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60 terms

Medical Lab Procedures

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coccus
a spherical or oval shaped bacterium
pure culture
a culture that is grown from a single colony of bacteria, which is taken from a direct culture
oxidase test
the lab test in which oxidase reagent is added to a colony of suspected Niesseria gonorrhoeae to confirm the presence of this organism
spiral bacteria
bacteria that is cork-screw in shape, syphilis and Lyme disease are caused by this shape of organism
bacitracin
an antibiotic used in cultures to give an early indication of the presence of Group A strep
direct culture
a primary culture; a culture grown by inoculating patient specimens directly into the culture medium
fastidious bacterium
a bacterium that has very precise nutritional and environmental requirements for growth
bacillus
a rod-shaped bacerium
fungus
belonging to the plant family but does not contain chlorophyll
catalase test
the lab test in which hydrogen peroxide is added to urine cultures to distinguish strep from staph infections
coagulase test
the lab test that demonstrates the presence of an enzyme produced by pathogenic staph organisms
protozoan
a single-celled animal
Gram stain
the most commonly used stain for bacterial smears
gram negative
bacteria that stain pink or red with Gram staining technique
helminth
a true worm
double-voided specimen
two specimens collected with in a specific time interval, usually thirty minutes, to compare the concentration of particular substances
urinary casts
microscopic solid molds formed from protein precipitates in the renal tubules and voided in the urine.
perineum
the outside are of the body immediately surrounding the rectum and urethra
24 hour specimen
the total urine output of a patient for twenty-four hour period; usually collected by the patient at home and often used for quantitative analysis
random specimen
a urine specimen that is taken at any time of day or night, usually during a visit to the physician's office
glucose-tolerance test (GTT)
a test of the ability to metabolized glucose, in which the patient is tested for blood and urine glucose at short intervals after consuming a known quantity of glucose in solution
Urinary catheterization
the process of inserting a tube thought the urethra into the urinary bladder to obtain a urine specimen
myoglobinuria
the presence of myoglobin in the urine
ketonuria
the presence of keytones in the urine
galactose
a simple sugar formed from the breakdown of lactose (milk sugar)
bilirubinemia
a high level of bilrubin in the blood
reduction test
also called Benedict's test. It test for simple sugars, such as lactose, galactose, fructose, and pentose, in the urine, not just for glucose
urobilinogenuria
excess urobilinogen in the urine
Bence Jones protein
an abnormal protein found in patients with multiple myeloma and other conditions
ascorbic acid
vitamin C
jaundice
yellow of the eyes and skin caused by excess bilirubin in the blood
fatty cast
renal cast that contains fat droplets because of chronic renal disease
spermatozoan
the male gamete that fertilizes the female egg. seen in urine, it has an expanded head and a long whiplike tail and appears black
desquamation
the shedding of layers of cells or skin
crenated
shrunken; usually sued to refer to shrunken RBC, which appear small and scalloped around the edges
prostatitis
inflammation of the prostate
lymphocyte
a nongranular white blood cell with a single nucleus
neutrophil
the most commonly found type of white blood cell in urine sediment
urine sediment
the solid material that settles to the bottom of urine when it stands or is centrifuged
hyaline cast
the most common type of renal cast
hypotonic urine
urine with a specific gravity of 1.003 or less (diluted).
supravital stain
dye added to cells while they are living
cylindruria
the condition characterized by large numbers of casts in the urine
renal cast
the tube-shaped element in urine sediment, formed in the tubules of the kidney by the deposition of protien
phase microscopy
the type of microscopy in which difference in the refractive index are translated into difference in brightness
leukocyte
a white blood cell
erythrocyte
a red blood cell
balanitis
inflammation of the glands penis
waxy cast
the renal cast that is yellowish, with irregular broken ends.
granular cast
fine- or coarse-grained dark renal cast that has degenerated from a hyaline or waxy cast.
PH
measure of how acidic or basic a solution is; the scale ranges from below 0 to above 14; solution with pH above 7 is basic and a pH below 7 is acidic
Glucose
The body's blood sugar; a simple form of carbohydrate
Protein
A class of nutrients that builds body tissue and supplies energy. Protein is made up of amino acids. Referred to onlyin the singular, protein
Ketone
an intermediary product of fat metabolism.
Bilirubin
a product of the breakdown of red blood cells.
Urobilinogen
a derivative of bilirubin formed by the action of interstinal bacteria
Nitrate
any compound containing the nitrate group (such as a salt or ester of nitric acid)
Leukocyte Esterase
detects esterase- enzyme released by white blood cells when significant numbers of these cells are present in fluid
Specific Gravity
the density of a substance relative to the density of water
Phenylketonuria
Defective phenylalanine hydroxylase. Results in mental retardation, epilepsy, brain calcification, mousy smelling urine, etc. if untreated. Treated with phenylalanine restricted, tyrosine supplemented diet.