146 terms

COMM 1000 Key Terms

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Abstract
Words are not concrete or tangible items; they are only representations
Accent
Nonverbal behaviors that augment a verbal message
Acceptance
Third step of the persuasion process in which the audience accepts that the issue is relevant to them
Alliteration
Repeating the same consonant or vowel sound at the beginning of subsequent words
Ambiguous
Language that does not have precise, concrete meanings
Antithesis
When two ideas that sharply contrast with one another are put side-by-side in a parallel structure
Arbitrary
Symbols used to represent things that are not intrinsically connected to those things
Archetypal metaphors
Metaphors that use common human experiences to describe another object
Articulation
Physically producing the sound needed to convey the word
Artistic Proof
Constructed by the speaker for the occasion; concerns ethos, pathos, and logos
Autocratic leadership
Style of leadership in which a leader tells group members what they should do
Awareness
First stage of the persuasion process in which you focus the audience's attention on the issue and show why the issue is important
Bar graph
Graph that shows two axes and bars going either horizontally or vertically to represent total achievement
Bias
An unfair preference or distortion of information
Bookend group presentation
Group presentation in which the first speaker is also the last speaker, providing both the introduction and conclusion for the group
Bookend story
A narrative in which the speaker tells the first part of a story as an attention getter in the introduction of their speech and then finishes the story in the closer at the end of the conclusion
Boolean operators
Using words such as "and," "but," and "or" when typing in search terms to focus the results
Brainstorm
To create a list of possible topics and keep adding to this list as you think of new ideas
Brief example
An example that makes a very quick point and can be effective at any point in a speech
Categorical syllogism
Syllogism in which the argument is based on membership in a group
Channel
Media through which an encoded message is transmitted from a source to a receiver
Chart
Visual depictions of summaries of numeric data
Clincher
The final statement of your speech
Communication apprehension
The fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication with another or others
Complement
When the action demonstrates the message contained in the verbal content
Comprehension
Stage of the persuasion process in which the audience understands the relevant components of the issue and the position that you want them to take
Concept map
A visual representation of the potential areas that you could cover in your speech (aka Mind Map)
Conditional syllogism
Syllogism in which the major premise contains a hypothetical condition and its outcome
Coordination
All information on the same level has the same significance
Credibility
The ability of a person to inspire belief or trust in others
Dias
Table at which people sit in the front of the room
Decoding
Process of drawing meaning form the symbols that were used to encode a message
Deductive reasoning
Argument that reasons from known premises to an inevitable conclusion
Democratic leadership
Style of leadership in which a leader finds a balanced emphasis on task and maintenance dimensions in a group
Demographics
Categories of definable characteristics of groups of people, such as age, race, religion, socioeconomic dimensions in a group
Derived credibility
Form of credibility that manifests itself during your presentation
Disjunctive syllogism
Syllogism in which the major premise includes two or more mutually exclusive alternatives
Division
Principle that if a point is divided into subpoints, there must be two or more subpoints
Encoding
Taking an abstract notion and providing it with meaning through the application of symbols
Environment
The context in which the communication process takes place
Ethics
Involve morals and the specific moral choices to be made by a person
Ethos
Credibility of the speaker
Eulogy
Speech that often pays tribute to the life of the deceased
Expert testimony
Testimony from someone who has conducted extensive research on the topic, has significant experience with the topic, or holds a position that lends credibility to their ideas on the subject matter
Extemporaneous speech
Speech delivered with notes but without entire speech in front of the speaker
Extended example
Example that takes time, and the importance lies in the details
Feedback
The receiver's response to a message that is sent to the sender
Figurative analogy
When the two cases being compared are from completely different classifications
General purpose statement
Brief statement representing what you aim to do with the speech; there are three types
Global plagiarism
Taking an entire piece of work and saying that it's your own
Graph
Type of chart that illustrates numeric data by using a visual diagram
Hate speech
Attacking a person or group of people based upon their gender, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, social actions, or any other category that indicates applications of a negative, unwarranted stereotype
Hierarchical
Language that is structured according to more or less, higher or lower
Histogram
Visual representation of a frequency table in which the categories are placed on the horizontal axis and vertical bars are used to represent the number (or frequency) of individuals that fit into that category
Hypothetical example
Example that is fictional
Impromptu speech
Presentation done with little or no preparation
Inartistic proofs
All the evidence, data, and documents that exist outside of the speaker and the audience, but nevertheless can aid in persuasion
Incremental plagiarism
Using part of someone else's work and not citing it as a source
Inductive reasoning
Argument that comes to a probable, instead of an absolute, conclusion
Initial credibility
Credibility that you have with the audience before you begin your speech that is based on your experience and the audience's prior knowledge about you
Integration
Fourth step of the persuasive process in which the audience adopts the position that you want them to take
Interactive model of communication
Communication theory that views communication as a two-way process that includes feedback and the environment
Internal summary
Statement that summarizes what you have already covered and precedes transitions serves as an outline of what is to come next in a speech and is often combined with transition statements
Internal preview
Serves as an outline of what is to come next in a speech and is often combined with transition statements
Issue awareness
First stage of the persuasion process, in which you focus the audience's attention on the issue and show why the issue is important
Laissez-faire leadership
Style of leadership in which the leader provides little direction on the task and makes little effort to develop or maintain relationships between group members
Leader-as-completer approach
Leadership approach in which the leader is the person is the person who is responsible for completing tasks that are not finished or undertaken by other group members
Lectern
The stand behind which people speak and on which they place their notes
Linear model of communication
Theory that views communication as a one-way process in which a source conveys an encoded message through a channel to a receiver, who then decodes that message
Line graph
Graph that uses lines drawn along two axes that show growth, loss, or flat developments over time
Literal analogy
When the two cases being compared are classified in the same way
Logos
The logical dimension of the appeal
Manuscript speech
When a speaker has an entire speech written out word-for-word in front of them as they speak
Mean
The average of all of the scores in a distribution, which is calculated by adding all of the scores and then dividing by the total number of scores
Measures of central tendency
Statistics that indicate where the middle of a distribution lies, including the mean, median, and mode
Median
The middle number in a distribution of numbers
Memorized speech
When a speaker commits an entire speech to memory and delivers it with no notes in front of them
Message
The content or idea that the source tries to convey to the audience
Metaphor
Linguistic device that allows for comparisons between two objects by highlighting qualities of each object in explicit comparison
Metonymy
Using a tangible object to represent an otherwise intangible thing
Mixed metaphor
Metaphors that compare two objects that have no logical connection with each other
Mode
The score that appears most often in a distribution of numbers
Model
Three-dimensional representation of an actual object
Moderator
Person who acts as the coordinator of the discussion flow and ensures a civil, organized, and complete delivery of information to the audience
Narrative
A story
Necessary cause
Cause that must be present for an effect to happen
Noise
Anything that can change the message after the source encodes and sends it
Object
The thing being discussed, not a model or representation of that thing
Panel group presentation
Group presentation in which individual speakers present their ideas on a single topic or a subset of a topic
Parallelism
Similarly structuring related words, phrases, or clauses of speech
Patchworking
Speaker or writer takes original source material and changes a few words in it, but not enough to consider it a paraphrase, all the while not citing the original source material
Patchwork plagiarism
Taking ideas from more than one piece of work and putting them together into a new piece of work, and then presenting them as original work without giving due credit to the sources
Pathos
The emotional dimensions of the appeal that can influence an audience's disposition toward the topic, speaker, or occasion
Peer testimony
Testimony from someone who is in the same peer group as the audience but who is not necessarily an expert on the topic
Phobias
A persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a compelling desire to avoid
Physical delivery
Elements of speaking that deal with the body
Physical location
The immediate environment in which the speaker will be speaking
Photograph
Picture of the object about which you are speaking
Pie graph
Graph that shows circles that are "sliced" apart to represent percentages of the total "pie" for particular groups or categories
Plagiarism
Taking the intellectual achievements of another person and presenting them as one's own
Podium
A raised platform on which the speaker stands
Profanity
Language which is vulgar and irreverent
Pronunciation
The accepted standard of how a word sounds when spokes
Question of fact
When a speaker seeks to persuade people about how to interpret facts
Question of policy
When a speaker takes a position on whether an action should or should not be taken
Question of value
Persuasive speech about the rightness or wrongness of an idea, action, or issue
Real example
An example that is factual
Reasoning by analogy
When you compare two similar cases to argue that what is true in one case is also true in the other
Reasoning by cause
Arguments that claim one event or factor produces an an effect
Reasoning by example
Process of inferring general conclusions and making general claims from specific cases
Reasoning by sign
Occurs when the presence of one thing indicates the presence of another
Receiver
The person or audience that a message is being transmitted to
Refutation
Response to potential opposition to your argument
Repeat
When physical actions restate verbal messages
Repetition
Repeating words and phrases
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Convincing yourself that something is going to happen before it does, thus leading to the occurrence of what you originally expected
Signposts
Key words that signal to the audience that you are moving from one part of the speech to another
Simile
Linguistic device that compares two things through the use of "like" or "as"
Source
The person responsible for inventing the idea on which they intend to speak and crafting that idea to an audience
Speaking tool
Devices that assist speakers, such as microphones, podiums, lecterns, and lighting
Specific purpose statement
A narrower version of the general purpose statement that identifies what you will talk about, what you will say about it, and what you hope the audience will take away from the speech
Standard deviation
Measure of variability that indicates how spread apart the numbers in a distribution are
Statistics
Numbers that summarize and organize sets of numbers to make them easier to understand or visualize
Subordination
Process of creating a hierarchy of ideas in which the most general ideas appear first, followed by more specific ideas
Substitute
Physical actions that take the place of verbal messages
Sufficient cause
A cause that can produce the effect in question
Synecdoche
Using one part of something to represent the whole thing
Systematic desensitization
The process in which people are slowly introduced to their fear so that each time they overcome the fear the intensity is decrased
Terminal credibility
The level of credibility that you have when your speech concludes and that is the sum of your initial credibility and derived credibility
Testimony
Using the words of other people as evidence
Thesis
A carefully worded one-sentence encapsulation of exactly what you will cover in your speech
Transactional model of communication
The theory that views communication as a constant process in which all parties simultaneously play the roles of sender and receiver
Transition
Connective statements that signal you are finished with one point and moving on to another
Verbal delivery
Elements of speaking that deal with voice
Vital function approach
Leadership approach that calls upon group leaders to perform tasks others in the group either cannot or are not qualified to perform
Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP)
Allows for voice and images to be sent live over the Web to another person
Ad Hominem
Attacking the opposing person's character instead of their argument
Ad Vericundium
Appeal to authority; Positional authority makes someone's argument correct and accurate
Slippery Slope
Belief that once a course of action is taken, other unavoidable events will inevitably occur
Non Sequitur
"Not in sequence"; Refers to making an unjustified move from one idea to another
Straw Man
When the speaker distorts the actual position of an opponent; Speaker misrepresents opponent's position by oversimplifying that position, taking the opponent's comments out of context so that they don't represent their position and then attacks the opponent and claims entire argument is false
Hasty Generalization
Drawing conclusions about broad principles or categories based upon a small sample of evidence
Either-Or
When we assume there are only two alternatives, when in actuality there are more
False Cause
Assumes one event causes another unrelated event to occur
Red Herring
Speaker introduces irrelevant ideas to focus attention away from real issue
Begging the Question
When the speaker assumes certain facts that have not been proven