74 terms

Ch 7: Memory

Internal record or representation of some prior event or experience.
Constructive Process
Organizing and shaping of information during processing, storage, and retrieval of memories.
Processing information into the memory system
Retaining information over time
Recovering information from memory storage
Selective attention
Directs our attention to things we consider important
Divided attention
Interferes with our attention to things that are important
Automatic processing
Absorbing and encoding informoation with little or no conscious effort
Controlled processing
Concentrated attention and effort put toward learning information that may be difficult
Levels of processing
Degree or depth of mental processing occurring when material is initially encountered; determines how well material is later remembered
Serial position effect
Remembering words at the beginning (primacy effect) and end (recency effect) of a list
A prompt association we use to get information from memory
Identifying the correct response using cues to recover the information
A general cue to search and retrieve previously learning material
A retrieval cue that occurs when a prior exposure to a stimulus (or prime) activates the recover of related associations
Parallel distrubuted processing
Memory results from weblike connections among interacting processing units operating simultaneously, rather than sequentially (also known as the connectionist model)
Three stage memory model
From sensory memory storage to short term memory storage to long term memory storage (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968)
Sensory memory stage
Holds sensory information that lasts up to 1/2 sec visual, 4 sec for auditory, and has a large capacity
Short term memory stage
Holds information tmeporarily for analysis up to 30 seconds without rehearsal and has limited 5-9 item capacity
Long term memory stage
Relatively permanent storage with relatively permanent duration, and relatively unlimited capacity
Sensory memory
First memory stage that holds sensory information; Relatively large capacity, but duration is only a few seconds
Iconic memory
The visual icon or image.
Echoic memory
A weaker auditory sound that lasts up to 4 seconds.
Short term memory
Second memory stage that temporarily stores sensory informaiton and decides whether to send it on to long term memory; Capacity is limited to 5-9 items and duration is about 30 seconds
Maintenance rehearsal
Repeating information over and over to maintain it in short term memory
Grouping seperate pieces of informaiton into a single unit (or chunk)
Long term memory
Third stage of memory that stores information for long periods of time; its capacity is virtually limitless, and its duration is relatively permanent
Central executive
Supervises and coordinates material phonologically and visuospatially along with long term memory
Visuospatial sketchpad
Mentally imagines (holds and manipulates) visual and spatial material
Phonological loop
Rehearses through speech, words, numbers, and allows you to subvocally repeat verbal information
Explicit (declarative) memory
Subsystem within long term memory that consciously stores facts, informaiton, and personal life experiences
Semantic memory
Subsystem of explicit/declarative memory that stores general knowledge; a mental encyclopedia or dictionary
Episodic memory
Subsystem of explicit/declarative memory that stores memories of personally experienced events; a mental diary of a person's life
Implicit (nondeclarative) memory
Subsystem within long term memory consisting of unconscious procedural skills and simple classically conditioned responses
Elaborative rehearsal
Linking new information to previously stored material (also known as deeper levels of processing)
Serial position effect
Information at the beginning and end of a list is remembered better than material in the middle
Retrieval cue
Clue or prompt that helps stimulate recall or retrieval of a stored piece of information from long term memory
Retrieving a memory using a general cue
Retrieving a memory using a specific cue
Prior exposure to a stimulus (or prime) facilitates or inhibits the processing of new information, even when one has no conscious memory of the initial learning and storage
Encoding specificty principle
Retrieval of informaiton is improved when conditions of recovery are similar to the conditions when information was encoded
Mood congruence
People remember information better if their mood during learning and retrieval match
State dependant memory
When you learn something under the influence of a drug, it is more easily remembered when unter the influence of the same drug
Learning material a second time, which usually takes less time than the original learnign (also called the savings method)
Decay theory
Skills and memory deteriorate over time if not used
Interference theory
Retroactive occurs when something new interferes with something old; Proactive occurs when something old interferes with something new
Motivated forgetting theory
People forget unpleasant or anxiety producing information either consciously or unconsciously
Encoding failure theory
Sensory memory receives informaiton but doesn't remember precise details even though we have seen the information over and over
Rerieval failure theory
Memories aren't forgotten, but momentarily inaccessible becaues of emotional states, faulty cues, or interference
Retroactive interference
New information interferes with remembering old information; backward acting interference
Proactive interference
Old information interferes with remembering new information; forward acting interference
Tip of the tongue phenomenon (TOT)
Feeling that specific information is stored in long term memory but of being temporarily unable to retrieve it
Misinformation effect
Distortion of a memory by misleading post event information
Source amnesia
Forgetting the true source of a memory (also called source confusion or source misattribution)
Sleeper effect
Information from an unreliable source, which was initially discounted, later gains credibility because the source is forgotten
Distributed practice
Practice (or study) sessions are interspersed with rest periods
Massed practice
Time spent learning is grouped (or massed) into long, unbroken intervals (also known as cramming)
Long term potentiation
Long lasting increase in neural excitability, which maybe a bilogical mechanism for learning and memory
Flashbulb memories
Vivid images of circumstances associated with surprising or strongly emotioal events
Emotional memory is stored here
Basal ganglia and cerebellum
Creation and storage of the basic memory trace, encoding, and implicit (nondeclarative) memories are stored here
Cerebral cortex
Encoding of explicit (declarative) memories; storage of episodic and semantic memories; skill learning; priming, working memory are here
Hippocampal formation
Memory recognition; Implicit, explicit, spatial, episodic memory; delclarative long term memory; sequences of events are here
Formation of new memories, recognition, semantic, spatial, and working memory are here
Retrograde amnesia
Loss of memory for events before a brain injury; backward acting amnesia
Process by which neutral changes associated with recent learning become durable and stable
Anterograde amnesia
Inability to form new memories after a brain injury; forward acting amnesia
Alzheimer's disease
Progressive mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss
Mnemonic device
Memory improving technique based on encoding items in a special way
Method of Ioci
A method used by Greek and Romans to remember speeches, where they would imagine parts of the speech in certain places
Peg words
Memorizing a set of 'pegs' on which to hang images to remember them
Creating a code word where each letter represents a name of something to remember (HOMES: Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior)
Encoding storage and retrieval approach
Memory is a process starting with selecting information and translating it into neural messages the brain can understand. Then saving the files to search through later
Biological approach
Looking at biological changes in the synapses that occur during encoding and storage and at where memories are located when retrieval is required