soc 4 ch 5 6
Terms in this set (67)
Careful, deliberate observations of the real world for the purpose of describing objects and events in terms of the attributes composing the variable.
The mental process whereby fuzzy and imprecise notions (concepts) are made more specific and precise.
Concepts are constructs derived by mutual agreement from
Conceptions summarize collections of seemingly related
observations and experiences.
3 Things Scientists Measure
An observation that we choose to consider as a reflection of a variable we wish to study.
A specifiable aspect of a concept.
Identify appropriate indicators and dimensions for...
Indicator: Attending Religious Services
Dimension: Belief, Ritual, Devotion, etc.
The process through which concepts are made more specific.
one that is simply assigned to a term without any claim that the definition represents a "real" entity.
specifies precisely how a concept will be measured - that is, the operations we will perform.
An operational definition
Definitions are more problematic for descriptive research
than for explanatory research.
refinement and specification of abstract concepts
the development of specific research procedures that will result in empirical observations representing those concepts in the real world.
a characteristic or quality of something (ex: female, old, student).
a logical set of attributes (ex: gender, age).
Every variable must have two important qualities.
The attributes composing it should be exhaustive.
Attributes must be mutually exclusive.
Levels of Measurement
Variables who attributes have only the characteristics of exhaustiveness and mutually exclusiveness.
Levels of Measurement - Nominal
gender, religious affiliation, college major, hair color, birthplace, nationality
Variables with attributes we can logically rank order.
Variables for which the actual distance between attributes has meaning
-temperature, IQ score
minimum levels of measurement
Criteria of Measurement Quality
Precision and Accuracy
Precise measures are superior
to imprecise ones.
That quality of measurement method that suggests that the same data would have been collected each time in repeated observations of the same phenomenon.
To make the same measurement more than once.
Multiple sets of randomly assigned variables should produce the same classifications
- a term describing a measure that accurately reflects the concept it is intended to measure.
- That quality of an indicator that makes it seem a reasonable measure of some variable.
"Looks like" it will measure what it is supposed to measure
Face Validity (logical)
Ex: A math test "looks like" it will measure your math abilities
The degree to which a measure related to some external criterion.
The the extent to which the measures are demonstrably related to concrete criteria in the "real" world.
Taking a driving test, will reduce driving accidents
The degree to which a measure relates to other variables as expected within a system of theoretical relationships.
Does the measure behave like the theory says a measure of that construct should behave
-Marital Satisfaction and infidelity
- The degree to which a measure covers the range of meanings included within a concept.
-Ex: Studying Race
Any measure should be both
valid (measuring what it is intended to measure) and reliable (yielding a given measurement dependably
It is truly possible to measure the stuff of life.
_____ refer to mental images
The mental processes whereby fuzzy and imprecise notions are made more specific and precise is called:
Which of the following are examples of nominal measures?
Gender, religious affiliation, political affiliation, and birthplace
the degree to which a measure covers the range of meanings included within a concept.
The _____ of concepts in scientific inquiry depends on nominal and operational definitions.
Why do quantitative researchers use composite measures?
No clear, unambiguous single indicators
Use ordinal measure
Efficient for data analysis
Both scales and indexes are
are ordinal measures of variables.
Both scales and indexes are ___ measures of variables
measurements based on more than one data item
composite measures of variables
A type of composite measure that summarizes and rank-orders several specific observations and represents some more general dimensions.
Check Yes OR No
To Create the Index
Add up the number of "yes" responses
A type of composite measure composed of several items that have a logical or empirical structure among them
strongly agree," "agree," "disagree," and "strongly disagree
Scales are generally superior to indexes
because scales take into consideration the intensity with which different items reflects that variable being measured
when respondents' answers to one question help us predict how they will answer other questions.
An empirical relationship is established
A relationship between two variables.
A relationship between more than two variables
An assessment of whether each of the items included in a composite measure makes an independent contribution or merely duplicates the contribution of other items in the measure.
The process of testing the validity of a measure, such as an index or score, by examining its relationship to other, presumed indicators of the same variable.
A measurement technique for determining the willingness of people to participate in social relations - of varying degrees of closeness - with other kinds of people.
Bogardus Social Distance Scale
A type of composite measure constructed in accord with the weights assigned by "judges" to various indicators of some variables.
A type of composite measure, designed to improve the levels of measurement in social research through the use of standardized response categories to determine the relative intensity of different items.
A questionnaire format in which the respondent is asked to rate something in terms of two, opposite adjectives.
A type of composite measure used to summarize several discrete observations and to represent some more-general variable
The classification of observations in terms of their attributes on two or more variables.
In order to achieve broad coverage of various dimensions of a concept, researchers need to make
Which of the following are common characteristics shared by both indexes and scales?
both are ordinal measure, both rank-order units in terms of specific variables, and both are composite measures.
Which of the following represent steps in the construction of an index?
selecting possible items, examining empirical relationships and scoring the index
An empirical relationship is established when respondents' answers to one question help us:
predict how they will answer other questions.
Which of these represents a questionnaire format in which the respondent is asked to rate something in terms of two?
We construct a/n _____ simply by accumulating scores assigned to individual attributes.
_____ is the process of testing the validity of a measure by examining its relationship to other indicators of the same variable.