CJC1000 - Intro to Corrections - FINAL
Resource: Corrections in America, 12th ed., Allen/Latessa/Ponder
The first set of codified laws based on vengeance was the
Cruel and barbarous punishment has been founded in all of the following notions except
change psychological characteristics of the offender.
These structures were used to hold people in pretrial confinement until fines were paid.
The founder of the Classical School of Criminology was:
Quakers broke with historical punishment in all the following ways except
The first American institution exclusively dedicated to the correction of felons was
the Walnut Street Jail
The Walnut Street Jail embodied all the following concepts except
prisoners must pay a small fee for food and lodging.
The Pennsylvania System initially used the following basic elements except
Corrections is an important field of study because of all the following except
prisons are declining in use
The following events occurred during the industrial era of prisons except
a "softening" in the treatment of offenders was prevalent in most major institutions.
The Pennsylvania System is characterized by the following except
based on Bentham's Panopticon prison.
The Auburn prison system is characterized by the following concepts except
correction in behavior is found through allowing interaction among inmates.
The industrial prison was stopped due to all of the following except
The period of transition, from 1935 to 1960, was marked by all the following except
the dismantling of the "fortress" types prisons.
Most prisons built during the Reformatory Era had all the following characteristics except
rejection of freedom of religion
The prison population increased since 1960 due to all the following factors except
The basic reasons for punishment include all of the following reasons except
Chronic offenders tend to commit:
all of the above
For deterrence to work, punishment must be all of the following except
Which of the following is a theory of punishment that argues the reason for punishment is to disable the offender from committing another crime?
Which sentencing structure underlies the treatment model?
Which of the following is a theory of punishment that argues that the reason for punishment is to stop the specific person and others from doing the same criminal act?
This type of correctional ideology argues that criminality is a manifestation of pathology that can be managed or even reversed in some way. The goal of this ideology is to make offenders aware of their maladaptive behavior and to change it. Which correctional ideology does this refer to?
Indeterminate sentencing allows the length of prison time served to be controlled by
the corrections system
Restorative justice purports all of the following elements listed below except
not allow the victim a voice in the criminal justice process
The most common explanations for plea-bargaining are all the following except
the benevolence of prosecutorial discretion.
In recent years legislatures have increased control over the sentencing process of their state. Which of the following is NOT one of the strategies of legislative control?
banning early release to institutionalized offenders
The Presentence Investigation Report generally includes all of the following information except
private presentence reports.
The Gagnon v. Scarpelli decision governs how probation may be withdrawn from an offender. This decision created all of the following due process rules except
the hearing is before a jury
Sentencing judges are more likely to impose probation when they determine all of the following evidence about the offender except
the offender has a high risk score
The "Broken Windows" approach to probation calls for all of the following strategies except
make treatment the central element to probation
Which of the following is not a form of Intermediate Sanction?
restitution with house arrest
One main problem with sentencing is that judges have to be able to predict human behavior. A judge uses all of the following tools to make his or her sentencing decisions except
research on prediction
Restitution requires the offender to
compensate the victim for loss or injury.
Community service programs have all of the following characteristics except
this sanction provides a small wage per hour to the offender.
Boot camp programs have regimens that can include
all of the above
An example of indeterminate sentencing would be which of the following sentences?
two to ten years
Which of the following statements describe the problem faced by administrators in an effort to control and rehabilitate offenders?
Oftentimes the public is supportive of reformation but administrator do not have the money necessary to make it effective while still spending sufficiently on control issues.
Maximum-security levels are characterized by all of the following except
the ratio of correctional officers to inmates is generally 1:8-12.
The main difference between inmates or institutions classified as medium and those classified as minimum are all of the following except
unlike medium security institutions, there is much more movement within a minimum security facility.
Prisonization occurs in all of the following ways except which of the statements below?
establishing constant communication with non-institutionalized family and friends
Which of the following is the primary way that offenders' whereabouts are determined?
Which of the following statements best defines all contraband?
Contraband is anything not authorized by institutional rules.
Which of the following, if any, is a nonlethal weapon in prisons?
all of these
All of the following are major medical problems faced by prison and jail inmates today except
Religion services in prison suffer from all of the following problems except
religious worship is forbidden in prison
Which of the following statements is NOT true about education services in prison?
Treatment providers usually outnumber educational providers.
The federal government has controlled prison industry and labor in all of the following ways except
federal law limiting the amount of goods to be sold by the prison industry.
The general treatment model has all of the following goals except which one listed below?
teach religious doctrine
What is the largest demographic concentration of inmates in jail and detention facilities?
The purposes of confinement include all of the following except
All of the following statements but one provide reasons that an offender has been put into super-maximum prison. Which statement is NOT a reason that an offender would be put into super-maximum prison?
convicted of 1st degree murder
Medium security institutions as compared to maximum-security institutions have all of the following characteristics except
less inmate privileges.
The goals of sentencing reform include all of the following except
Which of the following factors is NOT a reason for the unprecedented level of prison growth since 1980?
Classification's core assumptions and actions are based on all of the following statements except
use of deterrence as a goal of punishment.
Maximum-security prisons are characterized by all of the following except
"community campus design"
Generally the Supreme Court has held fast to one principle in the case of inmate rights in state-level prisons. Which of the following is this principle?
No one must interfere with an inmate's right to take complaints to the federal courts.
Federal institutions provide the following academic and occupational opportunities except
law enforcement training
The federal prison system was created for several interdependent reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
product of a movement to establish the federal government in the corrections business
Which of the following is NOT a reason that the Federal Bureau of Prisons uses community corrections centers for inmates nearing their release back into the community?
Restrict inmate access to the community until final release.
What do criminologists say is a precursor to current-day parole?
punishment by transportation
Which of the following statements is NOT true about parole board personnel?
Generally, they are persons trained in corrections.
Which one of the following statements accurately reflects the Supreme Court's opinion about parole-granting hearing?
The parole-granting hearing is a privilege.
All of the following statements reflect the Morrissey v. Brewer decision that established due process rights to a parolee faced with a potential parole revocation except
notification must take place at least 36 hours before hearing.
Halfway houses are accurately described by all of the following except
used most commonly with violent offenders
Which of the following is the process of destroying or sealing the record of a crime conviction after a statutorily determined length of time?
Which of the following is executive mercy of a crime; it represents forgiving the offender for the crime?
Inmates have all of the following rights to legal counsel and materials except
Estelle v. Gamble created all of the following requirements for the medical treatment of inmates except
medical treatment is not required to conform to community standards
How do inmates generally sue prison administrators on issues of medical treatment as of late?
Section 1983 of the U.S. Code
Which of the following is an individual right guaranteed by the Bill of Rights?
all of the above
The test used in corrections to justify restricting rights of prisoners:
clear and present danger
How are sex offenders traced throughout their lives after release from prison?
How do administrators and correctional officers test the permissibility of mail and literature?
clear and present danger standard
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the typical male prisoner?
high school diploma or GED
How might the criminal justice system treat women offenders differently than men?
all of the above
Psychological deprivation may contribute to homosexual behavior in women's prisons. Which of the following is NOT one of these deprivations?
the high proportion of homosexual women
Women seem to have different "needs" in prison than males. Which of the following is generally NOT considered one of these?
Women's prisons have been recently adapting to pregnant inmates in all of the following general ways except
allowing these women permanent release from institutions.
All of the following are characteristics of the average women prisoner except
All of the following reasons are why rape occurs in male prisons except
All of the following are ways that prisonization can be reduced except
custody and discipline
There are some common personal characteristics of males in prison. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
high levels of appropriate assertiveness
Which of the following, if any, is an institutional threat group?
All of the following are reasons why female crime has increased so sharply over the last 10 years except
women are in more dysfunctional relationships than men.
In terms of elderly inmates,
all of the above
Older elderly inmates whose physical or mental disabilities require more extensive medical and treatment care are:
The developmentally challenged inmate
all of these
Who is considered a "developmentally challenged" offender?
an offender with an IQ score lower than 69
All of the statements below, except one, describe ways that developmentally challenged offender have difficulties in prison. Which statement does NOT describe their difficulties?
They are denied entry into rehabilitation programs.
All of the following statements reflect the trends in dealing with developmentally challenged individuals in the criminal justice system except
the corrections community has been proactive in seeing to this population's needs in prison.
Which of the following, if any, is a category of offender who might be found in an institution for the criminally insane?
all of these
Which of the following has generally NOT been a response by correctional administrators who wish to advance prevention and precaution measures against the spread of HIV in prison?
What is the standard of care that prisons are responsible for providing to HIV-infected inmates?
community treatment standard
The geriatric population is increasing in American prisons. Which of the following is NOT a reason why this may be happening?
an increase in serious offenses committed by older inmates
There are several reasons why administrators are concerned about the rising geriatric population in prison. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
A person who mentally or physically abuses a child is called a:
The de-institutionalization movement occurred because of what development?
all of the above
The process of raising additional legal questions in other courts but before case disposition: