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requires natural interactions, students will pick up grammar rules naturally by being immersed in L2 , need to interact with language w/o worrying about being corrected


says that children are born with a knowledge of the principles of the grammatical structure of all languages, and this inborn knowledge explains the success and speed with which they learn language


we are predisposed to learn language; language is a human instinct (disciple of Chompsky)


language is part of class and people use certain codes when speaking


created the term of ebonics

Rossel and Baker

students of different L1s together; teachers use English and aida to focus on content rather than language


children think before they speak; speaking just reflects this thinking; language is a way for children to represent their world


there is a connection between society, culture and language


early exit bilingual; some initial instruction in L1, primarily for reading but also for clarification, instructions in L1 are phased out rapidly


Transitional bilingual: initially instruction is 90% L1 then shifts towards English


we are predisposed to learn language; language is a human instinct


Late exit bilingual: students continue to have 40% of instruction in L1 even after classified fluent in English


language is part of class and people use certain codes when speaking


created the term of ebonics, African American English has its own rules and should be respected


Cognitive, Academic Learning Model -Like SIOP because both target the big content, but CALLA is less detailed, not as specific as SIOP model


Common Underlying Proficiency (Cummins) An ELL learner has knowledge of an academic concept in the first language quickly grasps the concept when it is introduced in English


the connections among language, nationality, and personal identity; language will live as long as it is socially used, involved with language revival

comprehensible input

make content comprehensible while building language

alphabetic principles

letters making a word have corresponding sounds, letters and sounds can be placed together to build words


understanding the social use of language, cultural, understanding the message, social use


specific language for specific content, a style
ie teachers talk about IEP's non teachers may not understand






relatively permanent incorporation of incorrect linguistic forms into a person's second language competence. Could be the result of too many green lights when there should have been correction.

inflectional suffixes

an inflection that is added at the end of a root word

register variation

the change in language based on where the communication is happening, how the communication is taking place, who is talking to whom, and about what topic: Who , What, Where and How

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