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MICROBIOLOGY FINAL EXAM
Terms in this set (71)
List the 5 Maculopapular Rash Diseases
Name That Disease: Parvovirus B19 "Slapped-Cheek"
Name That Disease:Rubeola-Making a comeback due to lack of vaccination
Name That Disease- Maculopapular Virus Strongly Teratogenic
Name That Disease: Staph. Aureus or Strep. Pyogenes: Crusty, Flaky Scabs, Often Around The Mouth
Name That Disease: Staph Aureus: Split In Skin Occurs Within Epidermis
Staphlyococcal Scaled Skin Syndrome (SSSS)`
How Is Shingles Related To Chickenpox?
Both are caused Varicella Zoster Virus- A form of herpes.
Reactivation of the latent virus.
By 1977, After 11 Years of Intensive Effort, The Last Natural Case of This Disease Occurred.
Name the Causative Agent of True Warts
HPV- Human Papillomanvirus
Leishmaniasis- Bacteria, Virus, Protozoa, Fungus or Helminth
Ringworm- Bacteria, Virus, Protozoa, Fungus or Helminth
Conjunctivitis- Bacteria, Virus, Protozoa, Fungus or Helminth
Bacteria mainly but can also be a Virus
Keratitis- Bacteria, Virus, Protozoa, Fungus or Helminth
Virus mainly but can also be a Protozoa
Normal Flora Of The Nervous System?
No normal biota are in the CNS or PNS
True or False?- Meningitis Is Caused By One Specific Microorganism
How Is Neonatal Meningitis Transmitted?
It is transferred from mother to baby through direct contact in the birth canal.
Name That Disease: Virus; Two Vaccine Forms Exist- Salk (IPV) and Sabin (OPV)
Meningo-Encephalitis- Bacteria, Virus, Protozoa, Fungus or Helminth
West Nile Is An Example Of An______________, Which Causes ____________Encephalitis.
Name That Disease: Protozoa; Subacute Encephalitis; Can be Transmitted By Cats
Name 3 Diseases Caused By Prions
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)
Gerstmann-Strussler-Scheinker Disease (GSSD)
Fatal Familial Insomnia
Name That Disease: Virus; Transmitted By Animal Bite; Near 100% Fatality Rate
Name That Disease: Clostridium Sp.; "Lock-Jaw;" Powerful Neurotoxin
Name That Disease: Clostridium Sp.; Exotoxin; Endospores Can Survive Canning
What 2 Factors Mark The Progression From HIV to AIDS?
Decrease in T cells
Increased levels of the virus in the blood
a virus that uses reverse transcriptase to transcribe its' RNA into DNA
List 3 AIDS-Defining Illness
Portal of Entry through direct injection of virus into the body.
Differentiate Between Acute and Subacute Endocarditis
Acute Endocarditis- occurs in patients with no previous heart valve damage and most commonly is Staph. aureus.
Subacute Endocarditis- occurs in patients with previous heart valve damage and most commonly is Staph. viridans
Name That Disease: Yersenia Pestis; Bubo; Pneumonic; Bubonic; Still Exists Today
Name That Disease: Franciella Sp.; "Rabbit Fever;" One Of The Most Infectious Of All Bacteria
Name That Disease: Borrelia Burgdorferi; Transmitted by Ixodes Scapularis
Name That Disease: Epstein-Barr Virus; 90% Of The World Population is Infected.
Yellow, Dengue,Ebola, Marburg, And Lassa Are All Examples of _________.
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
Brucellosis, Q Fever, Cat-Scratch Disease and Rocky Mt. Spotted Fever Are All Caused By?
Non-Hemorrhagic Fever Diseases (bacteria)
Name That Disease: Sore Throat; Multiple Agents
Name That Disease: Approx. 200 Viruses; " Common Cold"
Name That Disease: Corynebacterium Exotoxin Pseudomembrane
Pneumonia- Bacteria, Virus, Protozoa, Fungus or Helminth
Bacteria, Virus & Fungus
Tell Me Everything You Know About Influenza
Caused by 3 Viral Types- Type A,B or C
Virus binds to ciliated cells
Hemagglutinin binds to host cells receptors
and Neuraminidase breaks down mucus in respiratory tracts.
Transmitted by droplet contact and indirect contact with fomites. Aided by crowds and poor ventilation. Drier air of winter increases the spread of the virus.
Mainly affects the very young and the very old.
It has Antigenic Shift and Drift
Often diagnosed based on symptoms alone
Rapid Influenza Test- PCR and ELISA provides results in 24 hrs. Viral Cultures provide results in3 to 10 days
Prevented by Killed ( anyone over 6 months old) and Live Attenuated Vaccines ( between ages 5 & 49)
2009 H1N1 prompted production of a new vaccine to target ion-channel proteins to possibly eliminate all strains.
Tell Me Everything You Know About Turberculosis
Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis an acid-fast bacterial disease.
Lipid Capsule is very protective, resistant to drying and disinfectants
Transmitted through air & droplet contact
Mummies from Stone Age, Ancient Egypt and Peru show evidence of TB.
1/3 of the world's population have been exposed to TB.
3 types of clinical TB: Primary TB, Secondary( reactivation/reinfection) TB & Disseminated TB.
In Primary TB, Tubercles cause dried areas of abscess in the lungs and other organs even the bones.
Testing includes TB Skin Test of PPD & Chest X-Rays. 48-72 hrs observed for induration.
Treatment using anti-TB drugs for 12-24 months. Common drugs are INH, RIF
It takes at least 6 months to kill all of TB in the body.
Active TB patients are isolated and anyone exposed is treated.
Atypical TB - Mycobacterium avium causes TB in AIDS patients.
Salmonella, Shigella, EHEC, Campylobacter, Yersenia, C. Dif & Vibrio Cholera Are All _____
Bacterial Acute Diarrhea
inflammation of the intestines causing Frequent passing of stools containing blood, mucus and pus. Cramps and pain accompany.
How Does Bacterial Food Poisoning Differ From Bacterial Acute Diarrhea?
Bacterial Food Poisoning is a sudden and violent reaction caused by pre-formed toxin in the food.
EAEC, Cyclospora, Giardia & Entamoeba Cause:
Differentiate Between Gingivitis and Periodontitis
Gingivitis is inflammation of the gums that is reversible, no bone loss and no loss of attachment. First stage includes swelling of gums, redness and bleeding.
Periodontitis is inflammation of the gums that is irreversible, has bone loss and loss of attachment. More severe form includes jawbone damage and teeth loss.
Nearly 100% Of The Population Has Some Degree Of ________ By Age 45
Causative Agent of Gastric Ulcers?
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)
Name That Disease: Most Common Worm Disease Of Children In Temperate Zones
Pinworm Disease- Enterobius vermicularis
This Infection Is The Most Common Nosocomial Infection
80% of UTI's Are Caused BY:
Name That Disease: Zoonosis; Transmitted Through Animal Urine; Affects the Kidneys.
Name That Disease: STI; Originally Thought To Be Caused By Excess Semen; Can Lead To PID
Name That Disease; STI; Most Common Reportable Infectious Disease In The US.
Differentiate Between Vaginitis and Vaginosis
Vaginitis is inflammation of the vagina
Vaginosis is a bacterial infection caused by the overgrowth of normal flora in the vagina.
The Most Common Cause of Vaginitis Is:
This Species Is Associated With Bacterial Vaginosis
Name That Disease: STI; Pear-Shaped Protozoa; Easily Treated But Reinfection Is Common
Name That Disease: Genital Ulcer Disease; Penicillin G; Made Tuskegee, AL Infamous.
Name That Disease: Genital Warts; Can Progress To Cervical Cancer; Gardisil
HPV ( Human papillomavirus)
Name That Disease: Poxvirus; Can Be An STI; Causes Wart-Like Growths
Name That Disease: Virus; Strong Tendency To Become Latent; Stress Triggers Reactivation
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) 1 or 2 ( Genital Herpes)
The Study of Microbes In Their Natural Habitats Is....
The Study Of Practical Uses Of Microbes In Water & Food Processing, Industrial Production & Biotechnology Is....
Excessive Richness of nutrients in a lake or body of water, due to frequent runoff from the land that causes dense growth of aquatic plant life and death of animal life from lack of oxygen.
Summarize The 3 Phases of Sewage Treatment
Primary Phase- Physical Separation of solid material, largely through settling.
Secondary Phase- Liquid portion of the waste is subjected to microbial decomposition that is largely aerobic.
Tertiary Phase- can be Chemical, physical or biological agents that removes additional inorganic substances such as ammonia, nitrate and phosphate.
What Is The Best Choice Of Indicator Bacteria For Fecal Contamination In Water Supplies?
Define: Fecal Coliforms
Gram-negative bacteria that live in human and animal intestines.
The Application Of Heat Below 100C To Destroy Nonresistant bacteria & yeasts in liquids is...
Tell Me Everything You Know About Malaria
Caused by protozoan Plasmodium sp.
Causes over 2 million deaths each year and has the same rank as bubonic plague, influenza and tuberculosis.
The most dominant protozoan disease and threatens 40% of the world's population.
4 species infect humans.
Transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito.
Humans are the primary host.
Life cycle has two phases: asexual and sexual phases
Asexual: carried out in humans
Sexual: carried out in the mosquito
Flu-like Symptoms with chills and fever.
Symptoms occur at 48 or 72 hour intervals.
Interval, length and regularity of symptoms reflect the type of malaria.
Falciparum malaria is the worst- causing persistent fever, cough and weakness for weeks without relief.
Diagnosis involves discovery of typical stage of Plasmodium in stained blood smears.
Treatment includes anti-malarial drugs Quinine & Artemisinin.
Prevention includes long-term mosquito abatement and human chemoprophylaxis.
Bed nets and screens, elimination of standing water and spraying of insecticides.
Tell Me Everything You Know About HIV/AIDS
Caused a viral disease HIV 1 or 2.
Originally found nonhuman primates and documented in the US in 1969.
Over 36 million people have died since the beginning of the epidemic.
3 Phases of HIV Infection
Structure of HIV: 2 single strands of RNA, Enveloped with Spikes, Carries 3 enzymes (reverse transcriptase, integrase and protease).
AIDS occurs when T4 lymphocyte count drops to low level and secondary infectious diseases and cancer are the result.
Kaposi's Sarcoma are blood vessels tumor seen in AIDS patients as dark purple areas.
Transmission is through sexual contact, dirty needle, blood transfusion and from mother to baby.
Globally, heterosexual sex is the most common mode of transmission.
Prevention includes abstinence, sex with only one uninfected partner and proper use of condoms.
HIV tests test for the presence of antibodies and not the virus itself. Antibodies develop within 2-8 weeks of infection but it can take 3-6 months.
Treatments include drug therapy (HAART) and vaccines.
Diffculties in Vaccines development : HIV viruses locally and globally are genetically different.
No vaccine is 100% effect and only provides short-term protection.
Concerns that vaccine may increase the chances of getting the disease or even causing the disease.
There is no ideal animal model for testing besides humans.
Delta 32 mutation- few individuals are born with a mutation that affects the CD4 receptor of macrophages and lymphocytes. They have a receptor that HIV can't attach too. Therefore that can not contract any form of HIV disease.
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