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the term for the study of the heart

pericardium, myocardium, endocardium

the three main layers of the heart


the part of the pericardium that is composed of inelastic, dense irregular connective tissue prevents overstretching of the heart, provides protection, and anchors heart to mediastinum and diaphragm


the part of the pericardium that is thinner, more delicate. It forms a double layer around the heart and has lubricating pericardial fluid.


the muscle part of the heart


the "entry halls" of the heart


the "little bellies" of the heart


the part of the heart that aids the atria in holding more blood


veins carry blood ______ the heart

away from

arteries carry blood _______ the heart


which side of the myocardial is thicker?


the valve that separates the left atrium and the left ventricle


the valve that separates the righ atrium and the right ventricle


systemic circulation moves blood throughout the _____


pulmonary circulation moves blood throughout the _____

R atrium > R ventricle > Pulmonary trunk/arteries > lungs > Pulmonary veins > Left atrium > L ventricle > aorta > body > vena cava > repeat

The order of blood flow


the type of circulation that supplies the heart with nutrients and removes waste

desmosomes, gap

what two types of junctions are prevalent in cardiac muscle?

SA Node > AV Node > AV Bundle > Bundle Branches > Purkinje Fibers

the path of the action potential in the heart


what device detects electrical currents generated by the heart?

cardiac cycle

a complete heart beat consisting of systole and diastole of both atria and ventricles

CO = SV x HR

what is the cardiac output equation?


The Frank Starling Law of the Heart states that the more the heart fills with blood during diastole, the ______ the force of contraction during systole

increased preload, increased contractility, decreases afterload

what are the three factors involved in regulation stroke volume?

cardiovascular center of medulla oblongata

what controls the heart?

age, gender, fitness, temperature

what factors affect heart rate?

fluid balance, lipid absorption, defense

what are the three main functions of the lymphatic system?

red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes

what are the main organs involved in the lymphantic system?


the head and upper right portion of the body is drained by the ___ duct


the upper left portion and bottom portion is drained by the _____ duct

white pulp

this part of the spleen consists of lymphatic tissue. It functions to allow B and T cells to carry out immune functions and spleen macrophages destroy blood-borne pathogens

red pulp

this part of the spleen consists of venous sinuses and splenic cords. It functions to remove worn out or defective blood cells, store platelets, hemopoiesis


In the lymphatic system, the skin and mucous membranes form the ____ line of defense in nonspecific resistance


In the lymphatic system, antimicrobial proteins, NT killer cells, phagocytes, and other internal defenses form the ____ line of defense in nonspecific resistance

cell mediated

the type of specific resistance that is effective against intracellular pathogens, some cancer cells, foreign tissue. Antigens activate T cells to attack threat.


the type of specific resistance that involves extracellular pathogens. Marks things as "non-self". Free floating antibodies attach to microbes to prevent them from attaching to the cell and mark it for destruction

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