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CJC1000 - Intro to Corrections - FINAL Resource: Corrections in America, 12th ed., Allen/Latessa/Ponder

The first set of codified laws based on vengeance was the

Sumerian code.

Cruel and barbarous punishment has been founded in all of the following notions except

change psychological characteristics of the offender.

These structures were used to hold people in pretrial confinement until fines were paid.


The founder of the Classical School of Criminology was:

Cesare Beccaria

Quakers broke with historical punishment in all the following ways except


The first American institution exclusively dedicated to the correction of felons was

the Walnut Street Jail

The Walnut Street Jail embodied all the following concepts except

prisoners must pay a small fee for food and lodging.

The Pennsylvania System initially used the following basic elements except

no work

Corrections is an important field of study because of all the following except

prisons are declining in use

The following events occurred during the industrial era of prisons except

a "softening" in the treatment of offenders was prevalent in most major institutions.

The Pennsylvania System is characterized by the following except

based on Bentham's Panopticon prison.

The Auburn prison system is characterized by the following concepts except

correction in behavior is found through allowing interaction among inmates.

The industrial prison was stopped due to all of the following except

court decisions

The period of transition, from 1935 to 1960, was marked by all the following except

the dismantling of the "fortress" types prisons.

Most prisons built during the Reformatory Era had all the following characteristics except

rejection of freedom of religion

The prison population increased since 1960 due to all the following factors except

medical treatment

The basic reasons for punishment include all of the following reasons except


Chronic offenders tend to commit:

all of the above

For deterrence to work, punishment must be all of the following except


Which of the following is a theory of punishment that argues the reason for punishment is to disable the offender from committing another crime?


Which sentencing structure underlies the treatment model?


Which of the following is a theory of punishment that argues that the reason for punishment is to stop the specific person and others from doing the same criminal act?


This type of correctional ideology argues that criminality is a manifestation of pathology that can be managed or even reversed in some way. The goal of this ideology is to make offenders aware of their maladaptive behavior and to change it. Which correctional ideology does this refer to?

treatment ideology

Indeterminate sentencing allows the length of prison time served to be controlled by

the corrections system

Restorative justice purports all of the following elements listed below except

not allow the victim a voice in the criminal justice process

The most common explanations for plea-bargaining are all the following except

the benevolence of prosecutorial discretion.

In recent years legislatures have increased control over the sentencing process of their state. Which of the following is NOT one of the strategies of legislative control?

banning early release to institutionalized offenders

The Presentence Investigation Report generally includes all of the following information except

private presentence reports.

The Gagnon v. Scarpelli decision governs how probation may be withdrawn from an offender. This decision created all of the following due process rules except

the hearing is before a jury

Sentencing judges are more likely to impose probation when they determine all of the following evidence about the offender except

the offender has a high risk score

The "Broken Windows" approach to probation calls for all of the following strategies except

make treatment the central element to probation

Which of the following is not a form of Intermediate Sanction?

restitution with house arrest

One main problem with sentencing is that judges have to be able to predict human behavior. A judge uses all of the following tools to make his or her sentencing decisions except

research on prediction

Restitution requires the offender to

compensate the victim for loss or injury.

Community service programs have all of the following characteristics except

this sanction provides a small wage per hour to the offender.

Boot camp programs have regimens that can include

all of the above

An example of indeterminate sentencing would be which of the following sentences?

two to ten years

Which of the following statements describe the problem faced by administrators in an effort to control and rehabilitate offenders?

Oftentimes the public is supportive of reformation but administrator do not have the money necessary to make it effective while still spending sufficiently on control issues.

Maximum-security levels are characterized by all of the following except

the ratio of correctional officers to inmates is generally 1:8-12.

The main difference between inmates or institutions classified as medium and those classified as minimum are all of the following except

unlike medium security institutions, there is much more movement within a minimum security facility.

Prisonization occurs in all of the following ways except which of the statements below?

establishing constant communication with non-institutionalized family and friends

Which of the following is the primary way that offenders' whereabouts are determined?


Which of the following statements best defines all contraband?

Contraband is anything not authorized by institutional rules.

Which of the following, if any, is a nonlethal weapon in prisons?

all of these

All of the following are major medical problems faced by prison and jail inmates today except

small pox

Religion services in prison suffer from all of the following problems except

religious worship is forbidden in prison

Which of the following statements is NOT true about education services in prison?

Treatment providers usually outnumber educational providers.

The federal government has controlled prison industry and labor in all of the following ways except

federal law limiting the amount of goods to be sold by the prison industry.

The general treatment model has all of the following goals except which one listed below?

teach religious doctrine

What is the largest demographic concentration of inmates in jail and detention facilities?


The purposes of confinement include all of the following except


All of the following statements but one provide reasons that an offender has been put into super-maximum prison. Which statement is NOT a reason that an offender would be put into super-maximum prison?

convicted of 1st degree murder

Medium security institutions as compared to maximum-security institutions have all of the following characteristics except

less inmate privileges.

The goals of sentencing reform include all of the following except

increase retribution.

Which of the following factors is NOT a reason for the unprecedented level of prison growth since 1980?

crime rate

Classification's core assumptions and actions are based on all of the following statements except

use of deterrence as a goal of punishment.

Maximum-security prisons are characterized by all of the following except

"community campus design"

Generally the Supreme Court has held fast to one principle in the case of inmate rights in state-level prisons. Which of the following is this principle?

No one must interfere with an inmate's right to take complaints to the federal courts.

Federal institutions provide the following academic and occupational opportunities except

law enforcement training

The federal prison system was created for several interdependent reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

product of a movement to establish the federal government in the corrections business

Which of the following is NOT a reason that the Federal Bureau of Prisons uses community corrections centers for inmates nearing their release back into the community?

Restrict inmate access to the community until final release.

What do criminologists say is a precursor to current-day parole?

punishment by transportation

Which of the following statements is NOT true about parole board personnel?

Generally, they are persons trained in corrections.

Which one of the following statements accurately reflects the Supreme Court's opinion about parole-granting hearing?

The parole-granting hearing is a privilege.

All of the following statements reflect the Morrissey v. Brewer decision that established due process rights to a parolee faced with a potential parole revocation except

notification must take place at least 36 hours before hearing.

Halfway houses are accurately described by all of the following except

used most commonly with violent offenders

Which of the following is the process of destroying or sealing the record of a crime conviction after a statutorily determined length of time?


Which of the following is executive mercy of a crime; it represents forgiving the offender for the crime?


Inmates have all of the following rights to legal counsel and materials except

law library

Estelle v. Gamble created all of the following requirements for the medical treatment of inmates except

medical treatment is not required to conform to community standards

How do inmates generally sue prison administrators on issues of medical treatment as of late?

Section 1983 of the U.S. Code

Which of the following is an individual right guaranteed by the Bill of Rights?

all of the above

The test used in corrections to justify restricting rights of prisoners:

clear and present danger

How are sex offenders traced throughout their lives after release from prison?


How do administrators and correctional officers test the permissibility of mail and literature?

clear and present danger standard

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the typical male prisoner?

high school diploma or GED

How might the criminal justice system treat women offenders differently than men?

all of the above

Psychological deprivation may contribute to homosexual behavior in women's prisons. Which of the following is NOT one of these deprivations?

the high proportion of homosexual women

Women seem to have different "needs" in prison than males. Which of the following is generally NOT considered one of these?

violence programs

Women's prisons have been recently adapting to pregnant inmates in all of the following general ways except

allowing these women permanent release from institutions.

All of the following are characteristics of the average women prisoner except


All of the following reasons are why rape occurs in male prisons except

homosexual orientation.

All of the following are ways that prisonization can be reduced except

custody and discipline

There are some common personal characteristics of males in prison. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

high levels of appropriate assertiveness

Which of the following, if any, is an institutional threat group?

prison gangs

All of the following are reasons why female crime has increased so sharply over the last 10 years except

women are in more dysfunctional relationships than men.

In terms of elderly inmates,

all of the above

Older elderly inmates whose physical or mental disabilities require more extensive medical and treatment care are:

geriatric inmates

The developmentally challenged inmate

all of these

Who is considered a "developmentally challenged" offender?

an offender with an IQ score lower than 69

All of the statements below, except one, describe ways that developmentally challenged offender have difficulties in prison. Which statement does NOT describe their difficulties?

They are denied entry into rehabilitation programs.

All of the following statements reflect the trends in dealing with developmentally challenged individuals in the criminal justice system except

the corrections community has been proactive in seeing to this population's needs in prison.

Which of the following, if any, is a category of offender who might be found in an institution for the criminally insane?

all of these

Which of the following has generally NOT been a response by correctional administrators who wish to advance prevention and precaution measures against the spread of HIV in prison?

condom distribution

What is the standard of care that prisons are responsible for providing to HIV-infected inmates?

community treatment standard

The geriatric population is increasing in American prisons. Which of the following is NOT a reason why this may be happening?

an increase in serious offenses committed by older inmates

There are several reasons why administrators are concerned about the rising geriatric population in prison. Which of the following is NOT one of these?


A person who mentally or physically abuses a child is called a:

child abuser

The de-institutionalization movement occurred because of what development?

all of the above

The process of raising additional legal questions in other courts but before case disposition:

collateral attack

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