a bond with the therapist
What are the most common drug treatments for psychological disorders?
Definition of psychopharmacology....
includes study of drug effect son mind and behavior
-has helped make drug therapy the most widely used biomedical therapy
What are the most widely used biomedical treatments?
What do antidepressant drugs do?
increase availability of norepinephrine or serotonin
-promote birth of new brain cells
-slow synaptic vacuuming up of serotonin
How long do antidepressants take to reach peak effectiveness?
Why is the effectiveness of antidepressants sometimes questioned?
due to spontaneous recovery and the placebo effect
what are 2 examples of mood-stabilizing medications?
-anti convulsion drugs can help bring down mania episodes
What is Depakote used for?
controlling manic episodes
What is lithium used for?
it levels emotional highs and lows of bipolar disorder
What do antipsychotic drugs do?
-mimic certain neurotransmitters (block or increase activity of dopamine)
-reduce overreaction to irrelevant stimuli
successfully used with life-skills programs and family support to treat schizophrenia
Side effects of antipsychotic drugs....
sluggishness, tremors, twitches, and tardive dyskinesia
What do antianxiety drugs do?
depress CNS activity
-may reduce symptoms without resolving underlying problems; withdrawal linked to increased anxiety and insomnia
Examples of antianxiety drugs....
What is brain stimulation?
changing the electrical current directly
What does Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) involve?
manipulates brain by shocking it
-involves administration of general anesthetic and muscle relaxation to prevent convulsions
-causes less memory disruption than earlier versions
What are some alternative neurostimulation therapies?
vagus nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
Definition of vagus nerve stimulation...
stimulates neck nerve that sends signal to limbic system
-increases available serotonin by increasing firing rate of some neurons
Definition of deep brain stimulation....
manipulates depressed brain via pacemaker; stimulates inhibition activity related to negative emotions and thoughts
-implanting stimulator and connecting them to wifi or bluetooth and to a machine that will turn them on or off
Definition of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation...
sends magnetic energy to brain surface through coiled wire held close to brain
-fewer side effects
Definition of psychosurgery...
involves surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
-least used biomedical therapy
Definition of lobotomy...
psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients
-removing brain tissue from frontal lobes
-cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion controlling centers of the inner brain
What is the training of a clinical psychologist?
they have PhD's mostly
-they are experts in research, assessment, and therapy, all of which is verified through a supervised internship
What is the training of clinical or psychiatric social workers?
they have a masters of social work
-postgraduate supervision prepares some social workers to offer psychotherapy, mostly to people with everyday personal and family problems
What is the training of counselors?
pastoral counselors or abuse counselors work with problems arising from family relations, souse and child abusers and their victims and substance abusers
What is the training of psychiatrists?
they are physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders
-not all have extensive training in psychotherapy, but as MDs they can prescribe medication
In psychoanalysis, when patients experience strong feelings for their therapist, this is called _______. Patients are said to demonstrate anxiety when they put up mental blocks around sensitive memories, indicating _________. The therapist will atemmpt to rpovide insight into the underlying anxiety by offering a(n) _____ of the mental blocks.
What might a psychodynamic therapist say about Mowrer's therapy for bed-wetting? How might a behavior therapist reply?
A psychodynamic therapist might be more interested in helping the child develop insight about the underlying problems that have cause the bed-wetting responses. A behavior therapist would be more likely to agree with Mowrer that the bed-wetting symptom is the problem, ad that counterconditioning the unwanted behavior would indeed bring emotional relief
What are the insight therapies, and how do they differ from behavior therapies?
The insight therapies-psychodynamic and humanistic therapies-seek to relieve problems by providing an understanding of their origins. Behavior therapies assume the problem behavior is the problems and treat it directly playing less attention to its origin
Sp,e maladaptive behaviors are learned. What hope does this fact provide?
If a behavior can be learned, it can be unlearned and replaced by other more adaptive responses
Exposure therapies and aversive conditioning are applications of _______ conditioning. Token economies are an application of ________ conditioning.
How do the humanistic and cognitive therapies differ?
By reflecting client's feelings in a non-directive setting, the humanistic therapies attempt to foster personal growth by helping clients become more self-aware and self-accepting. By making clients aware of self-defeating patterns of thinking, cognitive therapies guide people toward more adaptive ways of thinking about themselves and their world
An influential cognitive therapy for depression was developed by _______
What is cognitive-behavior therapy, and hat sorts of problems does this therapy best address?
This integrative therapy helps people change self-defeating thinking and behavior. It has been shown to be effective for those with anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, and eating disorders
How might the placebo effect bias clients' and clinicians appraisals of the effectiveness of psychotherapies?
The placebo effect is the healing power of belief in a treatment. Patients and therapists who expects a treatment to be effective may believe it was
Therapy is most likely to be helpful for those with problems that ______ (are/are not) well-defined
What is evidence-based clinical decision making?
Using this approach, therapists make decisions about treatment based on research evidence, clinical experience, and knowledge of the client
Which of the following alternative therapies HAS shown promise as an effective treatment?
Those who undergo psychotherapy are _____ (more/less) likely to show improvement than those who do non undergo psychotherapy
how do researchers evaluate the effectiveness of particular drug therapies?
Researchers assign people to treatment and no-treatment conditions to see if those who receive the therapy improve more than those who don't. Double-blind controlled studies are ,pst effective. If neither the therapist nor the client knows which participants have received the drug treatment, then ant difference between the treated and untreated groups will reflect the drug treatment's actual effect.
The drugs given most often to treat depression are called ________. Schizophrenia is often treated with ______ drugs.
Severe depression that has not responded to other therapy may be treated with __________, which can cause brain seizures and memory loss. More moderate neural stimulation techniques designed to help alleviate depression include ______ magnetic stimulation and __________ stimulation
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT); repetitive transcranial; deep-brain
What are some examples of lifestyle changes we can make to enhance out mental health?
Exercise regularly. get enough sleep. get ,pre exposure to light (get outside and/or use a light box), nurture important relationships, redirect negative thinking, and eat a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids
What is the difference between preventative mental health and psychological or biomedical therapy?
Psychological and biomedical therapies attempt to relive people's suffering from psychological disorder.s Preventative mental health attempts to precent suffering by identifying and eliminating the conditions that cause disorders.
A therapist who helps patients search for the unconscious roots of the their problems and offers interpretations of their behaviors, feelings, and dreams, is drawing from...
__________ therapies are designed to help individuals discover the thoughts and feelings that guide their motivation and behavior.
Compared with psychoanalysts, humanistic therapists are more likely to emphasize....
self-fulfillment and growth
A therapist who restates and clarifies the client's statements is practicing ________
The goal of behavior therapy is to......
eliminate the unwanted behavior
Behavior therapies often use ____ techniques such as systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning to encourage clients to produce new responses to old stimuli.
The technique of ____________ teaches people to relax in the presence of progressively more anxiety-provoking stimuli.
After a ear-fatal car accident, Rico developed such as intense fear of driving on the freeway that he takes lengthy alternative routes to work each day. Which psychological therapy might best help Rico overcome his phobia, and why?
Behavior therapies are often the best choice for treating phobias. Viewing Rico's fear of the freeway as a learned response, a behavior therapist might help Rico learn to replace his anxious response to freeway driving with a relaxation response
At a treatment center, people who display a desired behavior receive coins that they can later exchange for other rewards. This is an example of a(n)__________
Cognitive therapy has been especially effective in treating.....
_______-________ therapy helps people to change their self-defeating ways of thinking and to act out those changes in their daily behavior.
In family therapy, the therapist assumes that......
each person's actions trigger reactions from other family members
The most enthusiastic or optimistic view of the effectiveness of psychotherapy comes from......
reports of clinicians and clients
Studies show that ________ therapy is the most effective treatment for most psychological disorders.
no one type of
What are the 3 components of evidence-based practice?
research evidence, clinical expertise, and knowledge of the patient
How does the placebo effect bias patients; attitudes about the effectiveness of drug therapies?
The placebo effects is the healing power of belief in a treatment. When patients expect a treatment to be effective, they may believe it was.
Some antipsychotic drugs, used to calm people with schizophrenia, can have unpleasant side effect, most notably....
sluggishness, tremors, and twitches
Drugs like Xanax and Ativan, which depress central nervous system activity, can become addictive when used as ongoing treatment, These drugs are referred to as _______ drugs.
A simple salt that often brings relief to patients suffering the highs and lows of bipolar disorder is__________.
When drug therapies have not been effective, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be used as treatment, largely for people with...
An approach that seeks to identify and alleviate conditions that put people at high risk for developing psychological disorders is called.....
preventative mental health
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