51 terms


Interior of the Earth
Basaltic Crust (Oceanic Crust) is thinner and more
Granitic Crust (Continental Crust) is thicker and
less dense
Crust + Rigid Mantle = LITHOSPHERE
Crust + Rigid Mantle=Lithosphere
Most Common Elements
Thickest layer of the earth
Rigid Mantle is part of Lithosphere
Asthenosphere is the "plastic-like mantle where convection
We make inferences about this layer through studies from
meteorites and earthquake waves
between Crust
and Rigid Mantle
Convection in Asthenosphere
Caused by density
about a lava lamp!
Driving Force
behind plate
Outer Crust
Believed to be liquid
S-waves cannot pass through this layer
Believed to be made of iron and nickel
Inferences through study of meteorites
Inner Core
Thought to be solid
Believed to be make up of Iron and
Inferred Properties Chart
Page 10 in ESRT
Study of Seismic Waves
Study of Meteorites
Plate Tectonics Chart
Page 5 in ESRT
Know your plate boundaries
Know where to find them
Average Chemical Composition
Page 1 in ESRT
Silicon and Oxygen
Lithosphere is the Crust
Theory of Continental Drift
Alfred Wegener proposed that all continents were a single landmass
He called this landmass Pangaea
Knew continents moved....but could not prove it!!
About 250 Million Years Old
Evidence of Pangaea
Continents fit like puzzle pieces
Continental Rocks matchup
Ancient fossils match up (mosasaur)
Mountain ranges match up
Paleo-climates (coal found in Antarctica)
Pangaea-Fit of the Continents
Pangaea-Fossils Match Up
Pangaea-Rocks and Mountains Match Up
Plate Boundaries
Convergent Plate Boundaries
Where plates crash together!
Crust is being destroyed here!
Subduction: Process of more dense
oceanic crust sinking below the less dense continental crust
Convergent Plate Boundary-Ocean to Continent-Subduction Zone
Convergent Plate Boundary-Ocean to Continent-Juan de Fuca and NA
Ocean to Continent
Subduction-More dense ocean crust (basalt) moves under less dense continental crust (granite)
Mountain Ranges
Convergent Plate Boundary-Ocean to Ocean (Island Arc)
Convergent Plate Boundary-Ocean to Ocean (Island Arc) Aleutian Islands
Ocean to Ocean
What is formed here?

Subduction-More dense ocean crust (basalt) moves under less dense continental crust (granite)
Mountain Ranges
Convergent Plate Boundary-Continent to Continent (Collision)
Convergent Plate Boundary-Continent to Continent
Continent to Continent
What is formed here?
Subduction-Not much here because both pieces of crust are of the same density
Mountain Ranges
Divergent Plate Boundaries
Where plates are pulling apart Crust is being created here
Divergent Plate Boundaries
Sea Floor Spreading
Divergent Plate Boundaries
Divergent Plate Boundaries Mid Ocean Ridge
Divergent Plate Boundaries Iceland
Divergent Plate Boundaries Africa
Evidence for Divergent Plate Boundaries
Age of the Rocks-
Close to ridge are young
Far from Ridge are old
Reversal of Magnetic Polarity-
When lava cools, it locks in polarity at that
time. Igneous rocks show evidence that polarity
on planet has switched over time
Divergent Plate Boundaries Africa
Nature's Recycling Program
As crust is being created at Divergent Plate Boundaries, it is being destroyed at Convergent
Plate boundaries
Transform Plate Boundaries-San Andreas Fault
Plates slide side by side
San Andreas Fault in California
San Andreas Fault
Hot Spots-Hawaii
Magma reaches surface in the middle of a plate, not along a plate boundary
Magma pocket is stationary, while the plate moves over top of it
Displaced Fossils
Proof of tectonics.....
Shallow water fossils forced deep
into trenches
Deep water fossils forced upward to
high elevations
Uplift: Rock gets forced upward
Hot Spots-Hawaii
Undeformed Rock
Deformed Rock-Faulting
Deformed Rock-Folding
Deformed Rock-Tilting
Where do Earthquakes and Volcanoes Exist?
Is there a pattern?
Pacific Ring of Fire
Perimeter of Pacific Ocean
Many Earthquakes
Many Volcanoes
New York
In the middle of the North American Plate
Not a chance for a large earthquake because far from plate boundary

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