Finale Exam Review- EDUC 1301
Terms in this set (64)
How do Teacher Compare to other Profession on Adult Literacy Test?
It should be noted that while entrance exam scores for college students wishing to be teachers are lower, scores on adult literary exams after they become teachers are comparable to the scores of physicians, engineers, etc.
What is Teach for America?
-Similar to apprenticeship training
-College graduates with content-area degrees teach for 2 years in under-resourced urban schools. This program was developed by a college student at Princeton in 1990.
-Recession created a need for college graduates to have jobs, but today Teach for America is reporting recruitment problems due to graduates finding jobs in their field, negative reports on the teaching experience and lack of pedagogy training.
What was the Focus of Colonial Education?
-Religious in nature and meant to save souls (Puritans).
-Education usually started at home with focus on reading. Values, manners, social graces, and some vocational skills were taught by parents and grandparents.
-Dame Schools: Mothers began to open their homes to teaching for a fee. These "dames" taught reading, writing, computation.
What was the Focus of Colonial Education? cont.
-Apprenticeship rounded out colonial education:
*Boys sent off to learn skilled craft and manage farms or shops as young as age 7. They lived with their "masters."
*Girls learned homemaking skills from mothers.
What was the Focus of Colonial Education? cont.
*Masters served "in loco parentis" or "in place of parents"; often continued to teach reading and writing, but much was determined by knowledge and ability of master and still more formal education was needed.
Who was the Champion of The Progressive Movement
What was the name of the Court Case that Outlawed Segregation?
Brown v Board of Education of Topeka (1954) - Outlawed racial segregation in schools and stated that in public education, "separate, but equal" has no place.
What is Federal Involvement in education?
Lyndon B. Johnsons: est.1965
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
George W. Bush: est.2001
Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
-Started by William Bagley 1930's
-Nation at Risk report (1983), and No Child Left Behind intense global economic competition and increased immigration keeps essentialism center stage
-Referred to as Neo-Essentialism
-Educators in this camp fear that increased immigrants threaten American culture so in response they want rigorous schools teaching a single, unifying body of knowledge
-Most of us have been educated in this manner. We have all had a "core curriculum" with few electives. We must master basic knowledge skills.
-A cousin to essentialism; also teacher-centered with rigorous standards and little flexibility in the curriculum.
are two leaders in the field.
-Perennial means "everlasting" and so this camp focuses on enduring themes and questions that span the ages.
-Differs from essentialism in that these schools are organized around books, ideas, and concepts; criticize essentialists for the vast amount of factual information they require students to absorb; wants students to understand the reasoning and principles behind facts.
-The Great Books - works by history's finest thinkers and writers (i.e. Homer, Darwin, Shakespeare) - are used to think rigorously and to develop rational thought.
-Organizes schools around the concerns, curiosity, and real-world experiences of students.
-Pragmatism - the way to determine if an idea has merit is to test it.
-Teachers facilitate learning by helping students formulate meaningful questions and devise strategies to answer these questions; answers are found from experience.
-John Dewey created The Laboratory School in 1896 where students were grouped by interests and abilities; learned by social interaction.
-The teacher's role is to explore social problems, suggest alternate perspectives and facilitate student analysis of these problems.
-Encourages schools, teachers, and students to focus their studies and energies on alleviating pervasive social inequities----Reconstruct society into a new and more just social order.
(the student with more money deserved more);
, the doctrine that when actions are based on sound theory and values, they can make a real difference in the world;
, a student of John Dewey, wrote Dare the Schools Build a New Social Order? (1932). Greatly influenced by the Great Depression.
-Places the highest priority on the students directing their learning.
-Asserts that education is to help children find the meaning and direction in their lives and it rejects the notion that adults should or could direct meaningful learning for children.
-Each of us must decide what the truth is for us; what is our own purpose in life.
-Students decide what they need to learn and when to learn it. Subject matter takes second place to helping student recognize themselves as unique individuals.
-Sudbury Valley School outside Boston, MA - no curriculum, no classes, no grades; students decide what they want to learn based on their curiosity and desires.
What are some things that affect student Learning Styles?
Cognitive: Information Processing
- We all have different ways of perceiving, organizing, and retaining information.
Visual -Kinesthetic -Read/Write
Auditory -Global -Narrow focus
-We all have a different level of motivation and intensity which will include our attitudes, values, frustrations, and the willingness to take risks.
Locus of Control
- learners attribute success or failure to internal or external factors; internal allows learners to be in control of their destiny.
: We all have different make ups that can either help or hurt us: ability to sit for long periods of time, night owls vs. day learners; also, light, sound, temperature affect how we learn.
What is Multiple Intelligences?
Howard Gardner: a Harvard professor, recognized that the traditional IQ test weighed heavily in the area of language and mathematical-logical skills only
What is Multiple Intelligences? cont.
Gardner broadened 'intelligence' to mean "the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings." He added six additional areas of intelligence besides math and verbal intelligence.
Gardner's 8 Intelligences:
- skills related to mathematical manipulations and solving logical problems (careers: scientist, mathematician).
- Sensitivity to the meaning, sounds and rhythms of words, as well as to the function of language as a whole (careers: poet, journalist, author).
- Ability to excel physically and to handle objects skillfully (careers: athlete, dancer, surgeon).
- Ability to produce pitch and rhythm, as well as to appreciate various forms of musical expression (careers: musician, composer).
Gardner's 8 Intelligences: Cont.
- Ability to form a mental model of the spatial world and to maneuver and operate using that model (careers: sculptor, navigator, engineer, painter).
- Ability to analyze and respond to the motivations, moods, and desires of other people (careers: psychology, sales, teaching).
- knowledge of one's feelings, needs, strengths, and weaknesses; ability to use this knowledge to guide behavior (benefit: accurate self-awareness).
- Ability to discriminate among living things, to classify plants, animals, minerals (careers: botanist, environmentalist, chef).
What is Emotional Intelligence?
-Daniel Goleman says that EQ may be a better predictor for predicting success in life than IQ.
-Foundation of emotional intelligence is self-awareness:
-- It is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking and actions.
What is the Basic Requirements for Special Education Law?
Zero reject - no one is turned away; everyone has the right to a free appropriate public education (FAPE).
Nondiscriminary education - fair and nonbiased assessment; accurate diagnosis.
Appropriate Education - responsive programs based on student's needs.
Least restrictive environment - integrating students with disabilities into classrooms with non-disabled students whenever possible
Inclusion - the movement to place all disabled students with their age-related nondisabled peers.
Procedure due process - the right of students and their families to protest a school's decisions about their education.
Individualized education program (IEP)-written plan including goals, methods for achieving plan
What is the Largest Population of students with disabilities?
What is the difference between Stereotype and Generalization?
Absolute statements applied to all members of a group, suggesting that members of the group have a fixed, often inherited set of characteristics. Stereotypes often exaggerate differences
Can offer information and be useful. Statements should use words like "tend to" or "often"
What are some assumptions made of Multicultural Learning?
-Student should develop positive attitudes about different cultures.
What are some approaches to Bilingual Education?
Acquire English as a second language as they study academic subjects in their native language, but then progressively move to English
Maintenance or Developmental Approach:
Designed to help children develop academic skills in their native language and in English; instruction in both languages to create a bilingual student; proficiency in both is desirable and students are encouraged to keep up proficiency in their native language while learning English (dual language instruction is an ideal maintenance program for children K-12 although few exist at the secondary level).
Instruction all in English using simplified English vocabulary. English as a Second Language (ESL) supplements immersion programs by providing special pull-out classes. The goal is to assimilate students as quickly as possible.
What is Purpose of School?
1. To transmit society's knowledge and values
-Ensuring that the state standards are met.
-School curriculum is a selection process and what doesn't meet with American approval is not taught.
-That which is selected to teach (or not selected to teach) reflects society's prejudices, often without knowing it, and these prejudices are passed on to the next generation.
What is Purpose of School? cont.
-Schools as a tool for change.
-Reconstructionist believe that society is broken and needs to be fixed and that school is a perfect tool for making the repairs through "service credit."
-There are two categories of reconstructionist:
*Social Democratic Reconstructionist
When was the Educational Reform and what report started the movement?
1983 - Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform called for greater academic rigor, higher expectations for students, better quality and better paid teachers.
THREE WAVES OF REFORM
1982-Present: Raise the Standards
-Came immediately after A Nation At Risk and viewed reform a necessity for national security.
-Goal was to raise educational quality by requiring more courses and more testing of students and teachers.
-States were to assume leadership in improving existing practice.
-This wave continues to be the strongest.
THREE WAVES OF REFORM
1986 - Restructure the School
-Emphasized reducing bureaucracy, creating a more professionally trained, empowered and well-salaried crop of teachers.
-Implemented local decision making.
-Strengthened the role of the school principal by shifting decision making from the central district office to individual schools. Teachers took part in collaborative decision making through teacher committees.
-Focus toward studying subjects in greater depth; block scheduling introduced for this purpose.
THREE WAVES OF REFORM
1988 - Comprehensive Services
Full service schools providing a network of social services, nutrition, health care, transportation, counseling, and parent education.
Know the following type of schools and what they mean.
Begun as a tool to desegregate schools; idea was to draw diverse students to schools outside their neighborhoods; high-quality education programs designed around a special theme such as fine arts, computer science, math, career specialties, etc.
1988 Minnesota eliminated the requirement that students must attend zoned schools. Arkansas, Iowa, Nebraska soon followed. Today, over 40 states allow open enrollment. Texas offers open enrollment through its charter schools within school districts.
- A contract/charter school is a tax-supported public school that has legal permission from local or state board to operate for a fixed period of time with the right to renew if the school is successful.
- Must follow some of the same rules (health & safety, no admissions testing, no discrimination), but has greater freedom from many regulations.
- Have greater freedom, but must demonstrate effectiveness to continue contract with state board.
organizations that manage schools for profit; also called Educational Maintenance Organizations (EMOs)
Lemon vs. Kurtzman (1971) ruled what?
-Funds must have a secular purpose (cannot be held to religious doctrine).
-Funds must not primarily advance or prohibit religion.
-Funds must not result in excessive government entanglement with religion.
What is Engaged Time?
Part of the allocated time in which the students are actively engaged with academic subject matter.
Class Rules, what is important?
Rules should be few in number, fair and reasonable, and appropriate for student maturation.
With-it-ness, what is it?
Teachers who are aware of what is going on throughout the classroom.
What is Blooms Taxonomy?
System for determining the intellectual level of questions.
Blooms Taxonomy in use...
Level I: Remembering
-Requires a student recall or recognize information
-What was the national report that started the three waves of education reform in the 1980s?
-Cue words: define, list, review, who, what, where, when
Level II: Understanding
-Requires a student to demonstrate sufficient comprehension to organize and arrange information mentally.
-Must use previously learned information by putting it in his/her own words and rephrasing it.
-Summarize the main idea behind the first wave of educational reform in the 1980s?
-Cue words: describe, explain, compare, contrast, rephrase, summarize
Level III: Applying
-Requires a student to apply previously learned information to answer a problem.
-The student uses a rule, a definition, a classification system, or directions in solving a problem with a specific correct answer.
-Using the information we have learned about educational reform in the 1980s, diagram how today's reform efforts have extended from this time period.
-Cue words: choose, classify, demonstrate, diagram, illustrate, solve
Level IV: Analyzing
-Requires a student to use three kinds of cognitive processes: (1) to identify causes, reasons, or motives (when not provided to the student previously); (2) to analyze information to reach a generalization or conclusion; (3) to find evidence to support a specific opinion, event, or situation.
-Why do you think George W. Bush passed No Child Left Behind?
-Cue words: investigate, justify, support, why
Level V: Evaluating
-Requires a student to judge the merits of an aesthetic work, an idea, or the solution to a problem.
-Do you agree with standardized testing? Support your answer.
-Cue words: argue, conclusion, decide, do you agree, explain
Level VI: Creating
-Requires a student to use original and creative thinking: (1) to develop original communications; (2) to make predictions, and (3) to solve problems for which there is no single right answer.
-What would happen if there was no standardized testing in the United States? Thoroughly describe your beliefs.
-Cue words: imagine, improve, predict, synthesize, what would happen if
What is Cooperative learning?
Works best when the group shares a goal, divides labor, and shares materials.
What is Mastery Learning?
Committed to the credo that all students can learn given the right tools and opportunity to work at their own pace.
Curriculum, Standards and Testing:
Formal or Explicit curriculum:
Sequence of planned learning experiences described in course guides and syllabi so intended outcomes are achieved.
Implicit or hidden curriculum:
Learning that is not always intended but emerges as students are shaped by teachers and the school culture (i.e. power of competition through teachers setting up rivalry between groups of students).
All material not learned in the school.
Extracurricular (or Co-curriculum):
Sports, clubs, government, newspaper, etc. which can improve student self-esteem, school completion, civic participation.
What do we hear about High-Stakes Testing?
Fails to consistently correlate with other measures of student learning.
How do teachers shape curriculum?
By supplementing curriculum with other materials and objectives as they serve on selection committees for textbooks, etc.
Academic Freedom is what?
The Right to teach without coercion, censorship, or other restrictive interference is not absolute. The courts will balance your right with the school system's interests in the students learning appropriate subject matter in an environment conducive to learning.
Title VII means what to teachers?
makes it so interview questions must be related to job requirements not race, gender, age, etc