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Endocrine Outline and Review

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what is the endocrine system
collection of glands that produce hormones
what are glands
group of cells that produces and secretes chemicals
which gland is the control center for all regulatory activities of the body
hypothalamus
what are pituitary glands
master gland, makes hormones that control several other endocrine glands
which gland produces homrones that can be influenced by factors such as emotions and changes in the seasons
pituitary gland
what are endorphins
chemicals that act on the nervous system and reduce feelings of pain
which gland produces hormones that control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to produce energy
thyroid
4 tiny glands that functioni together and release hormones that regulates the level of calcium
parathyroid
what does calcitonin do
helps regulate calcium in the bones
what is the outer part of the adrenal gland
adrenal cortex
what is the inner part of the adrenal gland
adrenal medulla
adrenal cortex produces what hormone
corticosteroids
adrenal medulla produces what hormone
adrenaline
what does the hormone adrenaline do
increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body experiences stress
which gland secretes melatonin
pineal body
what does melatonin do
helps regulate when you sleep at night and when you wake in the morning
what hormone does reproductive glands produce for males?
testosterone
what hormonde does reproductive glands produce for females
estrogen
what produces digestive enzymes
pancreas
what 2 hormones does the pancreas produce
insulin and glucagon
what do insulin and glucagon do
maintain a steady level of glucose in the blood and keep the body supplied with fuel to produce and maintain stores of energy
what is hyperthyroidism
conditioni in which levels of thyroid hormones in the blood are very high
what is hypothyroidism
condition in which levels of thyroid hormones in the blood are very low
synergist
an agent or process that aids in the process of another
Langerhans
a cluster of endocrine cells in the pancreas
graves disease
hyperthyroidism with a toxic goiter
hypercalcemia
excessive calcium in the blood
pineal
pertaining to the pineal gland
Addison disease
adrenal gland insufficiency
diabetes mellitus
deficiency or ineffectiveness of insulin
adrenal virilism
hypersecretions of androgens
pituitary dwarfism
under production of growth hormone
corticoid
steriodal hormone produced by the adrenal cortex
oxytocin
pituitary hormone that stimulates uterus to contract
gigantism
abnormal height and size of entire body
hypothyroidism
deficiency in the production of thyroid hormone
prolactin
hormone for milk production
acromegaly
enlargement of hands, face and feet of an adult
androgen
hormone that produces masculine characteristics
hirsutism
excessive body and facial hair in females
aldosteronism
excessive thirst and urination
another name for aldosteronism
Conn
DHEA is a
precursor to testosterone
Cushing Syndrome
hyperexcretion of cortisol
symptom of Cushing Syndrome
Moon face appearance
glycosylated
linked to glucose
cretinism
a congenital form of thyroid deficiency
gestational diabetes
diabetes that occurs during pregnancy
SAD stands for
seasonal affective disorder
SAD is
disorder of depression that occurs every year
exophthalmos
protrusion of the eyeball
euthyroid
normal thyroid function
benign
non life threatening
thymoma
benign tumor of the thymus
HbA1c test
determines amount of glucose in the blood
coma
deep unconsciousness
polydipsia
excessive thirst
thyroxine
T 4
hyperparathyroidism
excess release of parathyroid hormone
P.O.
by mouth
normal value of HbA1c
less then 6%
DHEA stands for
dehydroepiandrosterone
the only hormone that lowers blood glucose is
insulin
the speed at which the body's chemical functions proceed is called
metabolic rate
a congenital form of thyroid deficiency that severly retards mental and physical growth is
cretinism
tetany is
a painful muscle spasm
another name for epinephrine is
adrenalin
this term can be used to describe the location of the adrenal gland
suprarenal
hypophysis is the term for the
pituitary gland
condition of forward-projecting jaw is called
prognathism
blood glucose less than 70mg
hypoglycemia
excessive eating
polyphagia
chemical formed that indicates diabetes or possible malnutrition
ketone
hormone secreted by pancreas
insulin
endocrine cells that form around blood vessels
islets of langerhans
found on the upper pole of each kidney
adrenal gland
initiates fight or flight response
catecholamine
genetic immunodeficiency disorder
Digeorge syndrome
underproduction of the growth hormone
pituitary dwarfism
the pancreas cells are
alpha, beta and delta
alpha cells secrete
glucagon
glucagon responds to what
a low blood glucose
beta cells secrete this in respone to what
insulin to a high blood glucose
delta cells secrete
somatostatin
somatostatin does what
inhibits the secretion of glucagon and insulin
list where endocrine cells are
upper GI, kidney, fat and in tissues
cells in upper GI secrete
gastrin and cholecystokinin
gastrin and cholecystokinin do what
contracts the gallbladder
cells in the kidney secrete
erythropoietin
fat cells secrete
leptin
leptin does what
suppresses appetite
cells in tissues secrete what
prostaglandins
prostaglandins do what
dilate blood vessels, relax airways, lower acid secretion and uterine contractions
funtions of the thyroid are
stimulates almost every tissue to produce protein, increase the amount of oxygen that cells use, controls the speed at which the body's chemical functions proceed (metabolic)
adrenal cortex secretes
more than 25 steroid hormones
the 3 groups of corticosteroids are
glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and sex steroids
a specifac glucocorticoids is
hydrocortisone
a specifac mineralocorticoids is
aldosterone
a specifac sex steroid in females
estradiol
a specifac sex steroid in males is, group name and converted to what
DHEA, group is androgens and converted to testosterone
Addison's disease defined is
an idiopathic atrophy of the adrenal cortex by diminished production of 3 groups of steroids
another name for adrenal virilism is
adrenogenital syndrome
what is peyochromocytoma
tumor of the adrenal medulla that over produces catecholamines
explain general adaption syndrome
fight or flight
4 stages of fight or flight
alarm, f or f, exhaustion, return to normal
corticoid is aka
costeroid