33 terms

Environmental Science for AP* Chapter 10

STUDY
PLAY
Tragedy of the Commons
The tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted because people act from self-interest for short-term gain.
Externality
The cost or benefit of a good or service that is not included in the purchase price of that good or service.
Maximum sustainable yield (MSY)
The maximum amount of renewable resource that can be harvested without compromising the future availability of that resource.
Resource conservation ethic
The belief that people should maximize use of resources, based on the greatest good for everyone.
Multiple-use lands
A U.S. classification used to designate lands that may be used for recreation, grazing, timber harvesting, and mineral extraction.
Rangeland
A dry open grassland.
Forest
Land dominated by trees and other woody vegetation and sometimes used for commercial logging.
Clear-cutting
A method of harvesting trees that involves removing all or most all of the trees within an area.
Selective cutting
The method of harvesting trees that involves the removal of single trees or a relatively small number of trees from among many in a forest.
Ecologically sustainable forestry
An approach to removing trees from forests in ways that do not unduly affect the viability of other trees.
Tree plantation
A large area typically planted with a single rapidly growing tree species.
Prescribed burn
A fire deliberately set under controlled conditions in order to reduce the accumulation of dead biomass on the forest floor.
National wildlife refuge
A federal public land managed for the primary purpose of protecting wildlife.
National wilderness area
An area set aside with the intent of preserving a large tract of intact ecosystem or a landscape.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
A 1969 U.S. federal act that mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or federal permits.
Environmental impact statement (EIS)
A document outlining the scope and purpose of a development project, describing the environmental context, suggesting alternative approaches to the project, and analyzing the environmental impact of each alternative.
Environmental mitigation plan
A plan that outlines how a developer will address concerns raised by a project's impact on the environment.
Endangered Species Act
A 1973 U.S. act designed to protect species from extinction.
Suburb
An area surrounding a metropolitan center, with a comparatively low population density.
Exurb
An area similar to a suburb, but unconnected to any central city or densely populated area.
Urban sprawl
Urbanized areas that spread into rural areas, removing clear boundaries between the two.
Urban blight
The degradation of the built and social environments of the city that often accompanies and accelerates migration to the suburbs.
Highway Trust Fund
A U.S. federal fund that pays for the construction and maintenance of roads and highways.
Induced demand
The phenomenon in which an increase in the supply of a good causes demand to grow.
Zoning
A planning tool used to separate industry and business from residential neighborhoods.
Multi-use zoning
A zoning classification that allows retail and high-density residential development to coexist in the same area.
Smart growth
A set of principles for community planning that focuses on strategies to encourage the development of sustainable, healthy communities.
Stakeholder
A person or organization with an interest in a particular place or issue.
Sense of place
The feeling that an area has a distinct and meaningful character.
Transit-oriented development (TOD)
Development that attempts to focus dense residential and retail development around stops for public transportation, a component of smart growth.
Infill
Development that fills in vacant lots within existing communities.
Urban growth boundary
A restriction on development outside a designated area.
Eminent domain
A principle that grants government the power to acquire a property at fair market value even if the owner does not wish to sell it.

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