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Outward actions or reactions of an individual.

Mental Processes (Cognition)

All mental processes, including thoughts, perception, sensations and attitudes that make up human knowledge and intuitions.


Scientific study of behavior and mental processes.


Made up of elements from a variety of different sources


According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary Psychologists, information processing which we are unaware of


According to Freud, threatening desires, emotions, or impulses that cannot be expressed because of societal rules that were once suppressed into the unconscious.


To make an appearance


Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic technique. A central belief is that most mental activity is unconscious, and in order to understand individuals the unconscious meaning behind their behaviors must be interpreted


Modern theories based on the work of Sigmund Freud that focus on unconscious mental forces


A psychologist holds a four year Ph.D doctorate degree focused in a specific area of psychology


A medical doctor specializing in studying and treating mental disorders, thus their path after a bachelor's degree would lead them to medical school


The mind and body exist as two distinct entities


The mind and body work in unison

Operant Conditioning

A type of learning in which a behavior is strengthened when it is followed by reinforcement, and strengthened when it is followed by punishment


An approach to Psychology proposed by James B. Watson that redefined psychology as the study of observable behavior, rather than postulate with emotional introspections, or assume the influence of the invisible and imperceptible unconscious mind

Humanistic Perspective

The psychological perspective popularized by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, that emphasizes the human capacity for choice and growth. The overriding assumption that humans have free will and are not simply fated to behave in specific ways or are zombies blindly reacting to their environments

Cognitive Perspective

Dealing with the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and retrieving knowledge, such as problem solving, thoughts, attitudes, memories, and language

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe, once the outcome is known of course, that you would have foreseen it; that even though its over, and your know the outcome, you knew it all along

Naturalistic Observation

The process of observing a subject in their natural environment without any manipulation by the researcher

Observer Effect

The tendency for many people and animals to behave differently when they know others are watching them

Experimental Contamination

Factors that weaken the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure within an experimental study


A statistical measure of the relationship between two variables. When one variable changes, the others change with it

Positive Correlation

Related variables either increase or decrease in the same direction

Negative Correlation

One variable increases while the other decreases


The graphic representation of correlations where data from the two variables is plotted on the X and Y axes. By plotting data, the resulting graph will describe the type and strength of the correlation


A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Independent Variable

The variable in an experiment that is manipulated or changed by the experimenter

Dependent Variable

The variable that responds to changes in the independent variable and is the factor that is measured in the experiment



Operational Definitions

A statement of the procedures or ways in which a researcher is going to measure behaviors or qualities

Inter-observer reliability

A measure of the extent of agreement of multiple raters when observing the same behaviors or rating the same item or event

Placebo Effect

A medical effect based solely on the power of suggestion


Imitation of a drug or remedy that is designed to trick the subject into believing they're receiving the genuine treatment

Single-Blind Study

A study designed in such a way that the subjects do not know if they are assigned to the experimental or control group

Observer Bias

The tendency for the experimenter or observer to report observations based on what he or she would like to believe rather than the factual truth

Double-Blind Study

A study designed in such a way that neither the subjects nor the researchers know who belongs to the experimental group or the control group

Ethical Principals

The code of conduct and philosophies designed to employ a standard of morality for research subjects, patients and clients


Distorting the truth


The process of researchers giving participants in an experiment more information about the study after the experiment has been completed

Case Studies

Type of observational data collection technique- one individual is studied in depth in order to identify behavioral, emotional, and/or cognitive qualities that are universally true, on average, of others; often include face to face interviews, paper and pencil test, etc.


A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of individuals


Apply findings from a study to others in natural settings


Is the collection of people or organisms of a particular species living in a given geographic area or space usually measured by a consensus

Representative Sample

A sample is chosen from a given population in hopes that all minorities and majorities will be represented appropriately in a study or in an experiment

Courtesy Bias

The tendency for individuals participating in a survey to report what they think the researchers want to hear rather than their true opinions or behaviors

Correlation Coefficient

Measure of the direction (positive or negative) and extent (range of a correlation coefficient is from -1 to 1) of the relationship between the two sets of scores

Perfect Positive Correlation

A correlation value of +1.00

Perfect Negative Correlation

A correlation value of -1.00

Confounding Variables

An uncontrolled third variable that affects the relationship between two correlated variables

Illusory Correlation

The tendency to believe a relationship exists when one does not

Experimental Group

The group of individuals that receives the independent variable in an experiment

Control Group

The group of individuals that does not receive the independent variable in the experiment

Random Assignment

The process of separating participants in an experiment to either the experimental or control group, in such a way that each participant will have the same chance of being assigned to either group

Ethical Principles

The code of conduct and philosophies designed to employ a standard of morality for research subjects, patients and clients

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