36 terms

BIO 221 Exam 4 Part 2

the term for the study of the heart
pericardium, myocardium, endocardium
the three main layers of the heart
the part of the pericardium that is composed of inelastic, dense irregular connective tissue prevents overstretching of the heart, provides protection, and anchors heart to mediastinum and diaphragm
the part of the pericardium that is thinner, more delicate. It forms a double layer around the heart and has lubricating pericardial fluid.
the muscle part of the heart
the "entry halls" of the heart
the "little bellies" of the heart
the part of the heart that aids the atria in holding more blood
veins carry blood ______ the heart
away from
arteries carry blood _______ the heart
which side of the myocardial is thicker?
the valve that separates the left atrium and the left ventricle
the valve that separates the righ atrium and the right ventricle
systemic circulation moves blood throughout the _____
pulmonary circulation moves blood throughout the _____
R atrium > R ventricle > Pulmonary trunk/arteries > lungs > Pulmonary veins > Left atrium > L ventricle > aorta > body > vena cava > repeat
The order of blood flow
the type of circulation that supplies the heart with nutrients and removes waste
desmosomes, gap
what two types of junctions are prevalent in cardiac muscle?
SA Node > AV Node > AV Bundle > Bundle Branches > Purkinje Fibers
the path of the action potential in the heart
what device detects electrical currents generated by the heart?
cardiac cycle
a complete heart beat consisting of systole and diastole of both atria and ventricles
CO = SV x HR
what is the cardiac output equation?
The Frank Starling Law of the Heart states that the more the heart fills with blood during diastole, the ______ the force of contraction during systole
increased preload, increased contractility, decreases afterload
what are the three factors involved in regulation stroke volume?
cardiovascular center of medulla oblongata
what controls the heart?
age, gender, fitness, temperature
what factors affect heart rate?
fluid balance, lipid absorption, defense
what are the three main functions of the lymphatic system?
red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes
what are the main organs involved in the lymphantic system?
the head and upper right portion of the body is drained by the ___ duct
the upper left portion and bottom portion is drained by the _____ duct
white pulp
this part of the spleen consists of lymphatic tissue. It functions to allow B and T cells to carry out immune functions and spleen macrophages destroy blood-borne pathogens
red pulp
this part of the spleen consists of venous sinuses and splenic cords. It functions to remove worn out or defective blood cells, store platelets, hemopoiesis
In the lymphatic system, the skin and mucous membranes form the ____ line of defense in nonspecific resistance
In the lymphatic system, antimicrobial proteins, NT killer cells, phagocytes, and other internal defenses form the ____ line of defense in nonspecific resistance
cell mediated
the type of specific resistance that is effective against intracellular pathogens, some cancer cells, foreign tissue. Antigens activate T cells to attack threat.
the type of specific resistance that involves extracellular pathogens. Marks things as "non-self". Free floating antibodies attach to microbes to prevent them from attaching to the cell and mark it for destruction