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27 terms

AP Statistics Module 1: Exploring Univariate Data

Module 1
STUDY
PLAY
statistics
the science of gaining information from numerical data
population
group of interest
sample
subgroup of the population meant to represent the population
individuals
objects being described by data set
variable
characteristic of an individual
categorical/qualitative
values are labels and categories
numerical/quantitative
values are numerical
distribution of a variable
tells what values the variable assumes and how often it takes these values
dotplot
simple plot that allows one to visualize a relatively small data set. not convenient is data set is large.
histogram
common distribution graph for one variable data. areas of bars represent percent. histogram shows distribution of values of a quantitative variable. choice of bin width changes how histogram looks
bar chart
compares sizes of different items, used to display frequencies related to categorical variables
outlier
observation that falls outside the overall pattern of a data set
distribution
described by center, spread, shape, outliers
center
described by mean, median, mode
spread
smallest number to largest number. described by quartiles, range, interquartile range
shape
symmetric, skewed to the right, skewed to the left
outliers
anything more/less than 1.5XIQR
mean
always follows tail in a skewed distribution. influenced by outlier.
stemplots
effective for small data set, include a key, split stems split one category into multiple, back-to-back = two stemplots in one to compare
5 number summary
min, q1, median, q3, max
modified boxplot
shows outliers
median
middle value of data set. not influenced by outliers
range
largest value - smallest value. influenced by outliers.
IQR
Q3-Q1. not influenced by outliers.
statistic
number computed from a sample
parameter
number computed from a population
standard deviation
measure of spread, variance = stdev^2, 2 different st devs depending on population or sample. if s = 0, no spread so all observations are the same. use for symmetric data, not for skewed