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16) The Revolt of the Northern Earls 1569
Terms in this set (13)
Who were the Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland?
Leading Catholics in the far north of England, with lands bordering Scotland.
They strongly opposed Elizabeth's religious settlement
What were the aims of the northern Earls?
1) Restore the catholic faith
2) Restore the political power of the catholic nobility in the north and at court
3) Remove 'evil councillors' - Protestant advisors who were influencing Elizabeth away from the 'true faith'
What were the religious causes of the revolt of the northern Earls?
1) The rebels wanted to re establish Catholicism as the country's religion
2) At the start of the revolt, the Earls stormed into Durham cathedral and held a Catholic service
3) The Earls wanted to get rid of 'evil councillors' such as Cecil who they blamed for religious changes and their loss of political power
4) The rebels wore catholic badges and emblems
5) At he catholic rulers, Philip II of Spain and the pope, appeared willing to support the revolt
What were the political causes of the revolt of the northern Earls?
1) Elizabeth had weakened their powers in the north. The earl of Northumberland had lost an important position as warden of the middle march, defending the border against Scotland
2) The Earls had already taken part in a plan to marry marry queen of Scots to the duke of Norfolk, the most powerful noble in England. They hoped this would help Mary to become Elizabeth's successor. However, nobles loyal to Elizabeth (such as the earl of Leicester) had also been part of this plan because they hoped this marriage would force Elizabeth to name a successor. These loyal Nobles told Elizabeth about the plan
3) Government of the north of England was now carried out by the council of the north rather than the traditional nobility
4) The Earls wanted Mary to be recognised as Elizabeth's successor and for her imprisonment to end
What were the personal causes of the revolt of the northern Earls?
1) Elizabeth had taken land from these nobles. Northumberland had lost copper mines costing him money. Many were facing financial hardship
2) After Elizabeth found out about the Norfolk Plan she summoned the Earls to court. They feared prison or execution and may have thought their only option was to revolt
3) After the failure of the Norfolk plot, their more hot headed followers wanted the Earls to take action. Lady Westmorland encouraged her husband not to back down
What were strengths of the revolt that worried Elizabeth and her advisors?
1) The Earls ordered all their tenants and the workers on their lands to join their army and march south to end Elizabeth's rule and restore the catholic religion
2) Large numbers of men joined the Earls, putting their loyalty to their local lords before their loyalty to Elizabeth
3) The Earls in Durham and their men stormed into cathedrals and destroyed Protestant artefacts and then celebrated catholic mass in the traditional Latin
4) One rebel group captured the port of Hartlepool hoping that Spanish troops would land there and support them (but no foreign support was ever sent to the rebels)
What are reasons why the revolt failed?
1) The Earls had appealed to catholic nobles in Lancashire and Cheshire for help but these men stayed loyal to Elizabeth and refused to join the revolt
2) The royal army reached the River Tees and the rebels fled
3) Northumberland was handed over by the scots and beheaded
4) The queen moved Mary queen of Scots south to a prison nearer Coventry to prevent any rescue attempts.
5) Elizabeth's government had kept control of the major northern towns
6) The Earl of Sussex had assembled a huge royal army of 10,000 men
7) No foreign support was ever sent to the rebels
Was the revolt of the northern Earls a significant threat to Elizabeth? Points
1) Effective leadership
2) Mary, Queen of Scots
4) Foreign aid
5) British assistance
Was the revolt of the northern Earls a significant threat to Elizabeth? Effective leadership
1) The Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland were not brave or decisive leaders
2) The news that Sussex was moving towards them with a large royal army threw them into a panic and they retreated and then fled
Was the revolt of the northern Earls a significant threat to Elizabeth? Mary, Queen of Wcots
1) The rebels never seemed to be sure whether to overthrow Elizabeth and replace her with Mary queen of Scots or just to free Mary and have her named as Elizabeth's heir
2) When Elizabeth moved Mary to a new prison, the Earls realised they could not rescue her anyway
Was the revolt of the northern Earls a significant threat to Elizabeth? British assistance
1) Most of the support came from tenants of the two Earls who were expected to fight for their Lords
2) Appeals to the catholic nobility to join the revolt failed completely
3) Most English Catholics did not support the revolt
Was the revolt of the northern Earls a significant threat to Elizabeth? Foreign aid
1) Neither the French, the Spanish nor the pope supported the revolt
2) King Philip II of Spain did not want Mary to be queen of England because of her close links with France, Spain's enemy
Was the revolt of the northern Earls a significant threat to Elizabeth? Military
1) Elizabeth's government didn't panic and her officials in the north prevented the rebels from capturing important towns such as York
2) Elizabeth had no problem in raising a huge army to march north
3) Several hundred people were executed for taking part
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