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Final Review


a spherical or oval shaped bacterium

pure culture

a culture that is grown from a single colony of bacteria, which is taken from a direct culture

oxidase test

the lab test in which oxidase reagent is added to a colony of suspected Niesseria gonorrhoeae to confirm the presence of this organism

spiral bacteria

bacteria that is cork-screw in shape, syphilis and Lyme disease are caused by this shape of organism


an antibiotic used in cultures to give an early indication of the presence of Group A strep

direct culture

a primary culture; a culture grown by inoculating patient specimens directly into the culture medium

fastidious bacterium

a bacterium that has very precise nutritional and environmental requirements for growth


a rod-shaped bacerium


belonging to the plant family but does not contain chlorophyll

catalase test

the lab test in which hydrogen peroxide is added to urine cultures to distinguish strep from staph infections

coagulase test

the lab test that demonstrates the presence of an enzyme produced by pathogenic staph organisms


a single-celled animal

Gram stain

the most commonly used stain for bacterial smears

gram negative

bacteria that stain pink or red with Gram staining technique


a true worm

double-voided specimen

two specimens collected with in a specific time interval, usually thirty minutes, to compare the concentration of particular substances

urinary casts

microscopic solid molds formed from protein precipitates in the renal tubules and voided in the urine.


the outside are of the body immediately surrounding the rectum and urethra

24 hour specimen

the total urine output of a patient for twenty-four hour period; usually collected by the patient at home and often used for quantitative analysis

random specimen

a urine specimen that is taken at any time of day or night, usually during a visit to the physician's office

glucose-tolerance test (GTT)

a test of the ability to metabolized glucose, in which the patient is tested for blood and urine glucose at short intervals after consuming a known quantity of glucose in solution

Urinary catheterization

the process of inserting a tube thought the urethra into the urinary bladder to obtain a urine specimen


the presence of myoglobin in the urine


the presence of keytones in the urine


a simple sugar formed from the breakdown of lactose (milk sugar)


a high level of bilrubin in the blood

reduction test

also called Benedict's test. It test for simple sugars, such as lactose, galactose, fructose, and pentose, in the urine, not just for glucose


excess urobilinogen in the urine

Bence Jones protein

an abnormal protein found in patients with multiple myeloma and other conditions

ascorbic acid

vitamin C


yellow of the eyes and skin caused by excess bilirubin in the blood

fatty cast

renal cast that contains fat droplets because of chronic renal disease


the male gamete that fertilizes the female egg. seen in urine, it has an expanded head and a long whiplike tail and appears black


the shedding of layers of cells or skin


shrunken; usually sued to refer to shrunken RBC, which appear small and scalloped around the edges


inflammation of the prostate


a nongranular white blood cell with a single nucleus


the most commonly found type of white blood cell in urine sediment

urine sediment

the solid material that settles to the bottom of urine when it stands or is centrifuged

hyaline cast

the most common type of renal cast

hypotonic urine

urine with a specific gravity of 1.003 or less (diluted).

supravital stain

dye added to cells while they are living


the condition characterized by large numbers of casts in the urine

renal cast

the tube-shaped element in urine sediment, formed in the tubules of the kidney by the deposition of protien

phase microscopy

the type of microscopy in which difference in the refractive index are translated into difference in brightness


a white blood cell


a red blood cell


inflammation of the glands penis

waxy cast

the renal cast that is yellowish, with irregular broken ends.

granular cast

fine- or coarse-grained dark renal cast that has degenerated from a hyaline or waxy cast.


measure of how acidic or basic a solution is; the scale ranges from below 0 to above 14; solution with pH above 7 is basic and a pH below 7 is acidic


The body's blood sugar; a simple form of carbohydrate


A class of nutrients that builds body tissue and supplies energy. Protein is made up of amino acids. Referred to onlyin the singular, protein


an intermediary product of fat metabolism.


a product of the breakdown of red blood cells.


a derivative of bilirubin formed by the action of interstinal bacteria


any compound containing the nitrate group (such as a salt or ester of nitric acid)

Leukocyte Esterase

detects esterase- enzyme released by white blood cells when significant numbers of these cells are present in fluid

Specific Gravity

the density of a substance relative to the density of water


Defective phenylalanine hydroxylase. Results in mental retardation, epilepsy, brain calcification, mousy smelling urine, etc. if untreated. Treated with phenylalanine restricted, tyrosine supplemented diet.

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